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De varia Potestate Vocabulorum,








The word Paraclete is used by no writer of the New Testament except John, by whom this name is once applied to Christ, Epis. I. Ch. ii. v. 1, and often to the Holy Spirit, Ch. xiv. 16, 26. xv. 26. xvi. 7. Nor does he ever use the verb παρακαλειν or the noun παρακλησις ; which, with various significations, the other writers of the New Testament books frequently employ. This variety of significations accounts for the fact, that from the earliest times, the opinions of interpreters in determining the power tou nagaxantou, especially in those places where it is applied to the Holy Spirit, have been different and opposite. These opinions appear to admit many arguments, wherefore, that those who desire to judge for themselves may see at one view all these opinions collected, we shall enumerate in order the definitions of παρακαλειν and παρακλησις. .

And first, among the ancient Attics, magaxahew always means to summon-advocare ; to send for-arcessere ; to invite- invitare ; as by Xenophon, Mem. Sucr. 11. 10. 2. In this sense also it is found in Acts xxviii. 20.1

+ Thus Pliny, Epp. vii. 17, 12: “Ego (when discoursing) non populum advocare, (that is to hear the oration) sed certos electosque soleo.”

This signification of the word is so very extensive, that it designates calling of every kind. And παρακλησις denotes invitation of every sort, and for any purpose. Hence dragaxantos means, one who comes uncalled, or uninvited, who offers himself willingly for giving assistance or safety ; to whom is opposed he who comes παρακεκλημένος. In the same sense also the Gods are said to be called by men imploring their aid and seeking their presence ; as by Xenophon Οταν τον Ενυαλιον παρακαλεσωμεν, * and elsewhere επικαλειν, κατακαλειν τον θεον. Those who are engaged in any controversy or difficulty, and are unable to consult for their own safety are said to call-advocare him whom they consult, and whose power or assistance they demand. Hence have arisen these common forms of speaking ; Ragaxamen συμβουλον, βοηθου, παρακαλειν τινα εις σωτηριαν, εις συμβουλιον Or είς συμβουλην. But παρακλησις, in this sense, is chiefly used when any one is summoned to trial, or suspects that he will be summoned : at such a time, friends and those possessing legal knowledge, are consulted, who give counsel, and suggest whatever may aid the cause. There were those also who would give counsel for wages, and if they understood rhetoric, would write orations which were delivered by themselves, or by those who were on trial, or those who managed their cause. Such were many of the orations of Demosthenes, and almost all those of Lysias. But the most frequent and technical use of παρακλησις and παραxahev, in the forum, was concerning the patrons of causes or orators who were called to defend a cause. Thus


1. Histor. Græc. ü. 7, 10. The Latins have imitated this. Thus Livy (Hist. viii. 33, 21.) and Varro write deos allvocare; and Lactantius; precibus advocare. See Buenemannus, ad Lactant. I. D. ii. Q. 2.

2. This Seneca (Ep. 109) and Quintilian (de 1. O. xii. 8. 70) have literally translated thus, advocar in consilium, or in consilia. Cicero says, in consilium adhiberi. Gellius (N. A. xiv. 2, 9) in consilium rogari and Phaedrus (Fab. iv, 4. 20.) “Fidem advocavit, jure neglecto. parens.

Seneca also says (Ep. xcix)“ adversus dolorem et incommoda virtutem advocare,” and also (Ep. Ixxviii.) « vinum virium causa advocare, aut intermittere.

καλειν συνηγορον, is to demand a patron, or call to his aid any one in whom he puts confidence, that he may speak for him. See for example, Δημοσθενη παρακαλη, (let him call Demosthenes), παρακαλω Εύβουλον συνηγορον, from Eschines, and many other similar passages. Hence, not only the patrons of causes or συνηγοροι, were named παρακλητοι as in the following passage from Demosthenes, Adv. Æsch. de παραπρ.) Αι δε των παρακλητων αυσαι δεησεις και σπουδαι των ίδιων πλεονεξιων ένεκα γιγνονται, * but also the pleading (προστασια,) or defence undertaken by the orator, was called παρακλησις, and συνηγορια thus Eschines, Της σοφροσυνης παρακλησιν παρακεκληκα, and Demosthenes, Οι εκ παρακλησεως συγκαθημενοι.

Generally among the Grecian orators, παρακαλειν τινα, is to ask any one to be with us at the trial, for a witness, patron, defender, (προστατης συνδικος) or partisan of our cause, and those in any manner defending the accused, are said to be with him παραγινεσθαι, συμπαραγινεσθαι. See 2 Tim. iv. 16. παρειναι, συμπαρειναι 3.

+ For they were accustomed συνηγορειν επι μισθω. Compare what Gel.. lius relates (N. A. xi. 9) concerning the legates of the Millesians, who, when pleading, spoke for themselves, and also concerning Demosthenes, who, at the commencement, strenuously opposed the petition of these advocates, but aftere wards, by a reward from the Millesians, was suddenly silenced. To the same must be referred της ικεσιας παρακλητος οf Heraclitus, 'Αλληγορ. εις τα του Ομηρου περι θεων ειρημένα, 59. For παρακαλειν συνηγορον in the orations of Demosthenes,is substituted καλειν συνηγορον αγωνι σινι, (to demand a patron of the cause,) οι παρασκευαζεσθαι εαυτω συνηγορούνται οι συνερουντα, (to associate a patron with himself.)

+ + Among the Latins, also, postulare or petere advocationem, is to petition the prætor or president of the court, for time to invite friends and consult with them on the cause in trial. The assembly collected for this purpose was call. ed advocatio, and because this caused a delay in the court, every delay or hindrance was called advocatio. This is exemplified by J. F. Gronovius ad Cicer. Epp. vii. 11, 1.

3. παρακλητος also means a messenger who is sent to speak in the place, name, and authority of another; thus Diogenes Laertius de Bione, says (iv. 50), προς τον άδολεσχην, λιπαρουντα συλλαβεσθαι αυτω, το έκαναν σοι ποιησω, φησιν, εαν παρακλητους πεμψης, και αυτος μη έλθης. but not many similar passages can be found.

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