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culiar terminology, which is altogether unlike the truths which the English tongue has ever been able to grasp or lo utter, or which the English mind has ever brought within the field of its view,-so far is it certain to prepare the way for a mortifying disappointment, when it has wandered its

perplexed rounds-and finished the last of the splendid series of the mysteries of initiation, and as the result finds itself, with timę misapplied, with an intellect undisciplined, with principles of philosophizing unhinged, and a scheme of philosophy which promised every thing, either as yet half compassed, or when gained, no other and no better than what might have been had, without these weary years of confused and vexing toil. To all, over whom we have influence, we would say, read, study, and ponder these writers as much as you will ;used aright, they will reward you well. But let them not lead you captive as partisans, you know not why, blinded and wilful.

As far as this spiritualism prepares the way by its figments and words, which pass for things, for the reveries of pantheism, and either by its modes of reasoning or the factitious influence of its splendid names, imparts a spirit equally foreign to science, to piety and to sense—the desire to astonish the vulgar by dragging from the rotting heap of ancient heresies some transcendental or quietistic vagary-so far will it curse the church, and cause sadly to err and more sadly to suffer its deluded victims. Let those who would put themselves to school to all that passes under the name of spiritualism, even in the evangelical church, mere tyros in science and theology, look well to the spirit which they raise, and see that they forget not the incantation by which he is to be laid.

But it is time we had concluded. Our readers will remember that we proposed to consider the scientific grounds of this philosophy. That promise we hope to redeem at some future opportunity. We dare not now longer trespass on their patience.




By Edward Robinson, D. D., Prof. of Bib. Lit. Union Theol. Seminary, New York.

In the Preface to the Biblical Researches in Palestine, it was stated, that the Rev. Eli Smith was about to return to his slation at Beirût, taking with him instruments of the best kind in order to verify our former observations, and prosecute further researches in parts of the country not visited by us; and that I hoped to be the medium of communicating his subsequent observations to the public. Mr. Smith's return took place in April, 1841 ; but the state of confusion and anarchy and war since existing in Mount Lebanon and the adjacent regions, by which the mission has of course been greatly affected, has also hitherto cut off all opportunity for travelling and personal observation on his part. The scenes of desolation and bloodshed which have passed in the interval before the eyes of the missionaries, have been graphically described by Mr. Smith and others in their letters, published from time to time in the Missionary Herald, particularly in the numbers for May and June, 1842.

In the mean time, others have been doing the work of surveying the Holy Land much more extensively, and perhaps more effectually, than could in any case have been done by a single individual. It may be recollected, that on the withdrawal of the British fleet from the coast of Syria late in 1840, a corps of engineers, all picked men, were left behind, in order to make a military survey of the country throughout its whole extent. Three officers, Majors Robe, Scott, and Wilbraham, were constantly occupied in making surveys in all quarters; and in the southern part, Lieut. Symonds carried a series of triangles over the greater portion of Judea and the country around the plain of Esdraelon, including lines of altitudes from the Mediterranean to the Dead Sea and Lake of Tiberias. Some of these gentlemen are members of the Royal Geographical Society of London ; and when the Eng :

lish government shall have made the use it chooses of the results of their labors, it is understood that they will be given to the world.

The intercourse subsisting between the English officers and the American missionaries was of the most friendly character; and the former often communicated to Mr. Smith so much of their observations as was compatible with their confidential duty to their own government. From one of them, Major Robe, he received a written communication respecting the country around Merj 'Ayûn and the sources of the Jordan, accompanied by a sketch-map; and another of them, Lieut. Symonds, gave him the exact result of his measurements to determine the depression of the Dead Sea. These documents are now in my hands. Besides these, Mr. Smith has also transmitted several letters directed to him from the Rev. Samuel Wolcott, one of the American missionaries, who spent the last winter at Jerusalem, and while there took the opportunity of carrying out several inquiries, which Mr. Smith and myself could only begin. The results of his investigations, as well as the communications of the English engineers, are of sufficient importance, as it seems to me, to be laid in detail before the public.

The prospect in respect to future observations, is at present gloomy. The corps of engineers was withdrawn near the close of the last year, 1841; and what is yet to be learned, must be gathered up by individual enterprise and opportunity. To this ihe confusion and anarchy and insecurity, which now prevail among the people, present a formidable obstacle. In February last, Mr. Smith wrote as follows; and the state of things has not yet changed for the better :

“ Palestine is now in too disturbed a state to allow of much travelling ; and I have no hope of its being much better while this [Turkish] government remains. It is a most wretched system of fanaticism, corruption, oppression and anarchy. I fear we must wait till another revolution, before doing much more towards biblical research in the country.”


It may be recollected, that we were prevented by an insurrection of the Druzes from prosecuting our intended journey by the Lake el-Hůleh and the sources of the Jordan to Da

mascus; and obtained a view of the lake and region round about only from el-Benît, a high point a short distance north of Safed.* Our subsequent route from Safed to Tyre left also the country upon the Lîtâny, from the Búkâ’a to the vicinity of Tibnin, still unexplored. It is just these districts, including the intervening tract of Merj 'Ayûn, which are covered by the sketch-map of Major Robe. The route of that officer from Beirût was nearly the same as that of M. Bertou, in 1838; by way of Deir el-Kamr, el-Mukhtara, Jezzîn and the Jisr Bürghúz, or bridge over the Lîtåny, to Hâsbeiya and Bâniâs ; thence across the Merj el-Hûleh (Meadow of the Hûleh) to Kedes, the ancient Kedesh of Naphtali, on the western hills; and so to Safed. After visiting the high range of mountains between Safed and the plain of 'Akka, he examined the country along our route from Safed by Bint Jebeil to Tibnîn and the Jisr Kakhieh; proceeded thence to the great castle esh-Shūkif; and, returning part of the way, followed the usual track by Nŭsåra and Bablieh to Sidon. On his map the positions of the principal places are laid down according to their proper relative bearings with each other and with the magnetic north ; but, in regard to the distances, he had no other criterion to judge by, than the time accurately noted.

Form of the Lake el-Hüleh.-As we saw this lake from the high ground at el-Benit, the intervening tract of lower table land hid from our view its south-western shores, and caused it to appear almost as a triangle; the northern part being far the broadest. It turns out that this is nearly its true form ; or rather, the map of Maj. Robe gives to it in some degree the shape of a pear; the largest projection, however, being on the north-western part.

Sources of the Jordan.— These are treated of, according to the accounts of ancient writers and modern travellers, in the Biblical Researches, Vol. III. pp. 347–354. Two separate streams of considerable magnitude are there said to enter the lake el-Hûleh from the north, each of which is formed by the junction of two others. The easternmost of these two streams, with its two sources, one at Bâniâs, and the other at

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* See Bibl. Res. in Palest. III. p. 339 sq. + 'Ibid. p. 339.

Tell el-Kâdy, is the Jordan of ancient and modern times. The westernmost stream, which is longer and larger, is represented as formed by the union of the river of Hâsbeiya, issuing from the Wady et-Teim, and another stream from Merj 'Ayûn.

The statement thus ventured, that the two main streams enter the lake, or at least its marshes, separately, was not regarded as being fully ascertained ; it was made on the strength of various circumstances; for there was then no hetter positive authority for it than Buckingham, who, at the same time speaks of another imaginary lake, north of the Hûleh. It is highly gratifying, therefore, to find that the map of Maj. Robe fully sustains the position there taken. It exhibits the two main streams as flowing separately, and parallel to each other, quite through the marshes into the lake itself.

The stream from Merj 'Ayûn was inserted on our map in accordance with Seetzen’s map, and the testimony of Mr. Smith, who travelled through that district in May, 1835. Mr. S. speaks of it expressly as draining the district of Merj 'Ayun. But the stream does not appear on the map of Maj. Robe, nor on that of Bertou. This, at first view is singular; and the more so, because the district of Merj 'Ayûn was often described to me by my fellow-traveller, as a beautiful, fertile, and well-watered plain. But he and Secizen were there early in the season, when the surplus waters flowed off to join the river of Hâsbeiya ; while Maj. Robe and Bertou saw it only in August, when the heats of summer had dried up the waters, leaving probably only the gravelly bed of a winter brook. Instead of this, Maj. Robe's map has a small stream not mentioned by any traveller, lying half way between the branch from Tell el-Kâdy and the river of Hasbeiya, and flowing into the latter.

The two large fountains, 'Ain el-Mellâhah, and 'Ain Belât, on the western side of the basin of the Hûleh,are given by Maj. Robe; and also four sinaller fountains and brooks farther north.

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