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the body as the suitable habitation of the mind; and I do not see why I should belittle one of my Father's gifts by way of showing Him how much I prize the other. If, in all reverence be it written, He had not intended the mind to grow in, and through the body, it seems incomprehensible to me why He made any bodies at all!

But perhaps, after all, the difference is one of words rather than of things; and such differences will continue to arise from time to time until the children trained in realities rather than in the terms intended to be expressive of them, shall be come into their own.

Meanwhile, Doctor Harris has given us a criterion of Educational Progress which should stand in letters of gold in every school-building in the land:-" The approach towards a system that secures the greatest individual self-activity of the pupil while it builds up in his character perfect obedience to law, divine and human, and a sacred regard for truth."

This statement is broad enough to shelter us all, friends and foes of the so-called Manual Training alike; and accordingly let us accept it as the first step towards "Unity in Diversity."




HE Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and some other states, have adopted a new method of voting, which is designed to prevent bribery and corruption at the polls. Some account of this law, it is believed, will not be without benefit to the teachers of the country. The following brief account of the law has been prepared by a high school teacher of the old Bay State :

This Act was approved by the governor of Massachusetts, May 29, 1888, and goes into effect Nov. 1, 1889. It applies to the state elections, in which are elected all national, state, district, and county officers, and to city elections; or, in other words, to all elections except those of town officers. Ballots for state elections are to be furnished by the secretary of the Commonwealth at the expense of the state, and for city elections by the city clerk at the expense of the city. Each ballot shall contain the names, political designations, and residences, with street and number, of all candidates properly nominated for every office. These candidates may be nominated either by party caucus or by nomination papers signed by the requisite number of legal voters. Such nominations for state officers must be made more than fourteen days before the election, for mayor and aldermen more than ten days, and other city officers more than six days.

Each ballot shall have the names of all the candidates for each office in alphabetical order and as many blank spaces as there are persons to be elected. The ballots shall be folded so as to be of the same width and length as the ballots now in use, and shall have printed upon the back, when folded, the polling place, the date of election, and a facsimile of the signature of the secretary of the Commonwealth, or the city clerk. There shall be two sets of such ballots, each set containing about twice as many ballots as there are persons qualified to vote at such polling place, which sets shall be sent in different ways to the city and town clerks to be received by them one at least forty-eight, and the other at least twenty-four hours before the day of election. These officers shall send one set to each polling place before the time for the opening of the polls and the seals of the package shall be publicly broken and the packages opened by the presiding election officer. The other set is kept by the city clerk to be sent in case of necessity.

Each person desiring to vote gives his name to the ballot clerk, as is done at present, and if his name is found on the check list he is permitted to enter the space enclosed by the guard rail and shall be given one ballot, and his name shall be checked on the list. He shall then at once "without leaving the enclosed space, retire alone to one of the voting shelves and prepare his ballot by marking a cross (X) opposite the name of the candidate of his choice for each office to be filled, or by filling in the name of the candidate in the blank space and marking a cross opposite that. Before leaving the voting shelf he shall fold his ballot without displaying the marks thereon, in the same way it was folded when received by him, and shall keep the same so folded until he has voted. He shall then vote before leaving the enclosed space and shall deposit his ballot in the box with the official endorsement uppermost." The guard rail shall be so constructed that only those inside the rail can approach within six feet of the ballot boxes and of the voting shelves, but so arranged that neither the ballot boxes nor voting shelves shall be hid from the view of those just outside the guard rail. The voting shelves shall be arranged so that the voter may conveniently mark his ballot, and in the marking be screened from the gaze of others. The number of these voting shelves shall not be less than one for every seventy-five voters, and not less than three in every town or precinct thereof, and not less than ten in every voting precinct of a city. If a voter spoils a ballot he may obtain a new one from the clerk by returning the spoiled one, which shall be immediately cancelled and sent with the unused ballots to the city clerk, who shall preserve them. If a voter allows his ballot to be seen with apparent intention of letting it be known how he is about to vote, or any person who shall interfere with a voter, or endeavor to induce a voter before voting to show how he marks or has marked a ballot, shall be punished by a fine.



PARLIAMENTARY BILLS. The present session of parliament has witnessed the introduction of several important educational bills. Among these none excites greater attention than the "Free Education Bill (Scotland)." By this it is proposed to abolish fees altogether in the three lower standards and to clear away the fees of all children in the upper standards who have to go to the parochial boards for the payment of the same.

Sir Lyon Playfair has objected to the bill on the ground that elementary education should be left to localities and state aid given to secondary and superior grades. The progress of the bill has been watched with great interest, and the discussion of the subject has been revived throughout the country. The most important outcome of the agitation is the motion debated in the London School Board. This motion submits, "I. That it is highly desirable to establish in this country a national system of free, unsectarian education. 2. That it be referred to to the Statistical, Law and Parliamentary Committee to prepare a petition to the House of Commons, praying that a bill may be introduced to give effect to the foregoing resolution. 3. That the clerk be instructed to communicate with the various School Boards throughout England, requesting them to support the petition of the School Board

for London."

The friends of progress are rejoicing in the fact that Sir Henry Roscoe's bill for Technical Education passed through the second reading without opposition. The bill embodies the views of the "National Association for the Promotion of Technical Education." The future course of the measure is as yet uncertain, but there is a general feeling that the outlook is promising.

Among other bills of interest are that for providing intermediate and technical education in Wales, and "Industrial Agricultural Education Bill." The former is the result of an agitation which grew out of the report of the Schools Inquiry Commission, published in 1881. This showed that whereas there should be intermediate school accommodation in Wales for 15,700 boys, the actual accommodation in public schools was for less than 3,000, while the attendance was less than 1,600. The state as regards provision for girls was even worse. Νο material improvement has taken place since the date of the report.

UNIVERSITIES.-The project of a teaching university for London has been advanced, at least so far as public agitation is concerned, by the report of the Royal Commission appointed for the purpose. The report is a disappointment to the most enlightened advocates of the contemplated institution.

In the debate on the proposal to increase the grant to the Scottish universities by £13,000, Sir Lyon Playfair made an admirable speech in which he characterized the university "as a school to introduce culture into the professions." "The universities of poor countries must rest," he said, "on the professions." As regards Scotland, he was obliged to admit that these professions, with the exception of theology, were now being taught without culture. Thus the great medical schools were technical schools which gave length but not breadth of education." While welcoming the signs of growing liberality on the part of Parliament toward education, the proposed grant seemed to him meagre when compared with the efforts of other countries. Holland, with a revenue of nine millions, and a population about the same as that of Scotland, appropriates £136,000 to her universities. The French Republic has spent £3,280,000 on the provincial universities, and voted half a million a year for their support. Germany has spent £711,000 to build and equip the university of Strasburg, and endows the same with £46,000 a year.

Doctor Playfair expressed the belief that although the proportion of university students to the population is seven times greater in Scotland than in England, Scotland is decidedly behind England in education."

THE PASTEUR INSTITUTE. A great meeting was held at the "Mansion House," July 1, under the auspices of the Lord Mayor of London, for the purpose of endorsing the work of the Pasteur Institute and of providing a fund for the double purpose of making a donation to the Institute, and of providing for the expenses of British subjects who are unable to pay the cost of a journey to Paris when bitten by rabid animals.


THE FRENCH MINISTER OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION ON MANUAL AND INDUSTRIAL TRAINING. The subject of manual training continues to excite widespread attention. Not less interesting than the question itself is the conflict of opinion with respect to it. Wherever social caste and the paternal theory of government are firmly established the utility of this training for the working class is readily recognized and measures for its maintenance meet with little opposition. Doubtless to this fact and its bearings may be attributed somewhat the reluctance of

a large class of American educators to favor the introduction of the training into our own public schools.

The men who are shaping the educational policy of the French republic occupy a special vantage ground for the impartial discussion of the subject. They have practical experience of the barriers which caste and centralization offer to human progress. They are equally familiar with the dangers arising from industrial inaptitudes. Under the stimulus of close contact with rival nations their perception of real values in the social fabric has become wonderfully clear and their political logic proportionally keen and confident. The spirit in which they approach the whole subject of popular education is well illustrated by the address of Monsieur Falliéres, Minister of Public Instruction, delivered before the Philotechnic Association the 23d of June last.

Referring to the Association itself, Monsieur Falliéres said: "Your founders were strongly impressed with the role which science was called to play in the destiny of humanity. None knew the cost better; but they judged that it was above all other things suited to the imperious necessities of life. It was a new force, an improved tool as it were, which they sought to place in the hands of the workman. To learn for the mere purpose of knowing was not enough for him; to know in order to do better, this was the true end to be attained. They could not forget that the citizens to whom they devoted their efforts were for the most part destined to live by the work of their hands. To give to them or to complete in them those elementary notions that enable a man to take possession of his powers, conscious of his dignity, to initiate men gradually into the secrets of industry, this was the mission, not without grandeur, which the founders of this Association assumed."

"To know how to read, to write, and to cipher, to be familiar with the elements of grammar, geography, and history is well; but what will become of those who leave school when mere children, if no place is found for their practical training, if technical instruction is not provided to fill the space between the school and the work-shop?"

Referring to the efforts made for the development of manual skill in connection with the state schools, Monsieur Falliéres said: "The problem has occupied us for a long time. The minister of public instruction in connection with the minister of commerce and of industry, has worked hard to solve it. Many able men who have received university honors have bent the school programmes to the exigencies of the industrial progress, and today manual training tends to become a successful reality in our schools. In the maternal schools young children are trained to use their hands and under the pleasant guise of play, become familiar with the first notions of industry. In a number of our primary schools, veritable work-shops have been organized, and in dif

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