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Schr. des A. und N. Test, nebst einer vollstaendigen Erklaerung derselben, welche aus den anserlesensten Anmerkungen verschiedener Engl. Schriftst, zusammengetragen und mit vielen Zusaetzen begleitet werden. L. 1749–70. XIX. 4.

J. Cph. Wolfii curæ philologicæ et criticæ in N. T.

Grammatical interpretation was rendered more exact and certain by the labours of J. A. Ernesti, S. F. N. Morus, and J. F. Fischer.

J. A. Ernesti pro grammatica interpretatione LL. imprimis sacrorum L. 1749, and in his Opuscula.

Jo. Ben. Carpzovii Comm. de interprete SS. grammatico 1750.

W. A. Teller des Hern D. J. A. Ernesti-verdienste um die Theologie und Religion, Berl. 1783, with additions by Semler, Hal. 1783.

C. D. Beck Recitatio de Moro summo Theologo, 1792.

J. G. C. Hoepfner ueber das Leben und die Verdienste des verewigten Morus L. 1793.

C. Th. Kuinoel Narratio de Jo. Frid, Fischero, L, 1799.

Historical interpretation was greatly recommended by Semler.

Cph. Aug. Heumanni Diss, de exegesi historica S. S. Goett. 1742."

C. A. Theoph. Keil Pr. de historica L L. S S. interpretatione ejusque necessitate L. 1788.

J. A. Noesselt Narratio de Semlero ejusque ingenio inprimis in interprea tationem S. Scr. 1792.

Eichhorn Allgem. Bibl. d. Bibl. Litt. V.

The criticism of N. T. was much enlarged, and reduoed to greater certainty. Many MSS. codices were accurately described. The most distinguished of the critics on the N. T. were C. A. Bode, Semler, Griesbach, C. F. Matthæi, Andr. Birch, F. C. Alter.

Koppe and his associates wrote a perpetual commentary on the N. T.

Scholia were written by various authors Kuettner, J. G. Rosenmueller, Schellenberg.

The most celebrated modern commentators are J, D. Michaelis, C. A. Heumann, C. F. Schmid, J. A. Bengel, J. H. Cramer, J. B. Carpzovius, J. S. Semler, G. A. Teller, J. C. Doederlein, G. F. Seiler, J. A. Noesselt, G. C. Knapp, Gf. Chr. Storr, J. F. Flatt, H. E. G. Paulus, Jo. G£. Eichhorn, J. F. Schleusner, J. D. Pott, J. H. Heinrichs, Sam. Clark, J. Peirce, G. Benson, A. A. Sykes, Horseley, Blaney, Newcome, Lowth, McKnight, Whitby. The different kinds of commentaries and annotations were now more accurately distinguished. The interpretation of the N. T. was recalled to the principles which regulate the exposition of other ancient writings, and the limits of the critic, the interpreter, and the theologian more definitely stated.

Phil. Lud. Muzel discrimen grammaticæ et theol. SS. interpretationis in explicando loco Ep. ad Phil. 1793, et in Pott Sylloge.

Philosophical Interpretation was commended, though not always understood in the same way.

J. A. Ernesti Progr. de vanitate philosophantium in interpretatione L L. S S. Lips 1750, and in his Opuscula.

Logical interpretation.

Jo. Fred. Roos Diss.

C. F. Schnurrer Rudimenta Logicæ Sacræ.

Popular Exegesis.

Ph. H. Schueler_was ist populaere Schrifterklaerung - Tub. 1788.

Practical or moral exposition now began to be advocated, as the only proper method, by Kant and those addicted to his critical philosophy. This method, which was very peculiar, gave rise to the greatest confusion and uncertainty.

Im. Kant Religion innerhalb der Graenzen der vern. p. 134.

G. S. Frankii disp. de ratione qua est critica philosophia ad interpretationem librorum inprimis sacrorum.

C. H. L. Poelitz Beytrag zur Kritik der Religions phil. und exegese unsers Zeit-alters, L. 1795.

Ueber die Aehnlichkeit des innern Wortes einiger neuen mystiker mit dem moral. Worte der Kantischen Schriftauslegung von D. C. F. Ammon.

J. E. C. Schmidt ueber den Einfluss der Kantischen unterscheidung der Geschaefte des historischen und muralischen Auslegers auf die Schrifterklarung in S. Bibl. fur Kritik und Exegese des N. T.

J. G. Rosenmueller Commentt. duæ (VI. VII.) de fatis interpretationis SS. Litt. 1793.

Eichhorn ueber die Kantische Hermeneutik, Bibl. VI.
J. A. Noesselt animadverss. in sensum L L. SS. moralem, Hal. 1795.
Jo. Ev. Hofer Progr. de Kantiana Scr. S. interpretatione Salisb. 1800.
Storr Bemerk. ueber Kants philos. Relig. Lehre, &c. &c.

VI. In such diversity, as to the method and principles of interpreting the SS. it is not to be wondered at, that there should be serious differences of opinion, as to particular passages, or that many should be more piously than accurately—more ingeniously than satisfactorily explained. That the interpretation of the Sacred Writings may be rendered more stable and certain, correct and well grounded rules should be sought out.

E. A. G. Hærschelman Diss. de principiis Scr. S. interpretandi falsis et veris, Jen. 1767.

Chr. Fr. Roederi Comm. de ingenii usu et abusu circa interpretationem S S. Terg. 1741.

Jer. Friderici Diss. de hypothesibus erroneis Ser. Sacræ interpretanda noxiis L. 1729.

J. C. Stemler Diss. I. II. de interpretationibus S S. satis piis sed minus accuratis, L. 1741.

J. A. H. Tittman Pr. de causis præcipuis contortarum interpretatt, N. T.L, 1800.

F. Guil. Schleusner d. de dissensibus interpretum in explicandis locis S S. intell. difficilioribus, L. 1756.

Add. Mori Herm. I. p. 204.




I. AS the proper method of Interpretation depends, in a great measure, upon the character and design of the Authors, whose productions we mean to explain, and, upon the nature of the productions themselves, it is evident, that, these are points which, in the present case, demand our attention. With respect to the nature of the Books composing the N. T. ; they are of three kinds, historical, doctrinal, and in one instance, prophetica). These works not only materially differ, as to their whole style and manner, from the historical, doctrinal, and poetical writings of the Greeks, but in many respects, there is a diversity, worthy of remark, between even those which belong to the same general class.

Kan dia fixn, is an ecclesiastical name, derived from 2 Cor. iii. 14. J. G. Rosenmueller, d. de voce Aladnxn in N. T. vario usu, in Velthus. Kuin. et Rup. Comm. Theol. II.

The ancient description of this Volume was not uniform, its appellation was derived from its contents, and from its composition ; ευαγγελιoν, αποςολος ; histories and epistles, and these last those of Paul, or Catholic. The writings also of the Apostles and their companions may be distinguished. In the historical books, a continued, chronological, and skillfully executed narrative is not to be expected; things worthy of remark are stated, interspersed with doctrinal and moral precepts. In the other books,

the systematic mode of instruction is not pursued, and the epistles contain many things, relating to the peculiar circumstances of those to whom they were addressed. Yet they are all to be regarded as the documents of the Christian religion. The diversity of the several writers, may be illustrated by the examples of John and the other Evangelists—the Epistles of Peter and Paul.

Those works ought to be consulted, which contain introductions to the Sacred Writings.

a. Those which embrace both the Old and New Testaments.

Bibliotheca Sancta a, F. Sixto Senensi, ex præcipuis Cathol.eccl. auctoribus collecta et in 8. Libros digesta. Ven. 1566.-a Hayo, in 1591.

Mich. Waltheri Officina Biblica noviter adaperta, in qua videre licet, quæ scitu maxime necessaria de SS. in genere et in specie etc. L. 1636–1703.

J. H. Heideggeri, Enchiridion Biblicum Tiguri, 1681. Jen. 1723. (Sal. Van Tel, opus analyticum comprehendens Introductionem in SS. ad Heideggeri Enchiridion.)

L. Elies du Pin, Dissertation preliminaire ou Prolegomenes sur la Bible, pour servir de Supplement a la Bibliotheque des Auteurs eccles. Par. 1701.

Aug. Calmet Prolegomenes de L'Ecriture Sainte, Paris, 1720.
Collier's Sacred Interpreter.

Jo. Cph. Anschuetz, Einleitung in die Buecher der h. Schr. nach Eichhorn u. Michaelis zum Handgebrauch, Dresd. 1791.

b. Writers of Introductions to the N. T.

Rich. Simon, Hist. critique du Nouveau Test. Rotterd. 1689. Histoire critique des versions du N. Test. 1690.

Jo. Ge. Pritii Introductio ad lectionem, N. T. 1704. Greatly improved by Hofmann, L. 1737.

J. Wesseli Rumpai commentatio critica ad libros N. T. in genere, cum præf. J. G. Carpzovii, in qua de variis lect. N. T. disserit L. 1730.

Harwood's Introduction to the N. T.

J. D. Michaelis' Introduction to the N. T. translated by Herbert Marsh, with notes and additions.

Jo. G. C. Klotzsch Handbuch der kritischen Geschichte des N. Test. zum Gebrauch der akad. Vorlesungen, Witt. 1795.

H. C. A. Haenlein Handbuch der Einleitung in die Schriften des N. Test.

J. L. Hug Einleitung in die Buecher des N. T.
H. E. Gottl. Pauli Introductionis in N. T. Capita Selectiora Jen. 1799.


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