« PreviousContinue »
allude to the Second Commandment; “ visiting the Iniquity of the “ Fathers upon the Children.”
Ch. XXII. 6. Thou hast taken a Pledge from thy Brother for nought, and haft stripped the naked of their Clothing. This is a plain Allusion to Exod. XXII. 26, 27. “ If thou at all take thy Neighbour's Raiment
to Pledge, thou shalt deliver it to him hy that the Sun goeth down, “ for that is his only Covering; it is his Raiment for his Skin: wherein “ shall he sleep?” The Crime objected to Job is, that he has taken a Pledge. The Jewish Law made this criminal. This appears only from the Jewish Law, which supposes the Pledge to be the Raiment, the only Covering. V. 13. Thou sayest, How doth God know ? So Pf. LXXIII. 11. « They say, How doth God know ?” V. 19. The righteous see it, and are glad. So Pl. CVII. 42. “The righteous shall see “it, and rejoice."
Ch. XXIII. 10. He hath tried me, I pall come forth as Gold. Pr. LXVI. 10. « Thou hast tried us as Silver is tried.”
Ch. XXIV.4. The poor of the Earth hide themselves together: taken probably from Prov. XXVIII. 28. “When the wicked rise, Men hide as themselves.”
Ch. XXVI. 8. He bindeth up the Waters in his thick Clouds. This feems to be borrowed from Prov. XXX. 4. “ Who hath bound the ( Waters in a Garment?” In both Places the Water above the Firmament is understood. Again, it is said of the Clouds (Ch. XXXVI. 30.) that they conceal those Foundations which support the Sea. These are plain Allusions to the Waters above the Firmament. Gen. I.
7. Ch. XXVII. 7. Let mine Enemy be as the wicked. This Thought seems to be taken from 1 Sam. XXV. 26. “Let thine Enemies be as “ Nabal.” V. 14. If his Children be multiplied, it is for the Sword. So Hof.IX.13. “Ephraim Mall bring forth his Children to the Murderer.” V. 15. shall be buried in Death, and bis Widows shall not weep. So Pf. LXXVIII.64. “ Their Priests fell by the Sword, and their Widows " made no Lamentation.” V.17. He may prepare it, but the juft Mall put it on. So Prov. XXVIII. 8. “ He thall gather it for him that will < pity the poor."
Ch. XXVIII. 15. It cannot be gotten for Gold; neither shall Silver be weighed for the Price thereof. So Prov. III. 14. “ The Merchandise of
“it is better than the Merchandise of Silver, and the Gain thereof " than fine Gold.”
Ch. XXIX. 3. By bis Light I walked through Darkness. So Pf. XVIII. 28. “The Lord my God will enlighten my Darkness.” V.6. The Rock poured me out Rivers of Oil. Perhaps this may be taken out of Deut. XXXII. 13. “He made him to suck Honey out of the Rock, “and Oil out of the flinty Rock.” And what is very remarkable (V.22, 23.) My Speech dropped upon them, And they waited for me as for the Rain, and opened their Mouth wide as for the latter Rain, seems taken from the same Chap. V.2. “My Doctrine shall drop as the Rain,
my Speech shall distil as the Dew.” V.12. I delivered the poor when he cried, the fatherless and him that had none to help him
- taken probably from Pf. LXXII. 12. " He shall deliver the needy, when he “ crieth, the poor also, and him that hath no helper.” V. 14. I put on Righteousness, and it clothed me. So Isa. LIX. 17. “ He put on Right« eousness as a Breast Plate.” V. 20. My Bow renewed its Strength in my
Hand. This seems to be taken from Gen. XLIX. 24. “ His Bow ri abode in Strength.” Ch. XXX.
9. I am their song, and become their Byword. So Lam. III. 14. “I was a Derision to all my People, and their Song all the
Day.” V. 16. My Soul pours out it self within me. So Pl. XLII. 4. “I pour out my Soul within me.” Job says - "DJ onwn sy: the Psalmist says -"93 oby 200x. V. 30. My Bones are burnt with Heat. So Pl. CII. 3. “My Bones are burnt as a Hearth.”
Ch. XXXI. 4. Doth he not see my Ways, and count all my Steps? So Prov. V. 21. “The Ways of Man are before the Eyes of the Lord,
and he pondereth all his Goings." V.7. Mine Heart walked after my Eyes, taken perhaps from Numb. XV.
- Seek not after your “own Heart, and your own Eyes.” V.8. Then let me fow, and let another reap; this appears to be borrowed from Lev. XXVI. 16. « Ye “Thall fow your Seed in vain, for your Enemy shall eat it.”
Ch. XXXIII. 14. God Speaketh once, yea twice : (i.e. often.). So Pf. LXII. 11. “God hath spoken once, nay twice have I heard it.” V. 30. Light of the living. We have the same Expression, Pf.LVI.13.
Ch. XXXIV.11. For the Work of a Man Mall be render unto him. So Pf. LXII. 12. “ Thou renderest to every Man according to his Work.”
Ch. XXXV. 10. God, who giveth Songs in the Night. So Pf. XLII. 8. “ In the Night his Song shall be with me. V. 12. Tbere they cry,
a me ;
but none giveth Answer. So Prov. I. 28. “ Then shall they call upon
but I will not answer.” Ch. XXXVI. 7. He withdraweth not his Eyes from the righteous. So Pf. XXXIV. 15.' “ The Eyes of the Lord are upon the righteous.” V. 8. If they (i. e. Kings) be bound in Fetters-he openeth their Ear to Discipline :-- and if they obey, they shall spend their Days in Prosperity. This was the Cafe of Manafleh, who was carried bound to Babylon, and upon his Repentance restored to his Kingdom. Compare this with 2 Chron. XXXIII. II, 12, 13.
Ch. XXXVIII, 1. The Lord answered Job out of the Whirlwind. So Nah.I. 3. “ The Lord hath his Way in the Whirlwind." V.4. Where wast thou when I laid the Foundations of the Earth ? alluding probably to Prov. VIII. 29. “When he appointed the Foundations of the Earth, “then I was by him.” V.9. When I made a Cloud to be the Garment of the Sea, and thick Darkness it's swaddling Band. This may allude to Gen. I. 2. “Darkness was upon the Face of the Deep." V. 15. The wicked shall be deprived of their Light, may perhaps allude to the Egyptian Darkness. The high Arm Mall be broken. So PC. X. 15. « Break thou the Arm of the wicked."
Ch. XLI. 4. Wilt thou take him for a Servant for ever? Exod. XXI. 6. “He shall serve him for ever.” The Expression is very particular, and signifies in both Places, to be a Part of the Family. Ch. XXXI.33. we have these Words, If I have covered my Tranfgreffion as Adam. Ch. XXXVI. 14. there seems to be an Allusion to the Destruction of Sodom; Ch. XL. 12, 13. to the Punishment of Corah, Dathan, and Abiram. Idolatry was punished by the Jewish Law, and no other, with Death, and Job. XXXI. 28. says, This were an Iniquity to be punished by the Judge.
[Ch. XXXVIII.22,23, Hast thou seen the Treafures of the Hail, wbich'I have reserved against the Time of Trouble, against the
Day of Battle and War? This probably alludes to the Destruction of the five Kings of the Amorites at Bethhoron by Joshua, when the Lord destroyed their Armies with Hailstones. X. 11. Heath.
Ch. XX. 17. The Brooks of Honey and Butter, probably taken from those Passages in Exodus, Ch. III. 8. - XIII. 5. “A Land flowing W with Milk and Honey.” Bp. Warburton.
Ch. XXII. 22. Receive the Law from bis Mouth, alluding probably to the verbal Delivery of the Law from Mount Sinai. Idem.
Ch. XXIX. 4. O that I were as in the Days of my Youth, when the Secret of God was upon my Tabernacle! This seems to allude to the Residence of the Divine Presence on the Ark. Idem.
Ch. IX. 7. Who commandeth the Sun, and it riseth not, and sealeth up the Stars, may perhaps allude to the Egyptian Darkness, and the Sun standing still in the Days of Joshua. Idem.
Ch. XXVI. 12. By his Strength be quieteth the Sea, and by his Understanding smiteth it's Pride. Bp. Warburton applies this to the dividing of the Sea, and the drowning of Pharoah and his Hoft. ]
FROM what has been said I think it clear that the Author of this Book was a Jew; and that he lived after the Time of Moses. There are other Passages in this Book, which agree with other parts of SS. but whether they are taken from thence, or those Parts of SS. taken from Job, is not so certain. I shall mention the most remarkable of them. Ch.V. 19. it is said, He mall deliver thee in fix Troubles ; yea, in seven there shall no Evil touch thee. So Prov. VI. 16. « These “ fix Things doth the Lord hate, yea, feven, &c.” V. 10. God is called the Holy One. The Prophets call Him “ the Holy One of Israel.” But Job being not represented as a Jew, the Word Israel is omitted.
Ch. XIV. 17. We have these Words, My Transgression is sealed up in a Bag; and thou fowest up my Iniquity. So Hos. XIII. 12. "The
Iniquity of Ephraim is bound up in a Bag, his Sin is hid.” In both Places there is an Allusion to the Custom of sealing up Records in a Bag. Ch. XV.7. Wast thou made before the Hills ? are the same Words that are used, Prov. VIII. 25. ons bon niya 105. In the last Verse of the same Ch. To conceive Mischief, and bring forth Vanity are almost the same Words with Pf. VIII. 15. po 7599 hoy 77777; and Isa. LIX. 4. 1188 75177 hoy 1707. Ch. XVI. 13. He pouretb out my Gall upon the Ground. So Lam. II. 11. “My Liver is poured upon
the Earth." Ch. XVII. 3. Give me a Surety for thy Appearance : who is it that will strike Hands with me? agrees with Prov. VI.1. “My Son, if thou be Surety for thy Friend, if thou hast stricken
thy Hand with a Stranger.” The Surety was to strike Hands with the Person to whom the Security was given. The fame Custom is alluded to, and the same Word, ypn is used in both Places. Ch. XVIII. 7. The Steps of bis Strength mall be Araitened, are the same
) ,עצמי לבשרי
Words with Prov. IV. 12. qiys 1784 85, “ Thy Steps shall not be « ftraitened.”
The Expressions are remarkable : and in Job the Steps of bis Strength seem to be an Improvement upon Tby Steps. V. 15. Brimstone shall be scattered upon his Habitation. So Pf. XI. 16. “ He shall rain upon the wicked Fire and Brimstone.” Brimstone is used in both Places for Lightning. Ch. XIX. 20. My Bone cleaveth to my skin and my Flesh, are the same Words with Ps. CII. 6. 77227
“ My Bone cleaveth to my Flesh,”—and are a particular Way of expressing the same thing; that there was no Fat between the Bone and the Flesh. Ch. XX. 8. He shall fly away as a Dream ; he shall be chased away as a Vison of the Night. The same Words are in Ísa. XXIX. 7. 1759599777 Dibra, “ as a Dream, the Vision of the
Night." The Addition of the two Verbs in the Passage, as it stands in Job, may perhaps be thought an Improvement upon Isaiah. V. 23. God shall cast upon him the Fury of his Wrath ; and it shall rain upon bim in the Midst of bis Food. So Pf. XI. 6. “Upon the wicked he " shall rain Fire and Brimstone, and a strong Tempest shall be the “ Portion of their Cup." Ch. XXI. 18. They are as Stubble before the Wind, and as Chaff which the Storm suddenly sweeps away, seems to be an Improvement upon Pf. I. 4. « Like Chaff which the Wind « driveth away.” Ch. XXIV. 4. They drive the poor out of the Way are the same Words with Amos II. 7. 109 Diggy 777.
Ch. XXVI. 6. Hell is naked before him, and Destruction bath no Covering. This looks like an Improvement upon Prov. XV. 11, “Hell and De«« struction are before him.” The same Words too are used, 7220-11728. There is one Observation, which I make by the Way; that this Likeness of Expression adds great Authority to the Books of SS. If the Author of the Book of Job borrowed from the other SS. they were certainly esteemed as sacred Books in his Time, and could not be composed by Ezra, as Lord Bolingbroke insinuates. If they borrowed from Job, then it follows that the Book of Job was delivered down under the same Character among the Jews. But to return : V. 13. His Hand hath formed the crooked Serpent, na wn). See Isa. XXVII. 1. where the same Words are used, and Leviathan is said to be “the crooked Serpent.” But this Passage being well known, there was no Occasion for the Author of this Book to be so explicit. Ch. XXVIII. 28. The Fear of the Lord, that is Wisdom; and to depart from Evil is Understanding. So Prov. IX. 10. “The Fear of the Lord is “the Beginning of Wisdom, and the Knowledge of the Holy is Understanding." Ch. XXIX. 16. I was a Father to the poor, and the Cause