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meaning to provide a ship with rowers benches, or in general, to equip it;"—it is evident that the sense is to fit a vessel for sea by girding it with cables, in order that it may the better resist ihe action of the waves.

It is possible, but in my view not probable, that this custom is spoken of by Thucydides (1.30), where, however, another term is used. At the same time"-it is there said

they manned their ships : ζεύξανσές σε τας παλαιάς ώστε ahwiuous sivas,” i. e. having joined or bound together the old ones so that they might be fit for the water, and having made the rest ready for sea.” Göller, in his excellent commentary on this place quotes a note of Vanderberg on Horadé Carm. 1. 14, as explaining it. The passage in Horace is, nonne vides ut sine funibus | vix durare carinae | possint imperiosius | aequor ?

And in this passage we may find the hypozomata referred to. The ropes," says Vanderberg, "which Horace speaks of as used in repairing vessels, are what the French call · des cables.' If a ship leaks, the keel is sometimes surrounded with those small ropes to which the French give the special name of grelins, and which serve, as far as possible, to bind the starting planks of the keel together. To bind ships in this way is expressed by the term cintrer in French." "To this of Göller, Arnold gives his sanction ; and adds, that “the Russian ships, taken in the Tagus in 1808, were kept together in this manner, in consequence of their age and unsound condition.” Whether this be the true sense of this passage, or the phrase must be understood of timbers carried across from side to side, or of planks nailed on outside to bind the old planks together; it will be admitted, I think, so far as our enquiry hitherto throws light upon the hypozoma, that it must have been applied to the ship in a different way. For the passage from Vitruvius makes it necessary that these ropes should have run around the sides, and that from Apollonius-in which by the way a new ship is spoken of-confirms the same point by assigning all the effect to a single cable. And the length of the hypozomata mentioned by Athenaeus (v. s.) is much too great for the supposition that they went under the vessel. To this too, we may add that the violent storm recorded by the Evangelist in Acts, rendered it impossible to do any such thing as passing cables under and around the keel. Moreover, if ropes had passed under the keel, one would think that


the boat would have been needed in this operation, and yet the boat was first lifted on deck.

A word or two may here find their place relating to this verse in general. The sense is, “after they had hoisted the boat, (äv ägartes) they made use of additional means to resist the storm (Bonssiais éxpūvto) by undergirding the vessel. The connexion of events named in the verse seems to be merely that of time. The boat was floating behind the vessel; and as the storm grew harder, fears were felt that it would be staved in by the blows of the waves. It was secured and raised on board with much ado, and then the gale forced the crew to strengthen the side work of the vessel by additional means.

The specific meaning which we have attached to UTO2WVÚsiv and iTofwua, accords well with the more common senses in which these words are taken. Of the former, Wyttenbach (Eclogae historicæ, p. 355,) observes thus : "volúvuofar succingi tria fere notat; inter reliquas vestes cingulum corpori circumdare; inferiores partes, id est lumbos et pudenda, legere cingulo ; longas vestes altius a pedibus sursum reductas cingere ad facilitatem incegsus." "This word is of not unfrequent occurrence in the two last senses. A remarkable instance of its use may be found in Plutarch's life of Demetrius, 947 Xpuodūs tespaxoo ious imel wouévos; i. e. having in his girdle, which was used as a purse, four hundred staters of gold. 'Tówua, which is a rarer word, denotes, 1. a girdle-properly, I suppose, but dare not affirm, either a girdle under the clothes, or especially, one worn below the hips. 2. The diaphragm in medical writers. 3. In one of the lexicists, Julius Pollux, some part of the rudder of a ship. It is obvious that any thing encircling a ship longitudinally, better answers to the notion of a girdle, than if, like a horse's girth, it went under the body of the vessel.

In opposition to all this, the only ancient authority, so far as I know, which can be adduced, is that of a scholiast on Aristoph. Knights, 279; where the demagogue Cleon, threatens 10 prosecute his rival, and accuses him of exporting Swusúpata for the Peloponnesian galleys. Of this word the scholiast says, ζωμεύματα, τα λεγόμενα υποζώματα εισι δε ξύλα των

The same scholium is found again in Suidas. gloss on this passage gives the correct definition : fwusúpata σχοινία κατά μέσον την ναύν δεσμευόμενα. . The same words, with 'polumara inserted after the first, are found in Hesychius.


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If by xasd mécou, these authorities mean mid-way between the water's edge and the gun-wale, they are strictly correct. Mitchell follows the first-inentioned scholiast, although the nature of the case might have set him right. Cleon would be expected to say, “I accuse this man of exporting for the Peloponnesian galleys 'mofumata, but the poet jocosely puts a word of similar sound in its place-Swusúpata booths, of which certainly the enemy, especially the Spartans, had no lack. We might imitate the play on words by speaking of sending griddle-cakes to the Dutch instead of girdle-ropes. The joke in part consists of putting in the place of something valuable and hard to be obtained, a very common and trivial thing. Now the Peloponnesians could be at no loss for planks; but long and large ropes, perhaps of a peculiar shape, flattened so as to fit* tighter, might not be manufactured every where.

So far the writer had examined the meaning of hypozoma independently, and, with the exception of the paragraph preceding this, in which he followed Boeckh, was led more or less to oppose the opinions of the critics whom he consulted upon the passages quoted. On turning, however, to Boeckh's new work on the naval affairs of Athens, containing the inscriptions recently found in the Peiraeeus relating to the naval affairs of that stale during the age of Demosthenes, (Berlin, 1840.) we find full confirmation for the view of hypozoma here taken, both in the inscriptions themselves, and in the introductory treatise by the distinguished editor. 1. In the inscriptions, the appurtenances of the ships, of which many inventories are given, are divided into wooden and hanging, σκεύη ξύλινα and κρεμαστά. The hypozomata are always in the latter list with the sails, cordage, etc., and usually at ihe head of it. In one instance bits of old hypozomas taken from the enemy are mentioned :-to this dignity of being inventoried old bits of rotten boards would hardly attain. In inscription 14, besides the full tale of hanging gear belonging to several enumerated ships, it is said that other hypozomas, two or more to a vessel, and lying loose, had been provided for them according to a vote of the people. Some vessels, again, have these loose girding-ropes, without mention of others,

This idea is from Boeckh.

fastened on and in their places. This is just the case with the ship of Alexandria which carried Paul to Rome. 2. As was to be expected from the most eminent scholar of the present age in all matters of fact relating to classical learning, Boeckh has the passages above cited and several more.* We

*Boeckh, after mentioning that various writers have explained the word in different ways on the supposition that it denoted something of wood, adds, "erst Joh. Gottl. Schneider (zu Vitruv, 10. 15, 6,) hat dabei an Tauwerk gedacht.” This appears to be incorrect, as even a note of Schweighauser's on Appian (vol. 3. p. 876 of his ed.) will show,-a passage which I had examined before finding it cited by Boeckh himself. That critic on dial wivuuévous à xáon amongst other things writes, "sic Grotius ad Acta Apostol. 37, 17, únoLWVVÚVTES TÒ Motov recte interpretatus est, funibus navem ligantes ne vi ventorum et fluctuum dissiliret. Eademque notione usurpatum verbum simplex videmus apud Apollon. Argonaut. 1 368.” Thus so early a critic as Grotius had a good view of the sense, though he probably conceived of the ropes as going under the vessel. And Schweighauser's Appian was earlier by 23 years than Schneider's Vitruvius. This last book I have not examined. Again, in speaking of the passage from Apollonius Boeckh says, “Apollonius of Rhodes calls this process Sãout-an operation which in his poem, contrary to the usual practice, was performed before the side-planks were properly fastened together with nails. According to the received reading, this was done from within (8vô, which howeveris entirely impos. sible. The reading has therefore with reason been rejected as incorrect.” But Boeckh, I feel confidenı, is wrong in the first of these positions. Apollonius by iv' sů agapoiato youpons I dougara, cannot mean, as he supposes, that the planks were not already nailed, but the sense is simply that the ship was girded in order that the pressure of the girding rope might keep planks and nails in their places ;-that the planks might not spring, but googioso Binu šxou avstówoav. All this is plain, I think, from this consideration; that the ship was put together long before and that what is here described took place just before launching it into the water. With regard to švdo sv I had felt a difficulty, and had conjectured fxãosv before finding it in Brunck. But on reflection fv odev does not appear so very indefensible as it might be thought at first. The sense is not that the rope passed along within, but that the argonauts from within pulled

add from him the following particulars. The instrument is called in Latin, Tormentum. Isidore says (Origines, 19, 4, 4), “Tormentum, Funis in navibus longus, qui a prora ad puppim extenditur, quo magis constringantur. Tormenia autem a tortu dicta restes funesque.” And of this nature are the ropes in Horace in the passage cited above. He finds the hypozoma quite visible on a small brazen work in relief, belonging to the Berlin museum, representing the prow of a ship of war. Indeed four of them, more or less perfectly preserved, there appear ;-a fact which well accords with the iwelve encompassing the mammoth vessel of Ptolemy Philopater.



,By Rev. J. Blanchard, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Philosophy of the Plan of Salvation. A Book for the

Times. By an American Citizen. New York : 1841.

This work were more fitly termed—Philosophy of the PROCESS of Salvation.” It aims to present, in connected view, that whole wonderful train of expedients by which God conducted the Jewish mind and character, and through theirs, the mind of Christendom, from the Egyptian, or heathen, into the Christian state ; to show that no other process but that detailed in the Scriptures, could have accomplished the proposed end, viz. the elevation and salvation of fallen man ; and thus irresistibly to establish, from its sole exclusive adaptedness to man, that the Bible scheme of redemption is from God.

it tight. Perhaps švớofsv would be clear to us if we knew the whole process.

The rope may have been secured to the sides from time to time by cords passing through holes and fastened within, or itself have passed inside and out at intervals.

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