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effects, public schools will continue to do an important work for the children of Catholic parents. Nothing can play more effectually into the hands of ecclesiastical leaders than courses which have a tendency to solidify the Catholic population. Attempts to array Protestants against Catholics, to attribute dark designs and underground methods to the clergy, to accuse the whole church of hostility to American institutions and ideas, are more likely to solidify Catholics in defence of their church than to alienate them from it." With this agrees the opinion of the reports made to the "Advertiser." "The Boston school supervisors and teachers, many of whom were interviewed in the preparation of this article, are of the opinion that the less agitation there is on this subject the better. They say that hundreds of parents and children prefer the common schools, and are only keeping their children in the church's private schools from religious motives. Their pockets would soon get the better of their religious pride if the latter were not kept alive by what they regard as religious persecution." S. C. Bancroft, secretary of the School Board of Peabody, says: "The parochial school question is not agitated in Peabody, and probably will not be for years to come, as there are no signs of any serious difference of opinions. I am of opinion that if it were left to Catholics to decide they would vote down parochial schools. Our population is half Catholic, but a spirit of mutual toleration is carefully cultivated. Neither side tries to get ahead of the other, but both sides try to be just." F. W. Sweet, superintendent of schools in Bridgewater and Walpole, where there are no Catholic schools, thinks that if Protestants stir up no controversies to keep up prejudice, the Catholic schools will not be in existence ten years hence. He says: "I give our Catholic brethren credit for a good degree of common sense, and as they become more enlightened by experience and comparison of results with the public schools, I think they will return of their own preference. Instead of wasting our breath criticising their action, let us use every means to improve the public school, and the parochial school will fall of its own weight." Superintendent Marble, of Worcester, says: "I am glad that no partisan or sectarian use will be made of the information you are collecting. It cannot fail to be useful; for it will show, I think, that the whole people believe in and will support the public schools, and that there is less cause for alarm than some people have imag
None of those reporting intimate that in their opinion parochial schools are desirable, although they afford temporary relief to overcrowded schoolrooms and reduce taxes, but seem to be unanimous in the conviction that all Catholic children should attend the public schools.
NOTES FROM NEW ZEALAND.
BY THE REV. THOMAS FLAVELL, K. C. L.
UR Colonial Parliament has just finished its sittings.
Minister of Education has presented his annual budget to that august body, and its main features are these: The average attendance for 1888 has been 90, 108. The strict, not the working average, is now the basis of the calculations, the country paying £3. 15. o. per head for every child in the public schools. It is satisfactory to see that calculated on this basis the attendance has increased by 4,471, the number in 1887 having been 85,637. There has been a sensible improvement in regularity of attendance. 1887 every pupil on an average attended seventy-seven times out of every hundred times the school was open; in 1888 the average was 79.3. The improvement has been general throughout the colony. One reason for this pleasing change is no doubt the fact that the compulsory clauses are more enforced than they used to be. The act distinctly provides that every child in the colony must attend at least half possible attendances. As already stated, the amount voted depends on the average attendance, so that boards and committees have a direct monetary motive as well as their interest in education to incite them to make the attendance as good as possible. As to the distribution of the pupils according to sex and age, the proportion of 51.8 boys to 48.2 girls still holds good. It persists with the constancy of a law. As regards age, there is a decrease in the proportion of children under ten, an increase in the proportion of children between ten and thirThe statistics of inspection indicate the progress as compared with last year to be 47.15 instead of 44.9 per cent. of the whole number on the rolls at the examinations; 19.5 instead of 20.5 per cent. of those who might have passed, failed to do so. The percentage of passes in all the standards are somewhat higher than in previous years. In another matter there has been progress. The number of schools has grown 1,093 to 1,128. The number of teachers, however, excluding teachers of sewing, has declined from 2,863 to 2,839. Coming to the native or Maori schools, I note that the average attendance for the year has been 2,070. In connection with these schools there has arisen the question as to whether separate schools are necessary and desirable. The Inspector decides in the affirmative, and for the following reasons: (a.) The native children need special instruction in English; this would occupy so much of the master's
time, if it were given, that European children attending the school would inevitably be neglected; if it were not given the Maoris would make very poor progress, and the school would take a very low position among the Board Schools. (b.) The circumstances are of such a nature that the European children already have too great a tendency to adopt Maori habits; if Maori children attend the school, the children. of the two races will be brought into still closer contact, and the school, instead of correcting the tendency, will increase it. (c.) Maori children from a very early age not uncommonly possess an amount and kind of physiological knowledge that Europeans do not obtain until they reach maturity, and perhaps in most cases not even then. (d.) Among those Europeans who are more accustomed to be swayed by feeling than by reason, there are invincible race-prejudices of an undefined character, that will militate against the success of the school, and perhaps prevent it. The native schools are managed direct from the department, but the Parliament has decided to place them under the management of the Education Boards, on the ground that they would be quite as efficiently and more economically administered than under the present plan.
It is a significant fact that the total required for primary school purposes £369,382 - was unanimously granted by the legislature, with the slight exception of a reduction of one pound as a protest against the unlawful way in which the Minister of Education paid £400 for the Wellington School of Design. None of the expected changes have been made, not even the placing of the Inspector under the Central Department, as was confidently anticipated. The fact has been that early in the session the Minister for Education (the Hon. G. Fisher) resigned his position, owing to a misunderstanding with his colleagues in the cabinet. It is well known that Mr. Fisher had drafted a Technical Education bill on the lines of the one introduced into the House of Commons; but this also has been dropped, so that in every respect as regards educational machinery and administration we remain as we
It is intended to celebrate
I come now to a very interesting matter. the fiftieth anniversary of the foundation of the colony of New Zealand, by holding in the city of Dunedin an exhibition of the Arts, Industries, Resources and Manners of New Zealand, Australia, and the other countries and colonies in the Southern Pacific. The principal objects of this exhibition are to practically illustrate the development of the resources of New Zealand during the first half century of her existence, in comparison with the progress made by other colonies, British and foreign; to stimulate industry and promote inter-colonial commerce; to strengthen the natural ties which connect all the coun
tries in the South Pacific Ocean, and to call attention to their position and potentialities. The recent improvement in the commercial condition of New Zealand, and the prospect of prosperity immediately before her, offers special opportunities for the development of industry and the extension of inter-colonial commerce; while many considerations point to the desirability of bringing the importance of the South Sea Islands into notice, and cultivating a closer acquaintance with their peoples.
The government of New Zealand have recognized this exhibition as the official celebration of the jubilee of the colony, and issued invitations to the governments of Australia, and the other colonies and islands in the Southern Pacific to be officially represented thereat. They have further undertaken to assist the exhibition by erecting the main building, which will contain the picture galleries, and themselves exhibiting collections illustrating the fauna, flora, geology, and mineralogy of New Zealand, as well as objects of historical interest. The government will also, with the assistance of the native chiefs, organize a representation of Maori life and customs.
The commissioners invite exhibits of all kinds from all colonies, British and foreign, wheresoever situated, as well as from islands under British rule in the South Pacific. They are also desirous of obtaining works of art, educational, scientific, and machinery exhibits from other countries; but ordinary industrial exhibits from Europe and America can only be admitted under special conditions. Inducements will be offered for the exhibition of processes of manufacture.
With the consent and support of the other chief cities of New Zealand, the exhibition will be held in Dunedin, which is the centre of the railway system of the southern and most populous islands of the colony. A suitable site has been obtained in the heart of the town, close to railway stations. The exhibition will be open to the public in November next, and close about the middle of April, 1890. Special attention is to be given to educational matters, as the following outline dealing with primary instruction will show :
DIVISION A.-Maps showing where Primary Schools are located in the various countries that exhibit.
DIVISION B. Plans, Models and Pictorial Representations of Schools and Accessories.
DIVISION C.- Furniture and Apparatus, including Models and Pictures of Appliances, Sets of Scientific Apparatus, Preparations, Maps, Diagrams, etc., used in Primary Schools.
DIVISION D.-Time-tables, and Methods of Teaching. (This will include Manuals, also Kindergarten, Gymnasties, Singing, and Cooking Classes, to be taught in the exhibition on appointed days.)
DIVISION E. Work done by Pupils Attending Schools, such as Industrial Work, Exercises, Copy-books, Drawing, etc.
DIVISION F.- School Books suitable for Primary Schools; Libraries and Museums for Primary Schools. (The books used in one or more schools in the various countries exhibiting should be shown.)
DIVISION G.-Sets of Standard Examination Questions and Specimen Examination Papers, with marked and valued answers appended, from the various education districts in New Zealand, and also from countries exhibiting.
DIVISION H.-Training Schools for Teachers, Plans, Time-tables, Modes of Study, Teachers' Certificate Examination Syllabus, and Sets of Examination Questions, Furniture, and the various divisions under this class referring to Primary Schools.
DIVISION J.-Industrial and Reformatory Schools, their supervision and management.
DIVISION K.-School Games, Gymnastics and Appliances.
ENGLAND AND WALES.
RELIGIOUS AND MORAL INSTRUCTION IN BOARD SCHOOLS. -The report of the Royal Commission on the Elementary Education Acts, England and Wales, greatly increases our stock of information with respect to ways and means, causes and effects in public systems of education. Among many matters dealt with, none is of deeper interest than that of religious and moral instruction. The facts elicited by the inquiries of the commissioners, and their conclusions and recommendations in view of the same, will shortly be published by the Bureau of Education in circular form.
The commissioners who signed the majority report recognized no real distinction between moral and religious training, and although the fact of such distinction is evidently in the minds of the minority, they fail to give it definite expression. This distinction is really very important, as upon it depends all our notions of the scope and purpose of secular instruction. Judging from the report of the Royal Commission, it will be a long time before English school men will think up to the level of that little pamphlet1 in which Dr. Harris has given precise expression to this distinction, and shown its bearings upon the teaching obligations of church and state.
The denominational bias of the commissioners meets us at every step of their report; nevertheless it is so saturated with laudable sentiment that we can hardly estimate its mischievous tendencies without taking
1 See Register Tract Series, No. 12.