Page images

without the Preposition ; but the 3 is not unfrequently prefixed to the Nominative, as well as other Cases : see Exod. XXXII. 22. 1 Kings XIII. 34. Or sa may signify the same as Jonas, A WEAPON. but the Excellency of Knowledge is, that Wisdom giveth Life to


Rather [ ויתרון דעת החכמה תחיה בעליה: .them that have it


ראה את מעשה האלהים- כי מי יוכל ?which he batb made grooked

- Rather [לתקן את אשר עותו :

ביום טובה היה בטוב .End that Man (boula jind nothing after him וביום רעה ראה גם את זה לעמת זה עשה האלהים על דברת Our Translators explain the latter [שלא ימצא האדם אחריו מאומה:

V. 13. Consider the work of God : for wbo can make that straight

? : ]

CONSIDER THE WORK OF GOD, WHETHER ANY ONE CAN MAKE STRAIGHT THAT WHICH HE HATH MADE CROOKED. See these several Particles thus used in Noldius's Concordance.

V. 14. In the Day of Prosperity be joyful, but in the Day of Adverfity consider : God also bath fet ibe one over against the other, to the


,. , : ] Clause thus — “That Man should be able to controul nothing in his " (God's) Works.” See the Margin of the old Version. But that does not seem to be the Meaning, neither will the Words bear that Sense. I would render them, with all the ancient Versions, thus — TO THE END THAT MAN MIGHT FIND NO BLAME AGAINST HIM. That is, God hath ordered that Good and Evil should be so intermixed, that no Man is without his Share of either, and therefore cannot arraign his Providence. 1999 may here signify any Thing : but as bio Blame is twice written Dwa, it may be also considered as having the paragogic 77: it occurs exactly in this form and Sense, i Sam.XXIX. 3. and young is here used as Lev. XXVI. 33. viz. Dank inp9777

- and I will unsheath the Sword AGAINST You. See also 1 Sam. XIV.


&c. V. 15. All Things have I seen in the Days of my Vanity : iban na 'n ] °Rather — ALL THIS HAVE Í seen &c. as Gen. XXIV. 50. 7277 88 1790 — THIS THING cometh from the Lord. See also Ch. VIII.

9. there is a just Man that perisheth in his Righteousness, and there is a wicked Man that prolongeth his Life in his Wickedness. :] I


את הכל

יש צדיק

Rather, I think - THERE [אבד בצדקו - ויש רשע מאריך ברעתו :


-The old Ver [ולדעת רשע כסל והסכלות הוללות: .and Madnes


ESS; AND A WICKED Man ThaT CONTINUETH LONG IN HIS WICKEDNESS. 738 has the Sense of losing or missing the Way of Life or Happiness, Job. VI. 18. Pf. II. 12. See Taylor. 778, simply, fignifies to continue long, Ch. VIII. 12.

V. 16. — why shouldest thou destroy thyself? : D29001725] Rather BE DESOLATE; or left alone, as in the Margin, and in the old Version : for a Man overrighteous or overwise (i. e. one who carries his Religion as far as Superstition, or whose Prudence degenerates into Pyrrhonism) bids fair to be forsaken by all his Companions.

V. 18. — for be that feareth God hall come forth of them all. ry : ]

SHALL PROCEED IN (or, ACCORDING TO) ALL THESE, viz. Precepts. See Noldius, Art. 10 19. V. 25.

and to know the Wickedness of Folly, even of Foolishness

. :] fion is here more agreeable to the Text, viz. AND TO KNOW THE WICKEDNESS OF FOLLY, AND THE FOOLISHNESS OF Madness. V. 26. — whose Heart is Snares and Nets, and her Hands as Bands :

] , I WHO HERSELF is SNARES, WHOse HEART is Nets, and WHOSE Hands are Bands: for the Pronoun X'n seems here to be emphatical.

V. 27. Behold, this have I found, (faith, the Preacher) counting one by one, to find out the Account. roxmobnp Ook insa ni nan navn xsab nars] Rather, I think thus

Rather, I think thus - BEHOLD THIS HAVE I FOUND, SAITH THE PREACHER, OF ONE WITH THE OTHER, IN THE END OF THE ACCOUNT. **9 is here considered as a Sub{tantive derived from xy, and signifying literally the going forth. The 5 has the Force of the Preposition in'; or it denotes that the Verb Substantive main is understood. Qu. ought not we to read bapa tun?

V.29. Lo, this only have I found, that God bath made Man upright: but they bave fought out many Inventions. 70% nayo ni ako zas "727 Tun D780 na Dunbar'ney] Rather, I think, thus - This ONLY BY EXAMINING HAVE I FOUND, THAT GOD HATH MADE Men UPRIGHT &c. For 7789 is not here I apprehend an Interjection, or the Imperative; if it were, it would claim the first Place in the


Rather, I think [ אשר היא מצודים וחרמים לבה אסורים ידיה

Nn 2

Sentence, like 77377; but it is the Participle present of the Verb 1780, which has this Sense, Lev. XIII. 10. &c. and 78 signifies not only the first Man so called, or any other particular Man; but also the whole Aggregate of Mankind.

[blocks in formation]

,אנה or אנא is a Miftake for אני I think it is more probable that [שמר

V. 1. - Man's Wisdom maketh his Face' to shine, 78 123 9939] Rather — ENLIGHTENETH his Face, or MAKETH IT GLORIOUS; as the Word is rendered in other Places.

and the Boldness of his Face Mall be changed. : 838 1935 ] Rather BUT HE THAT HATH AN IMPUDENT COUNTENANCE SHALL BE HATED: thus Disory is rendered, Prov. VII. 13. Here the Preposition 3 is supplied before 7'35; the literal Construction being-He that is impudent in his Face. In regard to 8w, it is the regular Future Niphal from xw, as Prov. XIV. 17. which is there rendered in our Version HATED : so that it is amazing our Translators would prefer to torture this Word by deriving it from 700; and this too, for the sake of adopting a worse Sense. V.2. I counsel thee to keep the King's Commandment: 759 JX

] I , than that a Word should have dropped from the Text; wherefore I would render - KEEP, I PRAY THEE, &c. None of the old Versions, the Vulgate excepted, seem to have had this Word in theit Texts. V. 3. Be not hasty to go out of his Sight: stand not in an evil Thing :


V. 6. Because to every Purpose there is Time and Judgment; therefore the Misery of Man is great upon him. : ] tween these Clauses; and for this Reason, I imagine, because they are Parts of different Verses. The first ought to be connected with the preceding Verse, and rendered thus ----BECAUSE THERE IS A SEASON AND AN ESTABLISHED ORDER FOR EVERY PURPO'S E, PURSUIT; and the latter Clause thus --- BUT THE MISERY OF MAN IS GREAT UPON HIM, BECAUSE HE KNOWETH NOT THAT WHICH SHALL BE &c.

Rather - RuSH NoT [ אל תבהל מפניו תלך אל תעמד בדבר רע

כי לכל חפץ יש עת ומשפט -There feems to be no Connection be [כי רעת האדם רבה עליו :


כי גם יודע אני אשר יהיה טוב ליראי .God, which fear before lin The latter Claufe ought I think to be [האלהים אשר ייראו מלפניו :

V.12. yet surely I know that it mall be well with them that fear

. : ] rendered - WHO REVERENCE HIM: for 'obro preceded by the Verb

is only an expletive Sign of the Accusative Cafe : or thus, who STAND IN AWE OF HIS PRESENCE, as Jer. V. 22.

[blocks in formation]

V.1. - the righteous, and the wife, and their Works are in the Hand of God: no Man knoweth Love, or Hatred by all that is before them.

הצדיקים והחכמים ועבדיהם ביד האלהים גם אהבה וגם שנאה אין

Rather [ יודע האדם הכל לפניהם :

[ocr errors]


· THE RIGHTEOUS, AND THE WISE, AND THEIR HOUSHOLDS are IN THE HAND OF GOD; but MEN KNOW NOT by ALL that is BEFORE THEM EITHER Love OR HATRED : i. e. “It is impossible for Men to deterinine by God's

Dispensations of Prosperity or Adversity, whether he love, or do not “ love, them who are apparently righteous and wise.” From this Circumstance, among others, one might be led to conclude that God's equal Administration of temporal good and evil in the Jewish Commonwealth was at an End, which is generally supposed not to have happened till about the Time of the Babylonith Captivity. For David says expressly that he never saw the righteous forsaken, nor his Seed begging Bread. P. XXXVII. 25.

V. 3. and after that, they go to the dead. Dinan 90787) Rather --- AND PURSUETH THEM TO THE DEAD, viz. the Madness just before mentioned.

but the dead know not any Thing, neither have they any a Reward; ] The whole of what is here faid from V. 1. to the End of V. 10. I consider as intended to set forth the Principles of Epicureans ; (for their System prevailed among the Jews, as well as the Ġreeks ;) for the Immortality of the Soul seems here to be denied, and at V.7. an Exhortation begins to the Pursuit of all Manner of sensual Gratifications.

V.8. Let thy Garments be always white ;-Dusa's ge72a 107' ny 533] White Clothes are not only the pleasantest in a warm Country, as was Palestine, but also the most expensive ; as they cannot be worn fo long as those of other Colours; Luxury is therefore here combined with Cott.


[והמתים אינם יודעים מאומה- ואין עוד להם שכר ;more a Resoard



ראה חיים עם אשה אשר אהבת כל ימי חיי הבלך .Days of thy Vanity As none of the ancient [ אשר נתן לך תחת השמש כל ימי הבלך :

[ocr errors]

V.9. Live joyfully with the Wife whom thou loves all the Days of the Life of thy Vanity, which he hath given thee under the Sun, all the

. : Versions acknowledge the last Clause, it is probable that it is repeated from the former Part by Mistake. I would therefore omit it, and render --- Enjoy Life (i. e. indulge) with The WIFE WHOM THOU LoveST ALL THE DAYS OF THY VAIN Life, which is GIVEN THEE UNDER THE Sun. The Sensualist, in order to pass over no Incentive to stimulate the Passions, seems here to recommend Polygamy; for, by recommending a favourite Wife, he insinuates that the Person he spoke to had other Wives, or Concubines ; a Practice but too much countenanced by Solomon himself, and all the opulent in every part of the East. V. 10. Whatsoever thy Hand findeth to do, do it with thy Might : 52

] “ If there be any “ other Means of pleasing the Senses not before enumerated that thou " canst think of, fail not to have Recourse to it:" for there is no Work, nor Device, nor Knowledge, nor Wisdom in the Grave whither thou goeft, i. e. (according to the fame System) after this Life the Body moulders into Dust, and the Soul is annihilated.

V.11. I returned, and saw &c.] Qu. does it not seem that the Author would here be understood as giving an Account of a Progress he had made in different Parts, and exhibiting the several striking Characters he had met with in his Tour?

V. 17. The Words of wise Men are beard in Quiet, more than the
Cry of him that ruleth among fools.
: Sibona Serve] Rather — The Words of the wise ought to
BE HEARD &c. as Mal. I. 6. A Son honoureth bis Fatber, for ought

, That is [ אשר תמצא ידך לעשות בכחך עשה

דברי חכמים בנחת נשמעים מזעקת


וחוטא אחד יאבר .but one Sinner detroyeti much good

V. 18.

. : 1997,7210) Rather --- BUT ONE THAT ERRETH in Judgment &c. So non signifies, Job. V. 24.

[blocks in formation]

-Rather [ זבובי מות יבאיש יביע שמן רוקח :a tinking Savour

V. 1. Dead Flies cause the Ointment of the Apothecary to send forth : ' ]


« PreviousContinue »