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tual cultivation, and a taste of the most exquisite refinement, while the moral sense was blunted by vice. The Roman education in this respect approached more to the Spartan than to the Athenian, and in moral effect it far surpassed both. It has been said that the Orientals lived in the future, the Greeks in the present, and the Romans in the past. And it is true that the Romans in their education made great use of history. Reverence for their ancestors may even be regarded as its central point. Their forefathers were deified, the faults of their more immediate predecessors were forgotten, their virtues magnified, and their characters held up as patterns for imitation. Not only distinguished men, but women also were eulogised in funeral oralions. The first Cæsar pronounced over the body of his wife, such an oration, in which he set forth her virtues.f The moral effect of these things was great. The principle of reverence was strongly developed. Deference to superiors was insisted on as the corner-stone of character, I and the youth who refused or neglected to rise up in the presence of age was punished with death. In the Roman education, everything pointed to decorum. || Whatever might be the virtues of the Roman youth, modesty was to be the crown and glory of them all. If the want of courage was disgraceful, so also was the want ) of modesty. When Cato said he wished for youth who should turn red and not white, he expressed the universal feeling of Rome.

Another feature of the Roman education was that it aimed chiefly at utility. As in the literature, so in the education of the Romans the practical feeling predominated. With the Greeks, music was so important a branch that it embraced all others, and with them, music led to the development

* Liv. V: 50. Plut. De Virtutibus Mulierum. † Plut. C. Jul. Caes. Vit. $5.

† Apud antiquissimos Romanorum neque generi neque pecuniæ praestantior honos tribui quam aetati solitus ; major. esque natu à minoribus colebantur ad deûm prope et parentum vicem ; atque omni in loco, inque omni specie honoris priores patioresque habiti. A. Gellii Noct. Att. II : 14.

Cramer's Geschichte der Erziehung 1 : 387. 1 Cic, De Officius 1: 35.

of a world of ideas of beauty and taste. But the Romans cultivated chiefly the understanding. In their objects of instruction they aimed more at actual life--at the wants of the citizens, and of the state.

This difference of character may be seen in the objects for which the two nations pursued the same studies. The Greeks, as we have said, regarded Geometry as a steppingstone to Philosophy. The Romans esteemed it for purposes of measurement. With the Romans, reading, writing, and reckoning were the three chief branches, because they were the most useful. The Greeks thought that all knowledge is desirable, and aimed not at utility only, but at nature and truth. Among the Greeks, development was the prominent idea, among the Romans, instruction. The fine arts were cultivated with ardor by the Greeks, and esteemed above all else. But the Romans asked first what is useful, and afterwards, or not at all, what is beautiful. The whole life of the Greek was a struggle, and a struggle for what? For a branch of olive or a sprig of laurel which might be twined in a graceful wreath around his brow. But the Roman valued the olive or the myrtle not merely for the wreath, but for the fruit which it furnished. This outward and mercenary aim of Roman education was a theme of satire for the poets, as may be seen in Juvenal and Horace.* There was no regard for science and art for their own sake, but they were cultivated only for the use of the state. In physical education the Greeks exercised the body, because it is the veil and instrument of the noble spirit of man; the Romans trained it only as a preparation for war. Hence physical education was much less esteemed by the Romans than by the Greeks. In Greece, none but freemen cultivated gymnastics. But the Romans looked on gymnastics, except in relation to war, as fit for slaves rather than freemen, and considered the prevalence of such exercises as evidence of effeminacy. The Romans were the only nation of antiquity that cultivated foreign languages. This study, however, was prosecuted only in the later ages, and their pursuit of it was owing not to a love of literature, but to the necessity imposed by the extent of their possessions.

* Juv. Sat. XIV. Hor. Sat. II : 3.

We have seen that in the Grecian education, rhetoric and philosophy went hand in hand, and that the metaphysical genius of the Greeks at length caused philosophy to stand forth as the highest summit of intellectual culture. But such was not the result at Rome. The idea of Isocrates, that oratory is the pinnacle of human excellence, and that a faultless orator is the most perfect specimen of human nature, was first nationalized in the Roman world. The genius of Rome was not of a philosophical cast. Philosophy, as well as all culture, was introduced into Rome by the Greeks, and in later times it was extensively cultivated there. But it never found a genial soil. Rome produced no great philosopher. The versatile genius of Cicero gave him a taste for philosophical studies, and his writings show that he knew how to prune away the rhetorical amplifications of which he was so fond, and to approach in his style more nearly to the simplicity which philosophy requires. But the orator is ever bursting forth and assuming his native predominance. Even in his treatises on the theory of rhetoric itself the practical is always uppermost. In the early ages of Rome, both rhetoric and philosophy were viewed with a jealous eye, and regarded as highly dangerous to the public morals. The old simplicity and sternness struggled long against them, and through the influence of Cato, the Greek philosophers and rhetoricians were at length banished frome Rome.* We must no doubt suppose that there was something in the doctrine and characters of the men who then taught philosophy and rhetoric that increased the existing prejudice against such studies. But after the introduction of philosophy into the Latin language by Cicero, and especially after the establishment of an extensive intercourse with Greece through the Roman conquests in the east, it was impossible to repress the study of philosophy and rhetoric. Teachers in both these sciences were eagerly sought by the youth at home and abroad. Rhetoric especially was cultivated with ardor. · Cæsar not only wrote commentaries in the camp and a Latin grammar, but also assiduously practised declamations. In the early days of the republic unconditional obedience prevailed in the armies of Rome, but

* Bucheri Institutiones flistor. Philos. 287.
† Cramer's Geschichte der Erziehung 1 : 423.

in later times, and especially under the empire, oratory was resorted to as a means of influencing the troops. Not Cæsar alone but Pompey, Anthony, Augustus, and other Roman commanders were in the constant habitof declamation. While the speculative spirit of the Greeks delighted in philosophy, the practical feeling of the Romans preferred oratory." In the higher schools at Rome, rhetoric became in later times the chief means of intellectual discipline. Law and eloquence were there regarded as the noblest objects of pursuit. The bonds of Grecian philosophy, which for centuries bound the modern world, are broken ; but the jurisprudence of Rome has given permanent laws to Christendom.

Thus have we sketched some of the features of the Greek and Roman education. In doing this we have aimed not at the exhibition of details but at the development of principles ; for there was not time for both, and the root is more essential than the branch. If any one supposes that because

he institutions of which we have been speaking passed away two thousand years ago, their characteristics are to us of no practical importance, he errs; for human nature remains unchanged, and the principles which must govern the right education of man are immutable.

The nature, limits, and application of the power of the state in education; the extension of the benefits of education to all the children of the state ; the time to be devoted to this purpose; the necessity, and the mode of physical culture ; the union of development and instruction; the systematic employment of music as an instrument of education, the cultivation of the taste in connection with morals; and the relation of philosophy and oratory to each other and to education as a whole ;-these points in the Grecian system are of equal interest in our own. Nor are those which have been touched upon in the Roman education less practical. The plastic power

of domestic education without the interference of the state ; the influence of inothers and of the whole female sex ; the principle of utility in education, and the superior advantages which attend the cultivalion of the moral part of our nature, are topics which must command the attention of a!l who are called to influence the opinions of their countrymen on this important subject.

We boast ourselves the freest and best educated nation the world has ever seen. And doubiless we have many advanta

not be

ges of position, and some excellencies of character. But we make this boast with two little knowledge of ourselves, and a very limited acquaintance with facts. The truth is that as in theoretical education we are mere children, so in practical education we are only unskilful beginners. If the spirit of Plato were restored to this world, and instead of being transported to the classic soil of his native Greece, were set down in one of our villages, and after having been pointed to the place where our youth are prepared for the highest stage of their education, were told, “This is the Academy!" what think you he would

? It

easy to determine what he would say, (for the Greeks were polished men,) but as his mind reverted to the graceful proportions, the fluted columns, and the embowering groves of the original Academus, we are sure he must think that his eye had lighted on very imperfect imitation. If a Grecian of the age of Pericles were shown one of our school-houses-standing on or in the street, its windows broken, its steps gone, its door creaking, its one chair wrenched out of shape, its desk reeling to its fall,- and were informed that this is the place where our children are educated—where their faculties are developed, their taste formed, their first impressions of science received, and their intellectual character to a great extent fixed, -should he speak out his thoughts, it would be strange if he did not exclaim, “No wonder they are barbarians!" He would undoubtedly suppose himself in Scythia.* There is among us a great

In many

* Since this passage was indited, the writer has met with a description of the school-houses in one of the best counties of a state which, in respect to education, is second to none in the Union. It is by W. R. B. Hubbard, of Northamp'on, Massachusetts. A few sentences are here extracted : districts, the poorest and most unsightly building that offends the eye of the traveller is the school-house. Is there some. where near the geographical centre of the district a gore of land unsuitable for cultivation-valueless as a building spot even for a blacksmith's shop-some sand bank, or some marsh, of which the frogs have held undisputed possession time out of mind. there you may expect to find a temple of science. There the youth of many generations are 10 congregate, and imbibe principles and acquire habits which will accompany

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