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J. G. Eichhorn Einleitung in die apocryphischen Schriften des Alt. Test. L. 1795, 8.

Ben. Bendtson Specimen exercc. critt. in V. T: libros apocryplios, Gött. 1789. 8.

Of these, the most important are, the Book of Sirach (Sententiæ Jesu Siracidæ, græce. Textum ad fidem codd. et verss. emendavit illustravit J. Gu. Linde. Gedani 1795. Glaubens-und Sittenlehre Jesu, des Sohns Sirach. Neu Uebersetzt. mit erläut. Anmerk. von J. W. Linde-Zweite umgearb. Aufl. 1795. 8.-The book of Tobias (Die Geschicte Tobi's—übers. und mit Anmerk.-auch einer Einleitung, Versehen von C. D. Ilgen, Jen. 1800. 8.)

The Book of Wisdom (Das Buch der Weisheit, als Gegenstück der Koheleth, und als Vorbereitung zum Studium des N. T., bearbeitet von J. C. C. Nachtigal, Hal. 1799. 8.

G. J. Henke diss. de usu librorum apocryphorum V. T. in N. Test., Hal. 1711.4.

T.G. Ienichen d. præs. Reinhardto def. de petenida rerum, quias libri N. T. continent, e libris V. T. apocryphis illustratione, Vit. 1787. 8.

C. Th. Kuinoel Observationes ad N. Test. ex libris apocryphis V. Test: L. 1798. 8. (in verbis et formulis magis, quam sententiis et decretis illustrandis versatæ.)

Beiträge zur historischen interpretation des N. Test. aus den damals herschenden Zeitbegriffen, von Otmar dem zweite:, in Hezike Neuen Mag; III. 201. ss. IV. 123. se.

2. Apocryphal books of the Old Testament.

Von den Apocryphis und Pseudepigraphis der Juden, in Beiträgen zur Beförd. des vernünft. Denk. in der Rel. IV. p. 192. ss. add. J. S. Semler von den Pseudepigraphis in s. Theolog. Briefen, 1. Sammlung.

Codex Pseudepigraphus N. Test. collectus, castigatus--illustratus a J. 4: Fabricio, Hamb. 1713. 8. Codicis-volumen alterum, acc. Josephi vet: Christ. scriptoris Hypomnesticon-cum vers. et not. J. A. Fabricii, Hamb: 1723. 8.

3. Apocryphal books of the New Testament.

J. Fr. Kleuker über die Apokryphen des N. T., in Vergleichnung mit denjenigen Urkunden des Christ. deren Apostol. Ursprung und Zweck aus innern und äussern Gründen erweislich ist., Hamb. 1798. 8.

Codex apocryphus N. Test. collectus, castigatus, testimoniisque censuris et animadverss. illustratus a J. A. Fabricio. Editio secunda, emendatior, et tertio tomo aucta. Hamb. 1719. III. 8.

Guil. Lud. Brunn. disqu. hist. crit. de indole ætate, et usu libri apocryphi, vulgo inscripti Evangelium Nicodemi. Berl. 1794. 8. (add. Berlin. Monatsschr. 1802. Nov. p. 888.

To these books may be added some of the writings of the Apostolic Fathers-Clement, Barnabas, Hermas.

On these writings, see,

J. E. C. Schmidius Handbuch der Kirchengesch. I, p. 437.
J. G. Ronsenmueller Historia interpret. SS. Litt. in eccl. T. I.

Cotelerius Opera Patrum qui App. temporibus floruerunt rec. Clericus, Amst. 1724.

These apocryphal and spurious writings are of value,

a. To illustrate the language of the N. T., especially those words and phrases which are peculiar to it; and also proverbial expressions, parables, &c.

b. As exhibiting the manner of narration, teaching and arguing

c. As explaining, some moral precepts, rules, opinions, rites, and other things of similar character.

Care however must be taken,

a. To ascertain the age and character of each book, lest things which pertain to a later period, should be applied to the N. T.

B. That we do not suppose that a mere slight similarity of expression, is sufficient to prove them apt illustrations of the N. T.

7. That we be not injudicious in carrying the use of these books to an extreme.

V. The works of the Jews, either in Greek, or in Hebrew, written in the New Testament period, or at a later date, may be advantageously applied, not only to explain the language, but also the subjects of the Sacred Writings, and the mode in which these subjects are treated.

I. Writings of the ancient Jews in Greek.

a Of Philo, whose works are principally useful as exhibiting the allegorical interpretations, and religious philosophy of the Jews.

The best edition of his works is that by Mangey, Lond. 1742. II. f.

Chrestomatia Philoniana S. Loci illustres ex Philone Alex. et cum animadverss. editi a J. C. Gu. Dahl Hamb. 1800. 8. Pars altera s. Philonis libelli adv. Flaccum et de leg. ad Caium cum animadverss. Dahlii, Hamb. 1802. 8.

E. H. Stahl Versuch eines system. Entwurfs des Lehrbegriffs Philo's von Alex. in Eichhorn Bibl. d. bibl. Litt. IV. p. 769. Staeudlin. Gesch. der Litt. Jesu I. p. 490.

J. B. Carpzovii Sacræ Exercitationes in Pauli Ep. ad Hebr. ex Philone Alex. Præfixa sunt Philoniana Prolegomena, in quibus de non adeo contemnenda Philonis eruditione Hebr., de convenientia stili Philonis cum illo D. Pauli in Ep. ad Hebr. et de aliis nonullis varii argumenti exponitur, Helmst. 1750. 8.

J. B. Carpzovii Stricturæ in epist. Pauli ad Romanos, adspersi subinde sunt flores ex Philone Alex. Helmst. 1756. 8.

C. Fr. Loesneri Observatt. ad N. Test. e. Philone Alex. L. 1777. 8.

A. F. Kuhnii Spicilegium Loesneri Observatt. ad. N. Test, e Phil. Alex. Pforten. 1785. 8.

b. Of Flavius Josephus, whose writings also illustrate the history of the age, in which the books of the New Testament were written.

His works were edited by Sig. Havercampus, at Utrecht in 1726, and by Fr. Oberthuer, at Leipsic, in 1782.

Chrestomathia Flaviana s. loci illustres ex Flavio Josepho delecti et animadverss. illustrati a J. G. Fredelenburgh, L. 1789. 8.

J. A. Ernesti Exercitationes Flavianæ, in Opp. phil. crit. p. 359. ss. ad. Oberthuer in Fabric. B. gr. V. p. I. ss. 14. s.

J. B. Otii Spicilegium s. Excerpta ex Flavio Josepho ad N. T. illustrationem, in T. H. ed. Jos. Havercamp. p. 38. ss.

J. T. Krebsii Obervationes in N. Test. e Flavio Josepho. L. 1755. 8.

The authority of both Philo and Josephus has been disputed. We must distinguish with respect to both, what is delivered as merely their opinion, and what is stated as the popular notion, or the sentiment of their learned men. We must also consider what influence the Pharasaical principles of Josephus, and the profane philosophy of Philo, would have upon their writings,

2. Targums, (Chaldee paraphrases of some of the books of the 0. T.) especially those of Onkelos and Jonathan.

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De iis vid. I'olf. Bibl. Hebr. II. p. 1147. ss. 1189. ss. Eichhorn, Ein). ins A, Test. I. p. 399. ss. Bauer. Crit. S. p. 293. ss. Rosenmueller, Handbuch III. p. 3. ss. J. F. Fischer in Proluss. quinque in V. et N. T p. 51. SS.

G. L. Baueri Chrestomathia e paraphrasibus chaldaicis et Talmude delecta notisque brevibus et indice verbrorum illustrata. Norib. 1792. 8.

J. H. Michaelis diss. de Targumim s. verss. ac paraphrasium V. T. Chaldaicarum usu. Hal. 1720. 4. add, Seiler, über die Gött, Offenbarungen II. p. 434. s. 472. ss,

3. Other writings of the ancient Jews in Heb., especially the Mishna (edited, translated and ilustrated by notes, by Gu. Surenhusius, Amst. 1698-1703. VI. f.) The Gemara or commentary on the Mishna (the Talmud.) See, Fabric, Bibliogr. antiq. p. 3, ss, Buddei Isag. ad theol. univ. p. 781. ss, Some suppose

that the book Sohar should also be ascribed to an early age, Mori Herm. II. 155.

4. The works of the later Jewish doctors.

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Scriptores Rabothani, Midraschici, alii, J. G. Wolfii Bibliotheca Hebr. Ham. 1715–33. IV. 4. Volumine II. add. H. F. Koecheri Nova bibl. Hebraịca, secundum ordinem bibl. Hebr. Wolfii disposita. Jen. 1783. s. II. 4. Mosis Maimonidis (mort, 1205.) libri. cf. et Raymundi Martini Pugio Fidei adv. Mauros et Judæos ed. J. B. Carpzovii, L. 1687. s.

The following authors illustrated the N. T. from Jewish writers.

Tho. Cartwright Mellificium Hebraicum, in Criticis Anglic. T. II.

Jo. Drusii Præterita s. Annotationes in totum Jesu Chr. Testamentum. Franeq. 1612. 4. Prasaltera 1616. 4.

Jo. Leusdeni Philologus Hebræo-mixtus, una cum spicilegio philologico ; Editio tertia, Leidæ et Ultrai. 1699. 4.

Jac. Capelli Observatt. in N. T. et Lud. Capelli Spicilegium notarum in libros N. T. Amst. 1657. 4. etiam Jo. Cameronis Myrothecion h. e. Novị Test. quam plurima loca illustrata.-Salmur, 1677. 4.

Those most worthy of consideration, are the following:

Jo. Lightfooti Horæ Hebraicæ et Talmudicæ in IV. Evangg -Nunc secundum in Germania e Museo J. B. Carpzovii L. 1684. 4.

Ejusd Horæ Hebr. et Talmudicæ in Acta App., partem aliquam ep. ad Rom. et priorem ad Corinth, nunc primum in Germaniaeditæ e Mus. J. B. Carpzovii, L. 1679. 4.

Novum Test. ex Talmude et antiquitatibus Hebræorum illustratum curis -B. Scheidii, J. A. Danzii et Lac. Rhendferdi, editum-a Jo. Gerh. Meus. chen--L. 1736. 5.

Chr. Schoettgenii Koræ Hebraicæ et Talmudica in universum Nov. Test. quibus Horæ J. Lightfooti, etc. supplentur-Dresd. et L. 1733. 4. Ejusd. More Hebraicæ et Talmudicæ in tbeologiam Judæorum dogmaticam.

From these sources, Wetstein derived many valuable remarks found in his Commentary. Consult also Buxtorfii Lexicon Chald. Talmudicum, et Rabbinicum, Bas. 1640 f. and Corrodius Hist. Crit. Chiliasmi T. I. et II.

Not only the rites, proverbial and peculiar expressions, and general style of the N. T. may be illustrated from these sources; but also the opinions, precepts, traditions, the mode of argument and instruction. In the N. T. however the imperfections which disfigure the Jewish writings, are not to be found. See,

Gu. C. G. Weise diss. de modo domini acceptos a magistris Judaicis loquendi ac disserendi modos sapienter emendandi, Vit. 1792, enlarged in the Commentatt. Velthus. Kuinod.

We must be careful,

1. Not to apply the Jewish writings promiscuously to the illustration of the N. T.

2. To remark the times of which they speak.

3. The sources, whence they derive their information, should be carefully observed ; the authority of the later Jews is not entirely to be despised if they appeal to older writers as their authority.

Other Oriental writings, especially in Syriac and Arabic, have not as yet, been applied to the illustration of the N. T., to the extent which is desirable, since they might throw considerable light, on the use of words and phrases,

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