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THE USE OF THE CROSS-CUT OR TENON SAW.
Exercise. -"True up" a piece of wood to stated dimensions (or, the piece of wood trued up in the preceding exercise can be used). Gauge it on opposite sides, at, say, a distance of three-eighth inch from a side adjacent to both. At stated distances apart, say one inch, cut lines with knife, guided by trysquare, on the side farthest from the gauge-lines, continuing these cuts on either side down to the gauge-lines.
Saw down these lines with cross-cut saw.
Planing and sawing to lines with cross-cut saw having been learned, the working of some exercises involving previous operations, and in addition, constituting complete objects when finished, has a good, energizing effect upon the boys.
For this purpose, a series of right-lined geometrical figures, having stated dimensions (e. g., a hexagon-sides three inches, and thickness three-eighths, or an octagon enclosed in a circle of eight-inch radius), suit admirably.
The plane, try-square, gauge, knife and cross-cut saw being brought into use. After sawing, the rough edges of the figures can be made perfectly straight and sharp by "shooting." This "shooting" can be done quite easily by the boys, if the wood is thin,
Now, "butt joint" objects (e. g. simple brackets, nail-box, soap-box,) can be made; nailing and screwing, only, needing to be learned in addition to previous operations.
NOTE. At this stage, the introduction of curves will often be found to have a stimulating effect. Many a boy who has been inclined to do the mere planing and sawing somewhat perfunctorily, will instantly gain interest and earnestness when he is set to make, say, a butt-joint bracket wherein he is required to use the "stock-and-bit," or the bow-saw for the production of curves. Also, practice in planing can be still further continued with interest and profit by the introduction of "plain chamfering."
THE USE OF THE CHISEL.
Demonstrations should be given showing the various methods of using the chisel. Then follow such exercises as,
Half-lap joints; Mortise-and-tenon joints; Dovetailing; and Stop Chamfering.
When the above series of exercises has been mastered. the boys should be set to work more complicated exercises, i. e., the making of simple objects in which any of the foregoing practices would be involved. Any incidental operations (as " housing," etc.), necessary for the completion of a piece of work, can be taught to the boys individually as occasion requires.
BY JULIA H. MAY.
UTWARD! Swing outward, I pray you, to-night!
Just for a moment your drapery part,
Lift up one fold to my desolate heart,
One, only one, till I clearly can see
What she is doing when absent from me;
Till I can look on her beautiful smile,
Outward, swing outward, and upward awhile.
Swing outward, until I can trace
All the new thoughts that illumine her face;
Till I can read in the glance of her eye
What she has learned about Heaven. I would try
After just one little glimpse of her state.
Through the deep gloom, not a ray do I see;
She was the light of my life. I am blind
One tiny rift in the curtain. Could we
Look at each other awhile it would be
All I should ask for. Fall to one side
Folds that have hid my Beloved since she died;
She was the song of my life. Could I hear
If I may hear not, oh! then let me see,
See her in silence, smile outward to me.
Helpful or beautiful, every good plan
Unto her ear all my verses I brought;
Worked with her fingers and thought with her thought;
I am a cipher when out of her sight,
Outward, swing outward, dark curtain to night.
She was a Teacher on earth. Did she rise
T is a significant fact that the recent meeting of the State Teachers' Association of Massachusetts on Thanksgiving week, was quite overshadowed by the remarkable gathering of the Conference of Physical Training, held on the same day in Boston. While, probably, an awakening interest in this special topic had something to do with the great success of the latter meeting, an important feature of its attraction was the expectation that there would be found a notable representation of every variety of educational institution in the country. For some reason that nobody seems to understand, the regulation educational convention is apt to consist of such teachers of the public schools as are interested in sitting out a two-days' reading of papers, generally by well-known experts, with next to no 'opportunity for discussion. The college men, the scientific fraternity, the art and physical experts, rarely appear, save as invited guests; and the whole arrangement inclines, when held in an attractive locality, to expand into a huge excursion, or, at best, an enthusiastic mass meeting; or, in a winter city, to a sparse attendance of somewhat weary lookers on. Will not our National Convention take the hint and make one more thorough effort to bring together a true National Educational Convention, representing the full circle of American instruction, to grapple with two or three live topics, with ample opportunity for comparison of views and leisure for genuine intercourse of the jaded thousands that drift through the lobbies of its great auditorium? We appreciate the difficulties of the undertaking, but, surely, the energetic executive faculty that has wrought such wonders, hitherto, in handling these great assemblies, may well be trusted for any new draft of vigor and tact essential to such a desirable achievement.
NE of the best "Boston Notions" is the late movement to raise the American flag over every schoolhouse as an object lesson in patriotism. A symbol awakens, stimulates, and trains that complex sentiment, love of country, far better than the most elaborate instruction. The recent demonstration of Southern people at the funeral of Jefferson Davis, recalls a most significant spectacle, witnessed three years since, in Montgomery, Alabama. The occasion was the first celebration of the new tree-planting, in commemoration of authors and other eminent people, in the state, and the scene was the handsome
new schoolhouse, at the foot of Capital Hill, where Mr. Davis was inaugurated as president of the new Southern Confederacy. From the State House dome floated the American flag. The same glorious emblem of liberty and union streamed from the schoolhouse roof, and fluttered in every window, unchallenged by any reminder that any other standard was ever lifted up in defiance. One school of little girls were dressed in a simple uniform of red, white, and blue. Patriotic songs were sung. The address of the day was made by Dr. Mayo of Massachusetts. The trees were planted in honor of Northern and Southern celebrities, and young America, both white and colored, that day exulted in the love of country. The American flag, raised above every American schoolhouse every school day, by a group of schoolboys or girls, would be the best "course of instruction" for young America in that love of country and consecration to freedom enshrined in law, which is the soul of the Republic.
HE President of the United States, following the example of every predecessor save one, since 1860, has called attention, in forcible and guarded language, to the subject of National Aid to Education. It hardly seems possible that the new speaker of the House of Representatives will imitate the gross partisanship of his predecessor in packing a committee against even the consideration of a question so grave. The question really is: Can the American people afford to leave at least a dozen states of the Union in their present perilous condition of popular illiteracy, without some effort to encourage, strengthen, and assist that educational public which, since the war, has wrought so bravely and with such great success in laying the foundations of the American system of universal education, for the first time, in the South. It will be well if the corresponding educational public outside these states understands that here is one of those strategic points, around which the final battle for the American common school will be fought. At present, the Southern common school is in just that condition most ardently desired by every party that aims at its destruction or subjection to a secondary rank in the forces of society. Outside the towns and favored districts it is so brief, imperfect, and unsatisfactory that the better classes are tempted to withdraw their influence and support, while its large class of secret enemies can assail it without committing themselves against public education. National aid, for ten years, means the rooting of the system in these sixteen states, so firmly, that all hope of its overthrow becomes visionary. So we must be prepared to see every open and secret foe of the common school, at Washington, laboring by every method for the defeat, not only of the Blair bill, but of any effective plan of national aid. The ecclesiastic who believes only in edu