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take place in the apostles and other disciples of the new religion, after his departure is ascribed to the Holy Spirit, the Paraclete. He it is that warns, excites, teaches and confirms; who illustrates Divine truth, and brings to remembrance the words of Christ, and also directs the judgement, and prospers all their enterprises. John xiv. 26, xv. 26, 27, xvi. 8, 12, 13. Hence, he is said to be sent from God the Father, and from Christ, * and to effect nothing, but according to the will of Christ and the Father, with whom there is an entire and perpetual oneness of purpose. Nor is this care and patronage of the Holy Spirit, according to Jesus and the apostles, confined solely to the apostles, but it extends itself to the whole church, and to individual Christians, accommodating itself to the variation of men, times and places. Jesus indeed denies that the world, (sov xoru.ov) can receive this Spirit ; John xiv. 17. (Comp. 1 Cor. ii. 14,, but he has promised him only to his friends. And this was the common and constant doctrine taught, from the time of John the Baptist, and often repeated and confirmed by Christ and all the Apostles. See Matt. iii. 11; John' xi. 13, vii. 38, 39; Acts i. 5, ii. 38 ; 1 Cor. vi. 19; Tit. iii. 5; 1 Peter iv. 14. And
* Jolin xv. 26. Το πνευμα- ο παρα του πας
ατρος έκπoρvεται i. e. sent. for chap. xiv. 16, it is á matn oude Upv, and versc 28, 6 TELER matng v TW ovomati pov, also, ch. xv. 26, before these words, is read tagaxantos, óv εγω πεμψω υμιν παρα του πατρος. . Whence πνευμα του θεου i. e. του TargoS is found, Matt. x. 20. And because the same spirit was in Christ, and came through him, it is called in Rom. viii. 9 ; Gal. iv. 6; Tit. iii. 5; Phil. i. 19; 1 John iv. 13 ; 1 Peter i. 11, aveupa sou Xgootou i. e. Tou viou. (Christ also speaking of himself, says εξηλθον εκ (απο, παρα) του θεου i. e. TATNOU John viii. 42, xvi. 27, 28, 30, xvii 8. And generally in the Aramean dialect, which was used by the Jews of Palestine, persons were said to go out as legates from him who sent them.) By the Ecclesiastic writers, the Holy Spirit is said to be the substitute of Christ. Tertullian, de Virgg. veland, c. i. and de præscript, hæret, c. 13 ; says, Christum mississe vicariam vim Spiritus S. qui credentes agat,
those places in which επαγγελία του Πατρος, i. e πνευματος dyrou (Lev. xiv. 49,) is described as pertaining to all Christians who can receive it, as Gal. iii. 14 ; Eph. i. 13 ; Acts ii. 33, &c,
Hence we learn the cause why the prosperity of Christians, and the increase of the church, is by the apostles always ascribed to the Holy Spirit as the efficient agent. And this is that aid, and support of the Divine Spirit, (for according to Paul, Rom. viii. 26, συναντιλαμβανεται το ΙΙνευμα under whose protection and guardianship we are placed,) by which Luke says the Christian Church was enlarged. This passage which has been generally neglected by the interpreters of John's Gospel, is thus ; " Then had the Churches rest throughout all Judea, and Gallilee, and Samaria, and were edified : and walking in the fear of the Lord, and the comfort (Tagaxangai) of the Holy Ghost were multiplied.” In this passage, the interpreters have erred exceedingly, not only in connecting this word with the former, but also in explaining tagaxanois. Some with the Vulgate, render it consolation, others, exhortation, admonition, confirmation, and others, joy, and some supplication, which are all inconsistent with the scope of the discourse.
If this common name tou Ilagaxd.ntou is regarded as it appears in the discourses of Christ, and doubtless in com
use ; and we understand by it the aid, or guard, or protection of the Holy Spirit, in which the Christians confided, and which they continually employed ; the sense will be plain and perspicuous, for this very charge is referred to the care and patronage of the Holy Spirit promised by Christ, that the Christians might prosper and their number be increased.
* 'Etancouro were increased, or as the ancient Latin Interpreter in Laudian codex according to Sabatier, they were multiplied (by the supplication of the Holy Spirit.) In the same sense, the word is sometimes used in Acts, as «h. vi. 7; έπληθυνετο ο αριθμος των μαθησων verse 1; πληθυνoντων των
But the declarations of Christ and his apostles, with many Jewish Doctors of that and the former age, 'concerning the Holy Spirit and his peculiar office, is the same as would have been drawn from the Sacred books of the He. brews, (in which, as also in the Apocryphal books of the Old Testament,) the Holy Spirit is erery where endued with a person. That the extent of the office of the Spirit, as the Paraclete, may be clearly understood, we shall draw forth from the Scriptures of the Old and New Testament, the description of his office and ministry. From this we shall at once discover that the number and variety of significations given to avsuma by the modern Lexicographers of the New Testament, is far too great.
(, , hous) with which, though unseen, the universe is filled, and moved, and governed, by the will of God; one excels, who is in a peculiar sense called divine sacred, holy, () a pure intelligence, which excels all others in power and pervades, and rules, ang upholds every thing. Even in the beginning, in the cradle of the world, when the earth was yet clothed with one wide ocean, this Divine Spirit, the source and principle of motion, was sent from God, and brooded over the water. (Gen. i. 2.) Nor was the creation of man accomplished without him. (Job xxxiii. 4.*) He being most powerful, (Mic. ii. 7 ; Zach.
-rosua dayya ,מלאכים ,רוחות) Among those spirits
Maontwv elsewhere, TCODETEð noav, as ch. ii. 41, 47, v. 14, xi. 24.-Falsely rendered in the Vulgate Ecclesia-consolatione Sancti Spiritus replebatur, which interpretation imposed on Augustine, Erasmus, and many others.
* Philo de Gigant. p. 265, Ed. Mangei.: “ Dei Spiritus dicitur primum aër fluens supra terram, tertium elementum, quod supra aquam vehitur: hence he says, in oppificio mundi, Spiritus Dei super aquam ferebatur; (aër enim, cum sit levis attollitur et sursum fertur, ejusque basis est aqua;) deinde : immortalis illa scientia, cujus omnis sapiens fit particeps. Id ostenditur in artifice et opifice sacri operis, (Beseleele, Ex. xxxi. 3.") Compare his Allegor. Lib. i. p. 50–52. I dare not, indeed, positively deny that Moses, when he wrote this did not think of air or wind, but Philo and his followers deserve censure, because they have not only in name but in fact. disjoined that immortal intelligence from this Spirit. Thus the interpreters of Homer, measuring the learn
iv. 6,) endues man with power and strength for deeds of greatness. For without his inspiration and impulse, the might and vigor of man is utterly powerless, Num. xxvii. 18; Judg. xi. 29, xiv. 6, 19; xv. 14. He knows all things,-nothing can escape his searching vision, Ps. cxxxix. 1; Is. xl. 3, (Wisdom ix. 17.) He is the source and the dispenser of wisdom, and every art and science in which men excel, so that he is correctly and appropriately styled the spirit of wisdom, of understanding, and of knowledge. Ex. xxviii. 3, xxxi. 3, xxxv. 31; Deut. xxxiv. 9; Is. xi. 2. The prophets receive his power, when they foretell future events, or exhibit prodigies and miracles, Gen. xli. 38 ; Num. sziv. 2; Is. xlii. 1; Joel iii. 1.* By the same spirit also God provides for men, and bestows benefits upon them. · Wherefore, when they receive great and remarkable benefits, this spirit is said to be given them, and to be poured out upon them, Ps. cxliii. 10; Is. xxxii. 15, xliv. 3; Aag. ii. 6. Still further, every institution of religion, the moral discipline and improvement of the soul, piety towards God, and duty towards men, are derived from him ; both in the ancient books of the Bible, (as Gen. vi. 3 ; Isa. lix. 21,) and in those of a later age, (as Neh. ix. 20, 30 ; Ezek. xxxvi. 27, xxxvii. 14, xxxix. 29; Zach. xij. 10; Wisd. i 5; Sirach i. 9.) On the other hand, he who is overwhelmed with fear, who distrusts himself and fortune, who feels unfit for great enterprises, who is borne down by calamity, who is afflicted with delirium or madness, who is an idiot, who is a notorious sinner, who indulges impious thoughts of God, and who teaches or prophecies falsehood, is said to be destitute of the Holy Spirit, and to be led by a false Spirit, either tempting him willingly, or sent from God, 1 Sam. xvi. 14—23, xviii. 10, xix. 9; Ps. li. 13, lxxxviii: 49, (comp. Luke xiii. 11; 2 Cor. xii. 9.) 1 Kings xxii. 22,
ing of the ancient poet by their own, have reduced the simplicity of the pristine age, to a philosophical subtlety. In the infancy of a people, before philosophy is known, they supposed a spirit to have corporeal form, and yet arial. Every thing that has life and motion, is governed by a Spirit. Such is the nature which moves and animates the human body. It is derived from the Divine power, and when the body dies it will return to him who breathed it into the body. Gen. li. 7; Ecol. xii. 7. See Comment. iii. p. 88, aud Roesleri Dissert. de Philosoph. vet. Eccl. de Spiritu. Tubing. 1783. It must be confessed, that the opinions of remote ages, concerning such things, are very ubscure and inexplicable. Hence the Theologians of the schools, who have attempted to explain them and adapt them to the prece ts of modern philosophy, have fallen into so many difficulties.
* Hence the prophets themselves were called O'din? ayoot, beton, ev@gwTor dsou, OEOT POTO" (Hom. It. xii. 228.) See what I have gathered from sacred and profane writers for illustrating the opinion of antiquity, in Comment. i. p. 29 and 36; to which add these passages of Homer, Odyss. i. 200, 201, xv. 172.
23. Thus the Holy Spirit is said to be grieved and offended with disobedience and immorality, Is. lxiii. 10 ; (comp. Ex. xxiii. 21.) But this same Spirit after his influences had ceased among the Jews, (John xiv. 17; Gal. iii. 2.) passed immediately to that new society, whose author and framer was Christ. From him was now derived all the divine benefits bestowed upon the worshippers of Christ, and all the virtue which distinguished them from other men ; while the opposite was attributed to an evil spirit, the author of all evil and misery, comp. Luke xi. 13; Mark iii. 29, 30; Eph. ii. 2, vi. 12 ; 1 John iv. 4; 1 Cor. ii. 12. By this Holy Spirit Christ himself was led, employing him as an aid in acting and speaking, John iii. 24 ; Matt. iii. 16, xii. 28; John i. 32, 33; Luke iv. i.
He was also the author of the Christian doctrine (which is sometimes called πνευμα,) for He knows all things παντα έρευνα, και τα βαθη σου θεου, 1 Cor. ii. 10, 11, and therefore he is called Πνευμα σοφιας, άποκαλυψέως, γνωσεως, (Εph. 1. 17,) by whom all uudengia are revealed and illustrated, Eph. iii. 5. Therefore the instruction of the Apostles and other teachers, who were inspired by that Spirit, obtained from God through Christ, was true and free from error, because δυηγγελισαντο εν Πνευματι αγια αποσταλεντι απ ουρανου, 1 Ρet. 1.