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ferent localities throughout France, great centres of technical, commercial, industrial, agricultural, and artistic instruction have been created." Referring to the fruits of this training, which the exposition would present to the admiring gaze of the world, the minister added in a burst of enthusiasm, "But what prodigies shall we be called upon to admire in the future when the supple genius of the French artisan shall have been farther invigorated by technical instruction and his powers multiplied by reason of the higher sources of his inspiration!"

THE REFORM OF SECONDARY PROGRAMMES. The ease with which a well organized system can be represented on paper, accounts for much of the admiration expressed by American educators for French and German secondary schools. Those familiar with the actual operations of these schools are aware that while they present many features worthy of our study and adoption, they are also encumbered with many and grievous evils. The charge of over-pressure in both countries is directed almost exclusively against the institutions of secondary grade. The over-weighted programmes call for an amount of labor which precludes any proper attention to physical development and exhausts the native vigor of the mind. In Germany, physicians, educators, and statesmen have long been protesting against the unnatural strain to which the students are subjected. In France, Jules Simon has been the eloquent advocate of a reform in these respects.

During the last session of the Academic Council of Paris, Monsieur Gréard, well known as the author of some of the most valuable pedagogical works, made a telling speech in favor of a more rational sys tem. He advocated physical training by means of gymnastics, open air sports, and manual work which develops the muscles. He recognized the need of space, equipments, time, and competent teachers for these invaluable exercises. He arraigned the present programmes for their "encyclopedism." "They include," he said, "studies and discussions which ought to be reserved for superior instruction. This is the chimera of an integral system which is condemned in theory, but followed in practice. Nothing is more fatal to the sound and fruitful cultivation. of young minds." Monsieur Gréard expressed the belief that the time has come for a reform. "If," he said, "we have the courage to break through this uniformity, and to renounce this encyclopediac character, it will be possible to organize physical education and moral education upon a serious basis, but not otherwise. This will be to the advantage of the other studies, for the attention of the student not being so widely diffused, his attainments will be more solid and effectual."


A special commission was appointed some time ago in connection

with the Ministry of Public Instruction for the purpose of determining modifications of the Russian educational system. The report of the Commission calls for a reduction in the time allotted to the classics in order that more time may be secured for the Russian language, mathematics, etc. Accordingly Greek is to be dispensed with, except in a few classes, and the time given to Latin considerably abridged.

A. T. S.


The following bibliography of current periodical literature includes articles upon education and other subjects calculated to interest teachers. Only articles from periodicals not nominally educational are mentioned. Articles of special importance to teachers will, as a rule, be mentioned in notes.

Abelard. R. Parsons. American Catholic Quarterly Review, July. Abstraction, Les formes les plus élevées de la. F. Paulhan. Revue Philosophique, June.

Agnosticism and Christianity. Professor Huxley. Nineteenth Century, June.

American Stamina. Is American Stamina declining? William Blaikie. Harper's, July.

A vigorous plea for physical exercise in the public schools.

Americans, The Sense of Honor in. N. S. Shaler. North American Review. August.

Professor Shaler thinks "that a fair survey of our political life serves to indicate that the trust-maintaining power of our people has gained in the first century of our development."

Apostolic College, An. J. R. Slattery. Catholic World, July.

A brief account of a Catholic College soon to be opened in Baltimore.

Attention, Remarques sur le mécanisme de la. L. Marillier. Revue Philosophique, June.

In criticism of Ribot's theory of attention the author maintains that "its mechanism is always one of inhibition."

Ballot Reform, Methods of. George Hoadly. Forum, August.

Beaux-Arts, L'Académie des, depuis la fondation de l' Institut. I. Origines. Henri Delaborde. Revue des Deux

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A very valuable account of the psychological sources of the sense of reality.

Bible and the Public Schools, The. Frank Hugh Foster. Bibliotheca Sacra, July.

Bi-metallist Arguments, Some Criticisms of. H. De B. Gibbins. Westminster Revier, June.

Books, A Market for. Edward Everett Hale. The Forum, July.

Books and How to Use them. Brother Azarias. Catholic World. July and August.

An excellent article by a distinguished scholar.

Books that have Hindered me. Agnes Repplier. Atlantic Monthly, July. British Authors, The First Society of. Walter Besant. Contemporary Review, July.

Buddhism, Primitive: A Study. N. G. Clark. Andover Review, August. Buddhistic Schools, The. Charles de Harlez. Dublin Review, July.

An account of the doctrines of the religious and philosophical schools. Cahiers conservateurs en 1889, Les. Marquis de Castellane. Nouvelle Revue, June 15 and July 1.

Cambridge, The Town and University of. Charles E. Hodson. Catholic World, June.

Catholic University and its Constitutions, The. Catholic World, July. Centenaire de 1789, Le. Anatole Leroy-Beaulieu. Revue des Deux Mondes, June.

Chance or Design. Prof. N. S. Shaler. Andover Review, August.

An interesting argument for design from the standpoint of modern geology.

Christianity. Will Reason exterminate Christianity? David Swing. North American Review, August.

Church's Gymnasium, The. Austen Pember. National Review, July.

Discusses the religious education of children in England in a readable


Civil Liberty, What is Civil Liberty? Prof. William G. Sumner. Popular Saience Monthly, July.

Coeducation at Oberlin. James H. Fairchild. Bibliotheca Sacra, July.

Coltura nella vita odierna, La. Sergi Giuseppe. Rivista di Filosofia Scientifica, May.

Crabbe, George. George Saintsbury. Macmillan's, June.

Crédit agricole coopératif, Le. Constant Bodenheimer. Bibliothèque Universelle, June.

Currency, A Colloquy on. Henry Hucks Gibbs. Contemporary Review. July.

Damien, Father, and Leprosy in India. Edward Clifford. Fortnightly Review, July.

Damien. The Hawaiians and Father Damien. Edward Clifford. Nineteenth Century, June.

Darwin. Anti-Darwinian Fallacies. George J. Romanes. Forum, July.

Defensive Armor of Plants, The. Henry de Varigny. Popular Science Monthly, August.


From the Revue Scientifique. Direct Tax of 1861, The. F. Dunbar. Quarterly Journal of Economics, July.

Discipline in American Colleges. President Bartlett and others. North American Review, July.

Discipline in Higher Education, The Problem of. N. S. Shaler. Atlantic Monthly, July.

The writer gives the results of his long experience with the students of Harvard University.

Discontented, Organizations of the. Richard J. Hinton. Forum, July.

Droit. Réflexions sur l'enseignement et l'étude du droit. CourcelleSeneuil. Nouvelle Revue, June 1. Eight Hours Movement, Some Economic Aspects of the. Westminster Review, July.

Eight Hours Question, The. Harold Cox. Nineteenth Century. July. Elementary Schools, Our. Westminster Review, June.

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May 11.

Enseignement Universitaire en Russiè, L'. A. Tchernoff. Nouvelle Revue, July 1.

European Life. Albert Shaw. Chautauquan, June.

"The European towns are doing more than the American towns to adapt their educational work to the practical condition of the people."

Evolution, Is there a Philosophy of? Josiah Royce. Unitarian Review, July and August.

Exposition, A travers le. I. Les Portes, La Tour. Eugène-Melchior de Vogüé. Revue de Deux Mondes, July.

Female Suffrage, The Appeal against: A Reply. Mrs. Fawcett and Mrs. Ashton Dilke. Nineteenth Century, July.

An answer to the Protest in the June number signed by many ladies. Femme allemande, La. Mme. AnneSt-Cère. Nouvelle Revue, June 1.

Fiction, The Abuse of. Walker Lewin. The Forum, August.

Fisher, Professor, on "Unsectarianism" in the Common Schools. Brother Barbas. American Catholic Quarterly Review, July.

Fisiologia dell' odorato. Ernesto Mancini. Nuova Antologia, July.

French Alliance and the Conway Cabal, The. John Fiske. Atlantic Monthly, August.

French Revolution, An Abortive. Westminster Review, July.

French Revolution, The Great, and its Lessons. Prince Kropotkin. Nineteenth Century, June.

Genesis, Some Critics of. J. . Dawson. Contemporary Review, June. George Sand at an English School. J. G. Alger. National Review, July. German Boy at Leisure, The. George Moritz Wahl. Atlantic Monthly, Aug. Goethe and the French Revolution. E. Dowden. Fortnightly Review, July. Goethe, The Over-Estimation of. Mary E. Nutting. Andover Review, July.

Goethe und Schiller Archiv in Weimar, Das. Bernard Suphan. Deutsche Rundschau, July. W. S. Lilly.

Green, Professor. Dublin Review, July.

Hardy, Thomas. J. M. Barrie. Contemporary Review, July.

Herbart's Disciples, The Psychological Work of. G. F. Stout. Mind, July.

Historical Writing in the United States, since 1861, A public lecture, delivered in the hall of the Johns Hopkins University. J. F. Jameson. Englische Studien, XIII band, 2 heft.

Holland and her Literature in the Seventeenth Century. George Edmundson. Macmillan's, June.

Hugo, Victor. Le poète et le songeur. M. Renouvier, (suite). Critique Philosophique, June.

This study has continued in the above review since January.


H. S. Salt.

Westminster Review, July.

Huxley, A Word with Professor. Lyman Abbott. North American Review, August.

Industrial Education for the Negro: Is it a "Craze"? S. W. Powell. Century, July.

An "

open letter."

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A vigorous paper.

Languages in Modern Education. John S. Blackie. The Forum, June.

Professor Blackie argues for the study of French and German and maintains that, "no person should be considered fit to teach a language who does not think and speak in it." Leisure, The Extinction of. Alfred H. Peters. Forum, August.

Lettres, La Profession d' homne de, chez les anciens. Etienne Bricon. Nouvelle Revue, June 1.

Life, The Art of Prolonging Life. Robson Roose, M. D. Fortnightly Review, June.

Locksley Halls, The two. T. R. Lounsbury. Scribner's, August.

Macbeth Controversy, The. Francis Thompson. Dublin Review, July.

Man, The Threatened Abdication of. Mrs. Lynn Linton. National Review, July.

Prof. C. H. Henderson. Popular Science Monthly, August.

In the writer's opinion the chief aim of manual training should be the development of character.

Marine Laboratory, St. Andrews. Edward Ernest Prince. English Illustrated Magazine, July.

Matter, The Intellectual Element in. Charles Caverno. Bibliotheca Sacra, July.

Memory, Historically and Experimentally Considered. III. Paramnesia. W. H. Burnham. American Journal of Psychology, May.

Reports many cases of illusions and hallucinations of memory.

Mendelssohn, Felix and his Music. London Quarterly Review, July.

Mind and Evolution, The. London Quarterly Review, July.

Mind, The Health of the. Dr. B. W. Richardson. Longman's, June. Contains good pedagogical sugges


Missing Science, A. Edward Atkinson. Lend a Hand, June.

Contains good suggestions on the economy of cooking.

Missionary. What is the Missionary Doing? T. T. Munger. The Forum. June.

Mohammedan University and the Howling Dervishes of Cairo, The. D. Scheley Schaff. Homiletic Review, August.

Monopoly, The Moloch of. William Barry. Forum, June.

Müller, Prof. Max, on Language and Thought. Anthony J. Maas. American Catholic Quarterly Review, July.

Municipal Government in Great Britain. Albert Shaw. Political Science Quarterly, June.

Muscle and Mind. Frances Emily White. Popular Science Monthly, July. Emphasizes the importance of muscular training.

National University, Our. Gen. H. V. Boynton. Chautauquan, July.

In the writer's opinion the city of Washington is our national university. Negro Intellect, The. William Mathews. North American Review, July.

Optimism, Mr. Mallock on. W. D. Le Sueur. Popular Science Monthly, August.

Physiologie.-L' inanition chez l' homme (1). Charles Richet. Revue Scientifique, June 29.

Planet Mars, The. Prof. Charles A.

Manual Training, The Spirit of. Young. Presbyterian Review, July.

Politics, The Ethics of. W. S. Lilly. Forum, June.

Poor Whites of the Southern States, The. A. G. Bradley. Macmillan's, June.

Poverty, Preventable Causes of. Henry D. Chapin. Forum, June.

Presentiments, Visions, and Apparitions. J. M. Buckley. Century, July. Problem of Poverty, The. Edward Atkinson. The Forum, August.

Prohibition and License. John J. Ingalls. The Forum, August.

Protectionist Fallacies, The Vitality of. Westminster Review, June.

"Psychic Research," The Problems of. Joseph Jostrow. Harper's Magazine, June.

An interesting and sensible discussion of some of the phenomena of hypnotism, spiritualism and thoughttransference.

Psychologie, De différents sens chez les animaux. M. Beaunis. Revue Scientifique, June 15.

Psychologie, Le mécanisme des perceptions inconscientes dans l'hypnotisme. J. Fontan. Revue Scientifique, May 11.

Psychologie, Une méthode de pédagogie universelle, d' apres M. Dilthey. Max Dessoù. Revue Scientifique, June 29.

Psychology of the Modern Novel, The. Prof. George T. Ladd. Andover Review, August.

Punishment, The Ethics of. W. S. Lilly. Fortnightly Review, July.

Reality, What is Reality? Part III. The Answer of Life. Francis H. Johnson. Andover Review, July.

Religious Life, The Future Development of. Laon Ramsey. Westminster Review, June.

Religious Movement in Germany, The. Dean Lichtenberger. Harper's, August.

Richelieu, La Jeunesse de. 1. Origines et Education. Gabriel Hanotaux. Revue de Deux Mondes, July. Roman Family. The. E. Strahan Morgan. National Review, June.

Roman History, The Background of. H. W. P. and L. D. Atlantic Monthly, August.

A very interesting account of localities mentioned by Virgil.

Scholar in American Life, The. Henry C. Potter. The Forum, July.

School Question, The: A Plea for Justice. Rev. Morgan M. Sheedy. Catholic World, August.

Science and Miracle. Augustus Jay Du Bois. New Englander, July.

"Scientific Charity." A. G. Warner. Popular Science Monthly, Aug. A sensible and readable discussion. Scott, Sir Walter. Mowbray Morris, Macmillan's, June.

Secondary Education, How to Systematize. Westminster Review, July. Shakspeare and Venice. Quarterly Review, July.

Social Economics. The Outline of an Elective Course of Study. Professor Tucker. Andover Review, July and August.

Social Studies. The Perishing Classes. Unitarian Review, August. Socialism and Selfhelp. London Quarterly Review, July. Socialism under Democracy. Andover Review, August.

An excellent editorial.

South and the School Problem, The. Atticus G. Haygood. Harper's, July. A valuable account of Southern education.

Speaker's Power, The. Henry Loomis Nelson. Atlantic Monthly, July. Student life in Germany. F. M. Warren. Chautauquan, July.

Technical Education Bill, The New. Nature, May 23.

Telegraph Monopoly, The. Richard T. Ely. North American Review, July. Titles. Cheap Academic Titles. Leonard Woolsey Bacon. The Forum, June.

A caustic criticism of the present method of bestowing honarary degrees.


Trades-Unions, The English. ward Cummings. Quarterly Journal of Economics, July.

A valuable study.

University Culture. Shall University Culture be more Widely Diffused? Morrison J. Swift. Overland Monthly,


Wages, A New View of the Theory of. Stuart Wood. Quarterly Journal of Economics, July.

Wastes of Modern Civilization, The. I. Felix L. Oswald. Popular Science Monthly, August.

Woman's Work for Woman. Certain forms of. Helen Campbell. Century, June.

An account of the work of the Young Womens' Christian Association of New York.

Women, Benefit Societies and Trades Unions for. Lady Dilke. Fortnightly Review, June.

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