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Allen's Historical Outlines, the tables in Sheldon's General History, and the outlines in the Teacher's Manual accompanying it are very valuable aids for the teacher in this work. Sometimes. the scholars are expected to look up all the references, again, the references are divided among the scholars. A good plan is to divide the class into sections of three to five, giving each section a topic. This section, or committee, as some of the scholars call it, chooses a leader or chairman; the topic is subdivided among the individuals; each individual makes a report to his committee, who discuss, revise, and correct it, and embody the individual reports in a committee report to the class; the report is then discussed by the class, the teacher finally settling disputed questions, if possible. This work takes considerable time, but it pays.

When topics are divided among the members of the class, each scholar is expected to prepare thoroughly on his own, and get a general knowledge of the topics of the others from his textbook. These topics are assigned from a day to two or three weeks, or even a month before needed; but when assigned, a definite day is fixed for the report, at which time the scholar is required to submit his report, either in writing or orally from notes as a lecture. He is teacher for the time; he is expected to answer the questions of the class, explain his statements, state his authorities, and defend his conclusions. The scholars summarize this report and preserve in their notebooks, the individual investigations of each becoming the property of all.

Each term an essay is written by each member of the class on some subject, chosen by himself, relating to the term's work in History. Ample time is given, and subjects are chosen which require research. These essays are corrected, read in class, and credited on the term's examination in English.

While studying the history of a country, each scholar makes a list of books relating to its history. These are classified, and at the conclusion of the course the scholar has a very good bibliography of history. Considerable attention is paid to biography, especially in Greece and Rome.


The history work of the school culminates in the eleventh grade in the historical study of our Government.

This course begins with an account of early Germanic institu

tions, the transplanting of these to Britain, and the Anglo-Saxon Constitution; the Federal System, the Norman Conquest, and the effect on English Laws; the Petition of Right, Act of Right, Act of Settlement, etc., a brief summary of English Constitutional History to the American Revolution. Then is given an outline of English Law, the Constitution and Government of the Realm, Colonial Law and Policy, Rights of Persons, Law of Property, Wrongs and their Remedies, outlines being furnished and Blackstone used for reference.

The Declaration of Independence is then studied clause by clause; the evidence collected to prove the several indictments of the British Crown, and it is also shown wherein the rights of Englishmen were violated. This requires some knowledge of the colonies, their governments, the historical development of those governments, and usually results in a review of Colonial History.

The Nation is considered as beginning July 4, 1776, and governed successively by the Revolutionary Continental Congress, the Congress under the confederation, and the Federal Government under the Constitution. These governments, their powers, and their acts are successively studied. The Constitution as adopted, a purely Revolutionary measure, is then studied, and the changes in the governments of the individual states caused by the Revolution and the adoption of the Constitution. This is followed by a study of the Constitution in History, or it might be termed the History of the United States during the Constitutional period. The constitutional questions, amendments, the acts of the Federal Government, and contests between Federal and State authority are studied in chronological order. Committee work is done, individual topics are assigned, and essays written as in the ninth grade, such topics as, Tariff Legislation, Banking, New States, The Currency, Reconstruction Acts, Impeachments, The Public Domain, The Supreme Court, Inter-State Commerce Law, Trusts, were assigned.

The class in completion reviews the Constitution. Three recitations per week are given during the Spring term to State, Local and School Government, as a separate exercise.

No textbooks are used, though some of the class had "Johnson's American Politics," and found the work very valuable. The following works can be had for reference: Greene's English People, Hallam's Middle Ages and Court, History of England,

Bancroft's History of the United States, Von Holst's Constitutional History of the United States, Benton's Thirty Years' View, Blaine's Twenty Years in Congress, Greeley's American Conflict, Poore's Reminiscences, several volumes American Statesmen series, The American Encyclopædia, Blackstone's Commentaries, Cooley's Constitutional Law and Limitations, Statutes of State and United States, and Law Glossary.

The grade also studies American Literature, thus tracing the literary development of the nation. Some of the literature studied as Webster's speeches, and Lincoln's Gettysburg oration, add to the work in History.


This course of historical study which has been outlined is a growth; parts were adopted at a time, till after several years of experiment it has taken its present form. Some account of its growth and the development of the methods may be not without interest.

First, History was transferred to the eighth grade with the intention of lowering to the seventh grade, but this was found impossible, so it has remained in the eighth grade. The eleventh grade course was adopted and taught by the above method. The work of the ninth grade was very unsatisfactory, though probably as good as history classes average. It was suggested to try the same method with this grade in History as had been used with the eleventh grade in Civil Government. To this it was objected that the scholars were too young, that it would draw too much of their time from other studies, etc., but it was decided to try it. The great obstacle was, there was no library. A few volumes could be gotten from the township library, but very few. It was finally decided to appeal to individuals owning books. This was done, and a list of three or four hundred books was at the disposal of the class, including four encyclopædias. Only such books as were needed were brought to the schoolhouse, and returned as soon as used. Encyclopædias were left at the houses and consulted there.

After a brief account of the Aryans, the class began Egypt, and studied it twelve weeks, a disproportionate length of time for a high school, but it was necessary first of all that the scholars be taught how to study history. Rawlinson's Egypt, Rollin's

Ancient History, Wilkinson's Manners and Customs, Draper's Intellectual Development of Europe, geographies, atlases, etc., and a classical dictionary were used for reference. The time was well expended, for the class progressed very rapidly afterwards, and is now abundantly able to take care of itself, as far as work is concerned. Not only did it not interfere with their other studies, but they never before did as good work in them. There was a genuine revival in the class, which has continued to the present. Not the least pleasant part of the first term's work was the fine series of essays written by the class. It was purely voluntary and without any suggestion or command from the teacher. They even volunteered to write the essays, and took great interest in their preparation. The essay work became thus accidentally a regular feature of the method.

The course was adopted for the sixth and seventh grade, in the hope that it would aid the eighth grade in its formal course in history. As to the result it cannot be stated as yet, except that it has stimulated considerable reading of history among the scholars of these grades.

[Sir Edwin Arnold sailed from San Francisco for Japan, Oct. 18, 1889. On the night be fore his departure he was entertained by the Howard Club of San Francisco, where he read this sonnet:]


America at this thy Golden Gate,

New-travelled from thy green Atlantic coves,
Parting I make my reverence! It behooves
With backward steps to quit a queen in state.
Land of all lands most fair and free and great-
Of countless Kindred lips, wherefrom I heard
Sweet speech of Shakespeare - Keep it consecrate
For noble uses! Land of Freedom's Bird,
Fearless and proud! So let him soar, that stirred
By generous joy, all men may learn of thee
A larger life; and Europe, undeterred
By ancient wrecks, dare also to be free
Body and Soul-seeing thine Eagle gaze
Undazzled upon Freedom's Sun, full-blaze!





HE land endowments bestowed by Congress upon the schools of the West stimulated several of the old states to form school funds, by dedicating to them public lands and other state property or revenues. Connecticut was the first so to act. Her public schools date from the earliest times. At the very time that the Governor of Virginia thanked God that Virginia had no printing and no public schools, and prayed that she might not have them for one hundred years, the Governor of Connecticut said, "Onefourth of the annual revenue of the colony is laid out in maintaining free schools for the education of our children." Naturally, therefore, the State, in 1795, dedicated the proceeds of her Western lands, sold the next year for $1,200,000, to the use of schools. And in the constitution that took the place of the Charter in 1818, besides confirming the charter of Yale College, she declared that this fund should be perpetual, "the interest to be inviolably appropriated to the support and encouragement of the public or common schools throughout the state, and for the equal benefit of all the people thereof." In 1855, ability to read any section of the Constitution was made a constitutional qualification of an elector. The example of Connecticut was followed by New York. That State initiated a school system in 1795, and a school fund in 1805. Still the Constitution of 1821 did no more than declare:

"The proceeds of all lands belonging to this State, except such parts thereof as may be reserved or appropriated to public use, or ceded to the United States, which shall hereafter be sold, or disposed of, shall remain a perpetual fund, the interest of which shall be inviolably appropriated and applied to the support of common schools."

Nor in 1842 could the friends of popular education, after a hardfought battle, secure more than this provision, which still stands intact:

"The capital of the common school fund, the capital of the literature fund, and the capital of the United States deposit fund, shall be respectively preserved inviolate. The revenues of the said common school fund shall be applied to the support of common schools; the revenues of the said literature

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