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used in the N. T., is found in profane writers, to prove that the latter may be properly cited, as an illustration of the former.

7. Some Greek authors may be more advantageously compared, with certain N. T. writers, than with others, as Thucydides with St. Paul ; and particular modes of expression may be more happily illustrated from some authors, than from others.

8. Some of the Greek writers may, to a certain extent be applied to the illustration, not only of the language, but also of the ideas and subjects of the Sacred Writers. This, however, must be done with the greatest caution.

F. C. G. Palet compared passages of Epictetus and the N. T. together, in a work published in 1799.

This whole subject has been treated at great length, and in various ways.

D. Mart. Friesii D. exeg. polemica de usu et abusu græcorum inprimis scriptt. in interpretandis illustrandisque, N. T. vocabb. et dicendi modis. Kil. 1733. 4.

Henr. Dav. Wedekind d. de habitu antiquorum Græciæ et Latii Scriptt: ad religionem, Gött. 1756. et in Berg. Mers. Duisb. T. II. P. I. p. 601. ss.

S. Gf. Geyseri Pr. Poetæ græci antiquiores literarum sacrarum interpretis magistri, Vit. 1768. 4.

J. Laur. Blessiz, Præsidia interpretationis, N. T. ex auctoribus græcis, Argent. 1778. 4.

Car. Vict. Hauff Ueber den Gebrauch der griech. Profanskribenten zur Erläuterung des N. T., Lips. 1796. 8.

The following writers have published works on the N. T., containing remarks from the Greek classics.

1. Those who wished to prove the style of the N. T. to be purely Greek.

And. Balckwall's Sacred Classics defended and illustrated.
El. Palairet Observatt. philol. criticæ in SS. N. T. libros, L. B. 1752.

Ejusdem Specimen Exercitatt. phil. crit. in sacros N. T. LL. Lond. 1755. 8. (Coll. C. L. Baueri Prr. II. in Palaireti Observatt. ad. N. T. Hirschberg. 1775. 76. 4.

2. Those who have illustrated the language, and the ideas of Scripture.

Jo. Dougtcei Analecta Sacra, s. Excursus philologici breves super diversa V. et N. T. loca. Subïiciuntur Nort. Knatchbull Animadverss. in libb. N. T. Amst. 1693. 8.

Pricaei Commentarii in varios N. T. Libros, Lond. 1660. f. et Crit. angl. T. V.

Lamb. Bos Diatribə s. Exercitationes philoll. in Scriptt. N. F. Editio secunda. Franeq. 1713. 8. Eiusd. observationes miscellaneæ ad loca quaedam cum N. T. tum ceterorum script. gr. ib. 1707. 8. ed. 2. 1731.

Hombergk Parerga Sacra. Amst. 1719. 4.

Jac. Elsneri Observationes sacræ in N. T. libros, Trai. ad Rh. 1720. 28. 11. 8.

Jo. Alberti Observatt. sacræ in N. F. libros. Vratisl. 1755, 11. 8.

F. L. Albresch. Adnotationes ad loca quædam N. T. ad calcem Animad. Terss. ad. Aesch. Vol. I. (Mediob. 1743.) p. 533. ss.

Jo. Rernh. Koehler Observationes philoll. in loca selecta Sacri Codicis, L. B. 1765. 8.

J. D. Heilmann Specimen Obss. quarundam ad illụstrandum N. T. ex profanis scriptt. in Opuscc. T. T. p. 3. ss.

Gilb. Wakefield Silva Critica s. in auctores sacros profanosque Commentarius philol. Cantabr. et Lond. 1789–93. P. I. V. 8. (cujus Examen Hæn, leinius libellis supra laudd. instituit, quorum quintus prodiit, Erl. 1802. 4. add. Schuetz Vindiciæ locorum quorundam N. T. a Wakefieldo Anglo, qua critico, qua interprete tractorum, Jenæ, 1799,

3. Those who have used particular authors for the purof illustrating the N, T.

Adnotationes in N. T. ex Xenophonte collectæ a Geo. Raphelio. Hamb. 1709. 8. ex Polybio et Arraino, ib. 1714. 8. Adnotatt. in Sacram Scr., historicæ in V., philoll. in N. T., collectæ ex Herodoto, Lüneb. 1731. 8.-Junctiin deinde bi libelli sunt editi:

Geo. Raphelii Adnotatt. historicæ in Vet. et philologicæ in N. T. ex Xenophonte, Polybio, Arriano, et Herodoto collectæ. L. B. 1747. II, 8.

G. Gu. Kirchmaieri Parallelismus N. F. et Polybii-Vit. 1725. 4.

Casp. Frid. Munthe Obss. Philoll. in sacros N, T. libros ex Diodoro Siculo collectæ, Hasn. 1755. 8.

Baueri Philologia Thucyd. Paullina supra laudata est.

Jo. Joach. Bellermanni Specimen animadverss. in N. Fæd. libros ex Homeri Iliad, Rhaps. cf. Ers. 1785. 4.

Jo. Henr. Muecke Pr. quid adiumenti sacrarum litt. interpreti præstet Homeri cum SS. Script. comparatio. L. 1789. 4.

J. L. Salchlini Observatt. ad varia V. et N. T. loca ex Pindaro desumtæ. Bern. 1745. 4. coll. Mus. Helv. II, p. 335. IV, p. 644.

Andr. Gochenië Specimen philoll. in N. T. adnotatt. potissimum ex Euripide depromtarum, Symbb. Litt. ad incr. scientt. omn. gen. collect. altera, (Hal. 1754,) p. 310, ss.

M

Ευριπιδης τετραχηλισμενος Euripidis Hecuba selectis observatt. Ν. Τ. Atticam puritatem comprobantibus-adornata a J. C. Weidling. Geræ, 1758. 8.

Alb. Geo. Walch, Pr. quo illustrantur loca aliquot librorum. N. T. ex Eurip. Alcestide, Schleus. 1789. 4.

Job. Eckhardi Obss. phill. ex Aristoph. Pluto dictioni N. T. illustrandæ inservientes. Accedit ejusdem generis diss. ex Hom. II, Z. Quedl. 1733. 4.

Chr. Porschberger Theocritus Ser. Sacram illustrans s. sententiæ ac phrases e poetis Gr. inprimis bucolicismad illustranda sacri cod. oracula, Dresd. et L. 1754. 8.

4. Wolfius in his Curæ Philologicæ, Wetstein in his Animadversiones, and other critical commentators, have used and increased these collections of remarks from the classics ; some interpreters, indeed, as Grotius and Hammond had long before enriched their commentaries with remarks of this nature; and Hezel collected and united the observations of distinguished writers, derived from the.classics.

Novi Foederis Volumina Sacra, virorum clariss. opera et studio e scriptt. gr. illustrata. Edidit Guil. Fr. Hezel Pars. I., Hal. 1788.

III. The comparison of the ancient Greek versions of the 0. T., as to words, phrases, modes of construction, ideas, subjects, and quotations from the Old in the New Testament.

Besides the authors quoted above, see,

J. H. Michaelis diss. de usu LXX. interpp. in N T., Hal, 1715. 4.

C. F. Schmidii diss. II. versionem Alex. optimum interpretationis LL. SS. præsidium

esse,

L. 1763. s. 4. Fr. Ben. Gautzsch Spec. exercitt. grammaticarum ad illustrandum N. T. e vers. Alex. Brem. 1778. Frf. et L. 1786.

J. F. Fischeri Proluss. V. in quibus varii loci librorum divv. utriusque Test.-illustrantur. L. 1779. 8. Prol. I. et II.

Pet. Keuchenii Annotationes in omnes N. Test. libros. Editio nova, et altera parte, numquam edita, auctior, cum præf. Jo. Alberti, L. B. 1755. 8.

J. Chr. Biel Novus Thesaurus philol. S. Lexicon in LXX. et alios libros V. 1.-Hagæ Com. 1779. s. III, 8. Supplementa hujus B. Lexici edidit. J. Fr. Schleusnerus (Spicilegium Lexici in Intpp. gr. V. T. post Bielium congessit-J. F. Schl. L. 1784. Spec. secundum 1786. 8.)

J. Fr. Fischeri.-Clavis reliquiarum verss. græcarum V. T. Aquilæ, Symmachi, Theodot. quintæ, sextæ et septimæ specimen. particula I. in Velthus. Kuin. et Rup. Commentatt. theoll. IV, p. 195. ss. (Primum edita L. 1758. 8.)

Add. Mori Acroases II. p. 80–148. I. Th. Mayer Obss. ad ep. Jacobi e. vers. Alex, Velthus. Comm. theoll. 1V. p. 289.

In using the ancient versions of the 0. T. for the illustration of the New, we must be careful

a. That the reading of the LXX, or of the fragments of the other versions be correct, and that we accurately examime the version, lest we suppose that the Greek words or phrases answer to certain words and phrases in the Hebrew, when they really do not. It is to be remembered, that the reading of the LXX, sometimes differs from the Hebrew : sometimes the translation is literal, sometimes paraphrastical, and sometimes it is very incorrect.

In correcting the Alexandrian version, the following writers have of late distinguished themselves ; J. F. Semler, Griesbach, Strothius, Doederlin, Spohn, Scharfenberg, Hornemann, J. F. Schleusner, and especially Robt. Holmes, who commenced a new critical edition of the LXX.

See, Eichhorn Bibl. VII. p. 798. Rosenmueller Handb, der bibl. Lit. II. p. 318. Bauer Crttica Sacra.

In collecting the fragments of the other Greek versions, the most distinguished writers are, Doederlin, Schafenberg, and Schleusner, who had been preceded in this department by Morinus, Flaminius, Druseus, &c. add. J. G. Trendelenburg, Chrestomathia Hexaplaris. Lub. et L. 1794. The value of a new Greek version, edited by Villoison and Ammon, from a Venetian MS., is very small.

. See, C. F. Ammon comm. de versionis V. T. Venetæ usu, indole et aetate, Tom. III.

b. The interpretations of the same Heb. words and phrases, given by the different Greek translators should be carefully compared. In this way, both the significa

tion and sense of many words may be best understood, and what is spoken according to the Heb., and what according to the Greek idiom be most clearly distinguished.

c. Care should be taken, that new and unusual significations of words and phrases should not be rashly transferred from these versions to the N. T. See,

C. F. Loesneri Observatt. ad voces quasdam verss. grr. vett. interpretum Proverbb. Solomon.-in Velthusen. Künöl et Ruperti Commentt, theoll.

T. III.

d. It should be observed, whether there appear any traces of the later philososophy of the Jews, in these translations.

There is need that caution should be observed in the use of Concordances, which are frequently erroneous.

Conr. Kircheri de Concordantium Biblicarum-vario ac multiplici usudiantsužis, Viteb. 1622. 4.

Concordantiæ V. Test. græcæ, Ebreis vocibus respondentes, πολύχρηστοι -authore Com. Kirchero 1607.

Abr. Trommii Concordantiæ græcæ versionis vulgo dictæ LXX. Interp. Leguntur hic præterea voces græcæ pro Hebr. redditæ ab antiquis omnibus V.T. interpretibus, quorum nonnisi fragmenta exstant, Aquila etc., Amst. 1718, II, f.

Jo. Gagnier Vindiciæ Kirchianæ, s. Ánimadversiones in novas Trommü concordantias-Oxon. 1718 et Abr. Trommii Epist. apologetica ad Gagnerium-qua se suasque concordd. gr. modeste tuetur., Amst. 1718. 4.

Frid. Lankisch Concordantiæ Bibliorum germanico-hebraico-græcæ3. ed. Erf. 1696.

J. H. Meisneri Nova vet. Test. clavis, addita est significatio verborum hebr. e vers. Alex. L. 1800. II, &.

IV. The use of the spurious and apocryphal writing of the Jews and early Christians, in illustrating the language and contents of the N. T.

These are, 1. The apocryphal books of the 0. T., commonly bound with the canonical books, which were either written originally in Hebrew, and translated into Greek, or written in Greek at first.

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