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the production in hand, to enable the class to catch its real spirit. The pupil must as far as possible put himself in the author's place. Then he is ready for the third step, declamation or recitation, reproduction or imitation. If time admits, two or more productions of the same type may be thus studied; and when from study and comparison the whole is perfectly familiar, it may be taken up as a form of literature, speech, story, poem, essay, biography, comedy, tragedy, novel.
This being an entirely practical matter, a little specific detail is worth any amount of general statement. The primary object of the earlier exercise being to develop a just oral expression, oratorical productions may naturally be used first. Happily our own literature is rich in this department. Some of Webster's speeches, edited for school use, are excellent. Any of the volumes of "American Orations," edited by Alexander Johnston, afford models. Garfield's address, with Blaine's eulogy answers the purpose admirably. The chief point to keep in view is, the speech must be a grand one, one that it is profitable to study critically and devotedly, and it must be studied entire. The shorter speeches, frequently compiled from Shakespeare's plays, are excellent for their spirit, and for awakening an interest in the further study of that immortal genius; but they are not typical orations, they are mere fragments, except Antony's speech. After being read and declaimed they would serve no further purpose. Their use would be purely rhetorical.
Let one of these speeches be studied in the method already indicated, read carefully and critically, till every word, phrase, construction and allusion is thoroughly understood. Then let the teacher supplement the information given about the author in the book used, with such additional facts as will awaken the interest and sympathy of the pupils; and specially let the whole scene at the time of the delivery of the speech studied, be made absolutely clear. The pupils must see things from the orator's point of view. They must not only comprehend his thought but feel his emotion. To this end they must know the occasion, the purpose, the motive, the effect, and all the circumstances of the composition and utterance of the speech. Now it may be effectively declaimed. Let paragraphs be assigned to different pupils for declamation;
and let each listen with book open and pencil in hand as others declaim; and let criticism be free and it will be friendly. Mistakes of all kinds, - pronunciation, accent, cadence, intonation, inflection, as well as quality, pitch and force of voice, and rapidity of utterance will be noticed and corrected. By the time the production has been thus read and declaimed-and it may be used in the composition class to illustrate capitals, punctuation, paragraphing and arrangement of sentences, as well as in the rhetoric class to illustrate figures and qualities of style it will be, or ought to be pretty well fixed in the minds of the class. Now it may be taken up as a form of literature and a careful study be made of it as an oration. What is oratory? What are suitable subjects and occasions? How does oratorical style differ from the ordinary prose style? What are the essentials of a good speech? What is exposition? Explication? Argument? Conviction? Persuasion? What are the kinds of arguments? The best order of their use? How may the feelings of an audience be best reached? Who have been the greatest orators, and what are the greatest orations in all literatures? Let such questions be fully answered, and pupils will have a pretty clear idea of the elements of this class of literature: and besides, they have in mind a model to follow when in the last year of school they are called on to present speeches before their class, or the school; or, when in active life, they have to address their fellow-citizens.
The oration may be followed by the prose narrative and description. Here, again, we do not need to go away from home for our material; yet English story writers may be laid under contribution. Nothing will serve our purpose better than The Sketch Book, Twice Told Tales, Legends of New England, Christmas Stories, and Tales of the Argonauts. The same method of study may be used, with a little variation. Character study may begin. Specially fine descriptive passages, and striking dialogue may be given particular attention; and recitation or declamation may be supplemented with reproduction or imitation. When the class is sufficiently familiar with the story, and has gained what it can give as a basis of rhetorical work, let it be made a study as a kind of literature. Let all the essentials of the story be developed and exemplified; plot, incident, character, involution, evolution, dénouement, surprise, relief, humor, pathos, contrast, mental and moral analyses; and let the common means of effecting these be
A PHASE OF LITERATURE WORK.
made apparent. Let the rules for narration and description be
The step from the prose story to narrative poetry is natural and easy; and again American authors can supply what is excellent in itself, and well adapted to our special purpose. The Tales of A Wayside Inn, Evangeline, Miles Standish, The Vision of Sir Launfal, The Schoolboy, The One Hoss Shay, are as good as anything to be found. But Enoch Arden, and The Idylls of The King may also be used. The same method pursued at first is still to be pursued, — careful reading, interesting facts given about the author, specially those connected with the production read, passages recited by individuals, and in concert, and the poem made perfectly familiar in all its parts and relations, and as a whole. Then the study of it as a distinct class of literature is to be made. The distinction between prose and poetry, in both subject and expression; the matter of rhythm, meter, rhyme, accent, harmony, imagery, all the details of versification; the suggestiveness of poetic style, contrasted with the exhaustiveness of ordinary prose; the adaptation of expression to the thought and sentiment expressed; rhetorical figure and various poetic devices all these may be explained and illustrated; and not only another literary form is added to the mental store of the class, but the pupils have learned how to tell a story.
Further work in both prose and poetic description may now be combined with formal characterization and allegory. Sir Roger De Coverly, The Vision of Mirza, The Deserted Village, and The Vanity of Human Wishes, may be studied as the previous works have been. In addition more contrasts may be made; and these pieces will furnish additional themes for written work. The uniform measure of this poetry may be contrasted with the varied measures of the Tales of A Wayside Inn. The reflective and didactic element may be taken into account. senting Sir Roger, The Village Schoolmaster, The Village The method of prePreacher, and the various characters in The Vanity of Human Wishes may be compared and contrasted with each other, and with
Longfellow's method in the prologue to Tales of A Wayside Inn. The fact that these are the productions of men living in London at the same time, and intimately associated, will give rise to innumerable topics of lively interest, and afford an excellent opportunity to show the connection between passing events or the character of the times, and the literature of the times. Now who does not see that we are steadily forging ahead in rhetorical work, by constant declamation, recitation, reproduction and essay? And we have added several more forms of literature to our increasing stock.
General, biographical and critical essays may now be profitably made the basis of operations. Emerson's Books and Compensation; Macaulay's Clive, Frederick the Great, Addison, and The Athenian Orators; Carlyle's Burns, —are models of their kinds, and will give sufficient variety. After these have been read, recited, reproduced, they may be studied as literary forms. The recent origin of the essay, its rapid growth, its adaptation to many phases and varieties of subjects, its limits, its essential characteristics, its kind, its personal element, may be made topics of special attention; and principles may be deduced for the composition of the essay generally, and for the biographical, descriptive and critical essay in particular. From this point, frequent essays should be required of all students, on the authors under discussion, as well as on the works read.
Poetry has already been discussed, and descriptive and narrative poetry studied. Some forms of lyric poetry will now be appropriate. The kinds are too numerous, and the field too extensive for any exhaustive study. But the Ode, exemplified by The Hymn of the Nativity, Alexander's Feast, The Passions, the Elegy illustrated by The Elegy in a Country Churchyard, The Death of the Duke of Wellington; the Sacred lyric, with Addison's hymns as models; the Patriotic lyric, with some of Burns's, Campbell's and Browning's exquisite little gems for illustrations; the Love lyrics, illustrated by the songs of the cavaliers, and songs in Palgrave's Golden Treasury; and the sonnet as written by Milton and Wordsworth, afford excellent material for both our rhetorical and literary study. The subjective personal element, enthusiasm, sympathy with the needs, desires and energies of the people, in the needs, hopes and passions of the poet; a genuine feeling in harmonious, adequate and imaginative expression; contrasts between the lyric and epic motive, subject and spirit; comparison
of the measures suitable to narrative or descriptive poetry and lyric forms, and many similar topics will be suggested to the wide-awake teacher, and will lead him to suitable means for fixing clearly in the minds of his pupils the essentials of this class of poetry.
The last two years of the high school course, pupils should, at least twice a week, meet for reading and study of Shakespeare. The more purely rhetorical work may now be essentially modified. Instead of declamations, recitations, reproductions, and imitations, so far had in connection with this work, public speeches and essays may be required; and these will be all the more satisfactory from the critical study so long pursued of those forms of composition. Essays may also be required in connection with various other studies, particularly history, science, and the advanced readings in foreign languages. Debates may be assigned for one or two terms, care being taken that the subjects are such as pupils know and think about. Many essays may be written in connection with Shakespeare study: the story of the play, restatement of situations, descriptions of scenes of special interest, characterizations, comparisons between different dramatis persona, comparisons between a character in the play and the same character in history. The chief business of the exercise, however, is the study of this author as the great dramatist, and the development from his plays, so far as possible of the essentials of the regular drama. Action, plot, exposition, involution, evolution, dénouement characterization, grouping, the unities, the probabilities, consistencies of actors and action, of incidents and consequences, compatibility of surroundings, the differences between tragedy and comedy, and innumerable other topics, difficult in the abstract, but easy, interesting, delightful in connection with the Shakespeare reading, will make the term devoted to each play seem very short. A good selection and order for a half dozen plays in as many terms would be The Tempest, As You Like It, Merchant of Venice, Julius Cæsar, Macbeth, Lear, or Hamlet.
Now looking over the four years' work what have we accomplished? We have made our rhetorical work a part of the curriculum, put it on a sound basis; given it over to competent hands; avoided the waste of time, and corrupting of taste through coarse comic "speakers"; given pupils something to say before asking them to say it; cultivated the taste by familiarity with the