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into account certain facts that were entirely ignored in their investigations. For instance, the report before us gives no hint of the fact that in England and Wales there are 2,478 parishes in School Board districts, as against 9,684 parishes outside School Board districts containing practically only "Church Schools." In these parishes the nonconformist has no choice. In 1886 there were 11,079 head teachers belonging to the wealthy Church of England, who received no more than $250 a year. As one speaker expressed it in a great meeting at Exeter Hall," they are the hewers of wood and drawers of water for the parish priest." Under such circumstances, in country parishes where there is no public sentiment to keep sectarian bigotry in abeyance, the school is likely to become a nursery of intolerance.
The total number of School Boards that had been organized at the date of the commissioner's report, was 2,255, representing about sixteen millions of the population of England and Wales.
Of these Boards, 74 reported no schools. The status of the remainder with respect to religious exercises was as follows: Making no provision for such exercises, 91; using prayers and hymns but not Bible reading, 101; system of Bible reading without note or comment, 394; schemes of undenominational religious instruction, 1,506; denominational instruction under special agreement, 55; denominational instruction in violation of the law, 34.
NEW PRIMARY SCHOOL LAW. - The National Convention of Norway passed an important bill in June last, which by the sanction of the King has become a new law on primary education. It is a triumph for the Liberal party, who carried the bill against strong opposition.
By this law every child is compelled to go to school from its seventh to its fourteenth year, and may demand school instruction till the completion of its fifteenth year.
Every common school is divided into two divisions in the country districts, into three divisions in the towns.
In a country district, the first division comprises children between seven and ten years of age, and the subjects are: Biblical history and dogmatic instruction in the Lutheran Confession, Norwegian, ciphering, writing, and singing.
The second division comprises children from ten to fourteen years of age, and instruction is given in the same subjects as above, as well as in geography, history (including some knowledge of our constitution), natural history (including the outlines of dietetics and hygiene). As far as circumstances permit, instruction is also to be given in Sloyd, gymnastics, drilling and drawing.
In town districts the first division has children from seven to ten years old, and the subjects taught are the same as in the first division of country schools, plus gymnastics and manual work, (sewing, darning, etc., for girls, and Sloyd for the boys,) in case the necessary expenses are voted by the Municipal Council.
The second division is for children between ten and twelve years, the third for children between twelve and fourteen years, and the subjects are the same as in the second division of the country schools. Sloyd, gymnastics, drilling and drawing are here, however, subjects independent of any "circumstances" whatever, and stereometry with a little geometry is quite a new subject of instruction in the town schools. In the two first divisions the school hours are normally twenty-four a week, four hours a day; in the third division the school hours vary between eighteen and twenty-four, according to the regulation of the Municipal Council. The Council has also the power to diminish the school hours to eighteen in first division, if economical and other circumstances make it desirable. Every child has daily school teaching, and the maximum number of pupils is forty in every class. Under abnormal circumstances there may temporarily be fifty pupils in one form.
Great care is to be taken to secure in the schools good and healthy classrooms. Before the plan of a new school building is approved by the local school board and the Municipal Council, the local Board of Health and the Supreme School Board have to give their opinions on the plan, and the Board of Health can, if necessary, condemn a schoolhouse or classroom whose sanitary state it finds unsatisfactory. A physician is to have the sanitary superintendence of the schools, if the salary for a school physician be voted by the Municipal Council.
To the obligatory day schools may be attached the so-called continuation schools, for pupils from fourteen to eighteen years, open from one to six months a year. As there are secondary schools in all the towns, these schools are more especially intended for the country districts, and one school of this kind may serve for several districts. If there are two continuation schools or more in one district, each is to have a biennial curriculum, and one school may be a continuation of the other. Compulsion is not a new feature of the Norwegian school system, having been adopted at the beginning of the century. The new law simply makes more stringent regulations in this respect.
Under the new law the common school preserves its character as a congregational school. Biblical history and dogmatic instruction are subjects from which only Dissenter's children are exempted, and every teacher in a common school must belong to the established Lutheran Church.
The immediate superintendence of the schools which hitherto has belonged to the rectors, is now given to the local school boards. The rector is a member of the Board.
Under the new law, women may be appointed as head mistresses of any common school, but it is left to the municipal councils to determine whether or not the salaries of male and female teachers shall be identical.
Every parent is allowed to give his children private instruction instead. of sending them to the common schools, but the School board has then to ascertain whether the private education is at least equal to that given in the common schools.
The law makes an advance in this respect, that secular subjects and Sloyd, gymnastics and drill are made more prominent than heretofore. On the other hand, a backward step is taken in the provision which places the appointment of teachers in the power of local school boards and municipal councils.
SPEECH OF THE ITALIAN MINISTER OF THE INTERIOR AND OF
The London Journal of Education gives the following extract relating to education, from a recent speech of Signor Crispis:
"True it is that crime is often conceived from ignorance and generated by want. We have endeavored, therefore, to give more decorous surroundings to the school, by renewing for a longer term the subsidies to the communes for the purpose of setting in due order their school buildings. While higher education has been enriched with larger scientific apparatus by the efficacious assistance of my colleague of the education office, we have also during this period (i. e., 1887-1889) added 3,780 elementary and 16 normal schools; 5 technical and nautical institutes, and 61 technical schools have been taken over by the government; 14 licei and 44 gimnasi have been founded. Finally, by giving assistance to the pension fund and to the colleges of Assissi and Anagni (for the education of the children of schoolmasters,) we have supplied the pupils with teachers, who, if not yet rejoicing in present affluence, are at least secure of a less melancholy future for themselves and for their children."
INCREASED PROVISION FOR PUBLIC EDUCATION. council of Paris will shortly inaugurate a new department in its system. of public education. This is termed "Superior Popular Instruction." The provision is intended for artisans, employes, intelligent men and women generally, who have received the groundwork of an education, but desire further instruction. Its purpose is to impart the knowledge which is essential to a proper comprehension of social and political questions, or which extends the bounds of ideas and develops judg
ment. In its complete state it will comprise mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology and sociology. The processes of instruction will be quite different from those employed in schools for the young.
Among the appointments already announced are those of Mons. Poucet for the chair of biology, and Mons. Ménard for that of history. The former is a celebrated professor of the Museum, the latter an author well known to students of history.
A. T. S.
BIBLIOGRAPHY OF CURRENT PERIODICAL LITERATURE UPON EDUCATION.
The following bibliography of current periodical literature includes articles upon education and other subjects calculated to interest teachers. Only articles from periodicals not nominally educational are mentioned. Articles of special importance to teachers will, as a rule, be mentioned in notes.
Agnostic. Why am I an Agnostic? Robert G. Ingersoll. North American Review, December.
Anonymity? Tighe Hopkins. The New Review, November.
Anschauung, Ueber, und ihre psychische Verarbeitung. B. Kerry. Vierteljahrschrift f. Wissenschaftliche Philosophie, Viertes Heft.
Archæological Club in Italy. James A. Harrison. Chautauquan, Dec. Biologie. Les facteurs de l'évolu- . tion. A. Giard. Revue Scientifique, November 23.
Bodily Efficiency, On the Principle | and Methods of Assigning Marks for. Francis Galton. Nature, Oct. 31.
Followed by remarks on experiments made at Eton College, by A. A. Somerville.
Catholic University, The New, and the Existing Colleges. John T. Murphy. Catholic World, December.
Century Dictionary, The. Atlantic, December.
Chemische Probleme der Gegenwart. Victor Meyer. Deutsche Rundschau, November.
A lecture delivered at the meeting of German scientists and physicians at Heidelberg, Sept. 18, 1889. Children, Mental and Physical i Training of. Jessie Oriana Waller. Popular Science Monthly, December. Reprinted from the Nineteenth Cent- |
Chinese Problem, New Phases in the. Willard B. Farwell. Popular Science Monthly, December.
Collins, Wilkie. Algernon C. Swinburne. Fortnightly Review, Nov. Crime, Le, et l'épilepsie. G. Tarde. Revue Philosophique, November.
Criticism as a Trade. A Reply. Alfred J. Church. Nineteenth Century, November.
Deaf and Dumb. Teaching the Deaf and Dumb to Talk. J. G. Shaw. Gentleman's Magazine, November.
December Out of Doors. Bradford Torrey. Atlantic, December.
Delphi: The Locality and its Legends. William Cranston Lawton. Atlantic, December.
Divorce, The Question of. W. E. Gladstone et al. North American Review, December.
Divorce in the United States. Edward J. Phelps. Forum, December. Dogma, The Natural History of. C. C. Everett. Forum, December. Dramatists, Our. George Moore. Fortnightly Review, November.
Duty, The Problem of: A study in the Philosophy of Ethics. Charles F. Dole. Andover Review, Dec.
Education Question, Present Position of the. Westminister Review, Nov. Egyptian Writings, The. Jane Marsh Parker. Catholic World, Dec. Ekenames and Nicknames. Arthur Gage. National Review, November. Electricity, The Possibilities of. Park Benjamin. Forum, December. Emperor, The. Alexander Young. Chautauquan, December.
Based upon Ebers's romance of the above title.
Eton Fifty Years Ago. C. T. Buckland. Macmillan's, November.
Evolution of Man, The Natural. A. Dewar. Westminster Review, Nov.
Famous Sayings, The Evolution of. William Shepard. Lippincott's, De
Farmers' Defensive Movement, The. Wm. A. Peffer. Forum, December. Folk-Lore. Portuguese. Oswald Crawford. Fortnightly Review, Nov. Games at Public Schools. E. Gambier Parry. National Review, Nov.
Genius, The Development of, by Proper Education. Joseph Rodes Buchanan. The Arena, Dec.
Goethe und Heinrich Meyer. Otto Harnack. Preussische Jahrbücher, November.
Governmental Aid to Injustice. George M. Wallace. Popular Science Monthly, December.
Grimm's (Wilhelm) deutsche Heldensage. Reinhold Steig. Deutsche Rundschau, November.
History. The Study of, in the Public Schools. Solomon Schindler. The Arena, December.
Homer's Ilias. Herman Grimm. Deutsche Rundschau, November.
Hugo, Victor. Le poète et le songeur. Renouvier. Critque Philosophique, October.
Human Nature, Traits of. II. J. M. Buckley. Chautauquan, Dec.
Hunt, Holman, and the Pre-Raphaelites. Agnes Maule Machar. Andover Review, December.
Hygiène en 1889. L'. Jules Rochard. Revue des Deux Mondes, Nov. 1. Hypnotisme, La vérité sur l'. I. A. Lelong. Annales d. Philosophie Chrétienne, October.
Ignorance, The Humors of. W. S. Walsh. Chautauquan, December. Immigration and Crime. Wm. M. F. Round. Forum, December. Industrial Peace. Do We Want Industrial Peace? Wm. G. Sumner. Forum, December.
In the author's opinion industrial war is an incident of industrial liberty. Industrial war is a sign of vigor in society." It is impossible to stop it and unwise to try.
Latin and Saxon America. Albert G. Browne. Atlantic, December.
Mansfield College. Prin. Fairbairn. Contemporary Review, November.
Medicine. Is Medicine a Science? George M. Gould. Forum, Dec.
Mémoire, Des maladies de la. Korsakoff. Revue Philosophique, Nov.
Mental Science: Mental Activity in Relation to Pulse and Respiration. Distance and Size. Sensibility to Tone Intervals. Science, Nov. 22.
Mental Science: The Energy and Rapidity of Voluntary Movements. Science, December 6.
Mesmeristen, Moderne. Max Dessoir. Sphinx, November.
Mirabeau d' après un livre récent. A. Mézières. Revue des Deux Mondes, November 1.
Modern Correspondence, A. Fortnightly Review, November.
Money, A Problem in. Robert Griffen. Nineteenth Century, Nov.
Considers the ratio of exchange between the precious metals and other commodities, and argues against bimetallism.
Mouvements voluntaires dans l' anesthésie hystérique, Recherches sur les. A. Binet. Revue Philosophique, November.
Music Hall, The Modern. Clement Scott. Contemporary Review, Nov.
Negro Rule, The Spectre of. J. R. Kendrick. Andover Review, Dec.
Opera, German, and Every-day Life. Walter Damrosch. North American Review, December.
Oratorio and Drama. H. R. Harweis. Harper's. December.
Palaeolithic Man in America, The Descendants of. Charles C. Abbott. Popular Science Monthly, December. Paris Panorama of the Nineteenth Century, The. Alfred Stevens, Henri Gervex. Century, December. Parochial Schools in Massachsetts. Andover Review, December.
An editorial. Contains statistics from an article in the Boston Daily Advertiser of November 12.
Pessimism, The Old, and the New. Chauncey B. Brewster. Andover Review, December.
Philanthropy, The Best Fields for. Andrew Carnegie. North American Review, December.
Physiologie. Les sensations de mouvement et la fonction de l'oreille interne. Yves Delage. Revue Scientifique, November 16.
Pompeii, The Gardens of. Elizabeth Lecky. Macmillan's, November. Protoplasm and its History. George L. Goodale, Science, November 22.
An address delivered by Professor Goodale before the Biological Section of the American Association at Toronto, Aug. 28, 1889.
Psychologie. La vision des mon