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of science. They are subject to a common growth. Properly understood, then, there can be no conflict between them. may or may not agree to it, but it must at least be admitted that in such a reconciliation as this, there is no confusion. It is somewhat more intelligible than Mr. Greenwood's implication that religion and science, according to Mr. Spencer, are two unknown concepts merged into "a more comprehensive unknown unknowable."

I have not answered Mr. Greenwood's criticism so fully as the gravity of his misstatements would perhaps warrant. I have answered it at all only because I believe that he labors under the same misapprehension which would eventually be the fate of his readers, were they not either better informed in the beginning, or else led later to re-examine their judgments by a friendly word of warning. I have been so brief, not because the case does not admit of much fuller and more conclusive statement, but because I am less than half persuaded of the utility of controversial literature. It is apt to leave an unpleasant taste in the mouth. In the present instance I trust that this will not be the case, for I wish to combat only, and that in the most impersonal way, what I conceive to be an honest misapprehension of Mr. Spencer's philosophy, and to give my reply only the same currency as the criticism against which it is directed. I should esteem it highly unfortunate that so unappreciative a criticism as Mr. Greenwood's should create in any, and particularly in teachers, an unfriendly attitude of mind toward Mr. Spencer's writings, for those who are seeking greater fulness of life, and greater precision of thought cannot afford to neglect such pivotal books as First Principles and The Data of Ethics.

THE world's history is a divine poem, of which the history of every nation is a canto, and every man a word. Its strains have been pealing along down the centuries; and though there have been mingled the discords of warring cannon and dying men, yet to the Christian, philosopher, and historian, the humble listener, there has been a divine melody running through the song, which speaks of hope and halcyon days to come. JAMES A. GARFIELD.

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NEED for the Kalamazoo Training School existed long before its establishment. The State Normal was yearly sending out a goodly number of teachers, but the supply was not equal to the demand, and the fact remained that most of the vacancies in our schools were filled with girls fresh from the high school, without any professional training whatever. Whether they possessed tact to govern and aptness to instruct, must be learned after they had been placed in charge of a school. To quote a former superintendent, "The learning process was often a painful one to both teacher and pupils, and sometimes disastrous to both." To remedy this evil, the training school was established in 1875, and has been, since that time, in successful operation.

Its design is to fit young women for teaching. In the earlier days of the school, pupils were allowed to pursue the training school course during their last year in the high school, but the two were found to conflict; the result was not good, and the plan was abandoned. Now only those are received who have finished their course in the high school, or have an equivalent education. They are thus enabled to give all their time for the year to professional studies and practice-work, and the result is a singleness of purpose that it was impossible to secure under the old plan. The number of pupils received is limited practically to about ten, that being a good working force and allowing a small margin for failures. There has been for some time a growing disposition on the part of the school board to sift the class before, instead of after, enrollment. If any applicant is thought to be unpromising, she is not admitted. This reduces the number of graduates, but raises the standard of the school. There is no obligation on the part of the board to employ any of the class, but as a matter of fact the best ones are always employed, and often all the class. During the fourteen years of its existence the school has graduated one hundred and one young ladies. Of that number eighty-eight have been employed in our schools, and twelve have become principals of buildings.

The course of study comprises the principles upon which teaching is based; methods of instruction; the history of education; lectures on school organization, government, etc.; reviews of geography, grammar, and arithmetic; lessons in music by the special teacher; and instruction in the mechanism of graded schools, such as making out reports, giving position of classes, etc. One hour a day, from eleven to eleven forty-five is devoted to this work, the rest to practice work. The textbook used for the first term is Wickersham's "Methods of Instruction." From this they study the principles of teaching. An effort is made to keep constantly before their minds the connection between the principles and the practice of teaching. For example -one gives the principle, "The concrete must precede the abstract." She is then required to tell how this may be carried out in school, - nay, more, how it was carried out in her school this morning. A failure in the illustration sometimes shows a want of understanding of the principle. A young lady in the class said recently, "If I get nothing more from the training-school than these principles and their application, I shall feel that the time has been well spent." Methods of teaching reading, spelling, arithmetic, geography, and language follow these principles. These are given in the form of lectures by the principal, the young ladies taking notes which are preserved for future reference. They are taught first of all, that no cast-iron method can be given for teaching; that they must adapt their method to the class and to the subject taught. They are given the best methods we can find, and are then told, "This may be used until you find something better, but when you discover or invent anything equally good, that will be better for you, because it is your own." Thus their individuality is encouraged rather than repressed, and they are kept from exalting, unduly, "the method." The accusation is sometimes made against teachers trained in a normal school that they have a tendency to become machines or imitators. It would seem that with such teaching the tendency would be just the reverse. In language, for example, we give them many working models from which to choose when they begin teaching. These will suggest others to them- better ones, perhaps and the old ones may be laid aside; but if they have served their purpose as stepping-stones to better things they may well be laid aside and still considered helps. Will such a teacher be more or less of an imitator than one who follows, scrupulously, the book?

During the winter term we have Haillman's "History of Pedagogy." In connection with this they do much biographical reading, making abstracts of the whole. When Froebel is reached, they go in a body to the kindergarten, and through the kindness of the kindergartner are introduced to his gifts, games, and songs, and see the practical workings of the school. In the spring term when they have had enough experience in governing to make them realize their own deficiencies, and to put them in a receptive frame of mind, they have lectures, which are more properly informal talks on school discipline. The principal furnishes the text and the class the illustrations, and it might often very properly be called a class exercise. They feel free to bring in questions of discipline from their own experience and ask, "What would you do in such a case?" and perhaps the instruction is none the less helpful because it is informal and in the concrete. The review in grammar is given by the superintendent and is both pleasant and profitable. In making reports each pupil is required to make out ten, thus filling the sheet for the year.

Since the suburbs of Kalamazoo have been ditched and made into a celery garden, any system of normal training that does not prepare the pupils to wrestle with young celery-growers is defective. Such training is amply provided for in our school of observation and practice. In this department we have four rooms containing the first four grades. The rooms are arranged in pairs, Nos. 1 and 2 on one side of the hall, 3 and 4 on the other. Between the rooms of each pair are large sliding doors so arranged that the rooms can be thrown together for opening and other general exercises. These are presided over by two critic-teachers, each having charge of two rooms. Each critic-teacher plans and is responsible for the work in her own department. At the beginning of the year two pupil-teachers are sent into each room, one for the morning, one for the afternoon. The critic-teacher starts them in their work and then divides her time between the two rooms. They generally have two days for observation before beginning work. If the pupil-teacher is successful in the room, she stays for one month and is then changed to the other half session. This gives a change of work, which is good for her, without too much change in the school. During these two months she has entire charge of the room, of the discipline, and of the recitations, subject always to the critic-teacher. If the pupil

teacher fails in government the critic is at hand to counsel, and if need be, to compel obedience. If she fails in teaching, the critic-teacher shows her her mistake, and, if the fault continues, takes the class and teaches it for her until she is able to do it herself. The critic-teachers are teachers of experience and ability one of them being from the Michigan Normal School, and the other from the Normal School of Oswego, New York.

There are many things besides a knowledge of how to teach and how to govern that make or mar a teacher's usefulness. It is well for those just starting in their career to have some one to call attention to these things. All young teachers do not need thissome do. Accordingly, criticism must be an important feature of training school-work-criticism of language, of pronunciation, of manner, of carriage,—sometimes, alas! of dress and personal habits. If delicately and kindly given this seldom gives offence. Incorrect pronunciation is noted, and the pupil using it is asked to put the word on the board with the proper diacritical marks. These words are kept before them until the pronunciation is impressed upon them by seeing it daily. Marking the words sometimes brings out the fact that diacritical marks are not understood, and the pupil thus sees her own deficiency. Incorrect use of language is sometimes criticised privately, sometimes before the class, the pupil correcting it and giving the reason for doing so. Criticisms of manner, personal habits, or anything reflecting upon the home training of the pupils are always given privately and as delicately as possible.

But, with all the helps we can give in instruction, observation, practice, and criticism, some fail. What then? When convinced that one is unfitted by nature, education, or circumstances to become a useful teacher, we advise her to leave the class and try something else. The cause of education is hindered every day by the help of those unfit to be teachers.

Our land is broad, the waves of illiteracy are rolling high; they are daily augmented by the tide setting in through Castle Garden and the Golden Gate. What, you will ask, can less than a dozen women do each year toward building up a wall that will stem this tide? This the command came to them of old, "Arise and build the wall." And every man "builded over against his own house."

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