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was the number of women taking part in the educational congress in session during the Paris Exposition and the marked influence their words and presence had upon the men taking part in the debates. Several of the educational monographs published by the Congress were by French women. Is it out of place to add that there were many women delegates present from places of higher learning in Austria, Hungary, Belgium, Norway, Russia, Italy, England, and America?

The Parisians were startled a short time ago by the application of a girl in Brussels who had taken her degree in law, for admission to the bar. The court denied the privilege, but a larger court, that of public opinion, was in sympathy with her.

Recently also, Mademoiselle Schultze read a thesis on the occasion of her graduation at the Medical School of Paris, on the practice of medicine by women. A brilliant student, her able thesis.

was listened to by a crowded audience, and she has won the sympathy of the public.

In 1889 there were twenty-five lyceums in France open to women, and nearly a hundred secondary schools of high standard are now opened to them.

In Denmark and Sweden nothing further has been done, except the founding of fine technical schools for women.

In Norway the government has taken the initiative in establishing Normal training schools where women shall have instruction equal to making them teachers of schools that prepare for and lead to the universities. The need of higher grades of schools for women is recognized, government funds are to be used, and the schools are to be under government auspices. One may read between the lines the full story of such a measure.

The Spanish universities are now open to women, and they are availing themselves of the opportunity-in small numbers — especially to study medicine. At the Educational Congress in Paris above alluded to, the most zealous and eloquent advocate of the best educational opportunities for women was a Spaniard.

All the Italian universities, seventeen in number, have been opened to women. Moreover, Italy is training her women to be teachers. That the number of those who are fitting themselves to be good teachers, trained teachers, is increasing may be seen from the fact that at Florence last year there were 172 of them; this year there are 216. Italy seems to be most liberal in her atti

tude to the higher education of women, though a visit to Castle Garden would not be a convincing argument of the same.

Switzerland has long been conscious of her educational obligations to women. In 1887-88, there were 107 women in her fine universities; now there are 197, -ninety-four of them taking the philosophical courses. Switzerland is the refuge of all the aspiring young women of Germany, who go thither to get what their Vaterland has denied them. The Russian government, by a decree of the Czar, forbids its women to carry on the line of study pursued in the Swiss universities.

The brave little white-robed Ramabai has opened her school in India, and Miss Hamlin has gone from this country to assist her. Ramabai has spoken in many of the temples of India where woman has never spoken before. Bombay has sent to Oxford a Parsee lady, Cornelia Sarabji, to read for honors in English Literature. She is already an A. B. of the university of Bombay, and has for some time held the position of English lecturer at the College of Ahmedabad, lecturing to male students in the first three years of the college course. Another Indian lady, Miss Bonnerji, is at Girton, and has lately obtained a first class in the "little go," or previous examination. Ruhmabai, another Indian lady, is in England to enter the Women's Medical College. It may not be amiss to state here that at Bombay a sorosis has lately been formed whose objects are to train women to work in organized bodies; to encourage and strengthen its members to love study; to establish a means of direct communication between the literary women of India, England, and America; and to study the lives and deeds of the women of the past and present, who have aided in elevating woman to her place in the world. Maria Mitchell was the subject of the study of the last meeting.

Japan, five years ago, sent out Miss Kin Kato to study at the Normal school at Salem and at Wellesley College. She returned to her country this year to begin the work of higher education for the women of Japan. Vassar College and our other prominent colleges for women already number Japanese women among their alumnæ.

All the universities of Australia are open to men and women alike under the same conditions. Canada gives equal advantages to men and women in Acadia College, Wolfville, Nova Scotia ; Queen's College, Kingston; Dalhousie College, Halifax; McGill

University, Montreal; New Brunswick University; and in University College, Trinity College and St. Hilda's, Toronto. In Ireland, medical classes for women were opened in Queen's College, Belfast. The fact that the University of Paris and the London University are open to women and that medical degrees are given to women by the Royal University of Ireland, must have influenced the Medical College of Queen's, for they voted unanimously to admit women. England herself has inaugurated nothing additional for women, having done generously already.

For our own country nothing has seemed brighter than the opening of Columbia's Annex, Barnard College. The connection between Columbia and Barnard was officially recognized March, 1889. Barnard College has no endowment. People have pledged. a definite sum yearly for four years, so that its future is secure for that time. It has powerful friends who will see the experiment through, and there is no doubt of its success. A woman's university club room has been opened in Barnard College. There are twenty students at Barnard, fourteen freshmen and six special students in botany. The well-equipped botanical laboratory is in charge of Emily L. Gregory, Ph. D., made Fellow in Biology at the University of Pennsylvania.

Columbian University of Washington, D. C., has admitted women this year to all the classes on the same conditions as men. The Kentucky University this year admitted women for the first time and twenty young women filed into its corridors.

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The Woman's College of Baltimore celebrated its first anniversary recently by opening the Bennett Memorial Hall for physical culture. This is the only one of our new colleges ones that makes physical training obligatory. The department is under the charge of Dr. Alice T. Hall, a graduate of Wellesley, and of medical schools of America and of Europe. She is assisted by a Swedish lady, Miss Wallin, specially trained for the work. The college has the finest equipment of any institution in America for developing the physical strength of women.

Miss Mary Garrett's new college building in Baltimore is about completed. Miss Garrett gives the building, costing $250,000. The school is conducted after the standard of Bryn Mawr College. It is furnished with a large gymnasium.

The Vassar Gymnasium, for which funds have been collecting the past six years, was erected during the summer, and though

not fully equipped as yet, is in working order for partial exercise. Besides Doctor Sargent's apparatus there is a large swimming tank, together with needle baths and all the necessary arrangements for dressing after exercise, a large tennis space for several courts, a bowling alley, and a hall for dramatic entertainments. The total expense, nearly $23,000, was largely met by the graduates. All have hoped that the University of Pennsylvania would be opened to women ere this. The present situation is as follows: The School of Biology has avowedly been open to women since

its organization, and it has been tacitly understood that all postgraduate courses in the University were available to women on the same terms as men. At present a woman is taking a course in post-graduate Greek. To such courses as women are admitted, their admission is on the same terms as for men, and the further pursuit of their line of work is under the same conditions as apply to men. A large piece of property in West Philadelphia has been given for the higher education of women at the university, and a committee of the trustees has been appointed to perfect a plan for the extension of its courses to women and in general to determine in what way the provisions of the gift can be most advantageously carried out. This committee has held a conference with the foremost women educators of Philadelphia, and upon the result of this and of its own deliberations has presented a report to the trustees which is awaiting action.

Brown University is disappointing in not admitting women. Doctor Andrews, president of Brown University, believes in admitting women, but maintains they cannot be accommodated without the erection of a building for the use of women students. Certainly the whole movement has made great progress in educating public sentiment and a favorable issue is hoped for soon.

"The bill before the Legislature to admit white girls to the University of Georgia was defeated by a vote of 17 to 14. The action of the legislators seems to have been largely influenced by one of the opposing senators who had been unfortunate enough to pass his life among women who have never progressed in this instruction beyond the multiplication table or long division. Take a logarithm,' said he. Think of logarithms for a woman! Why, I never saw a woman in my life that would look at a logarithm.' This argument was conclusive. The bill asking for an industrial school for girls, however, has passed the Legislature."

Offsetting this is the declaration that Tulane University, New Orleans, will open next year the Sophie Newcomb College, the woman's department of Tulane, with its courses made equal to those for men. Mrs. Newcomb, who founded Newcomb College as a memorial to her daughter, recently gave an additional sum of $25,000 for its maintenance.

The movement to establish fellowships for women is noteworthy. There can be little scope for original work of college women without fellowships. At this point in the higher education of women in our country, the creation of such fellowships is needed equally with the founding of new colleges and the opening of the great universities encouraging post-graduate work, such as Johns Hopkins and Yale, that there may be time and support of individual work and special research. Two fellowships have been inaugurated by the Association of Collegiate Alumnæ, the European, under the charge of Mrs. Christine Ladd Franklin of Johns Hopkins University; the American, in charge of Miss A. R. Haire of Eau Claire, Wisconsin. There is enough of the European fund, $500 per annum, to send out a girl only every other year, and the American Fellowship, $350 per annum, is likewise in need of further support.

Mrs. Elisha Jones has given to Michigan University $10,000 for the endowment of a classical fellowship as a memorial to her husband, late Professor of Latin in this University. It is open to all who have been graduates two years or less, holding the degree of A. B.

A lady has presented to a lady graduate of Oberlin, '89, $500 for one year of study in Germany.

As far as we can ascertain there has been no addition to colleges or universities for women of a chair of Pedagogy. This is to be lamented. The whole superstructure of education would be raised if the women college graduates went forth to their teaching with a just appreciation of the essential in education, of the history and philosophy of education, and of the adjustment of methods of teaching to the growth of civilization and the needs of modern life. Moreover, there is a whole harvest of educational thought and experiment in Europe comparatively untouched because known by so few and translated by fewer. Every college graduate could assist in making substantial contributions to the educational science of this country either by translating or paraphrasing the European

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