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this work: From existing endowments, $97,000; from rates, $76,800; and a like sum from the government grant, making altogether about $250,000. To this must be added the earnings of the schools from the Science and Art Department, and whatever may be realized from charities, bequests, donations, etc.

The average income for each of the thirteen counties is estimated at between five and seven thousand dollars.

"THE TEACHERS' GUILD," which is the latest outgrowth of the tendency of English teachers toward united action, held its third annual conference at Cheltenham, April 10th and 11th. The first subject on the programme was that of the proposed bill for the registration of teachers. This measure is intended to improve the profession, and also to protect parents from persons who presume to teach without having proper qualifications. Among other subjects discussed were "The Teaching of English," "The Relation between Elementary and Secondary Schools," and "Written and Oral Work in Schools." The discussions are very fully reported in the May number of the London Journal of Education.

The "National Union of Elementary Teachers" held its twenty-first annual conference in London, April 7th, the place of meeting being the Merchant Tailor's School. Among the subjects discussed was the New Code, which shows the effect of the report of the Royal Commission on Elementary Education.

The conference was an enthusiastic one, and the review of the year showed vigorous work and a sound financial condition. The report of the meeting makes a large supplement to The Schoolmaster of April 12th.

The bill for the organization and registration of teachers engaged in secondary or intermediate education in England and Wales, was presented by Sir Richard Temple, and read a first time in the House of Commons, March 10th.

UNIVERSITY STUDENTS GERMANY vs. FRANCE. In 1888 the German universities enrolled 28,471 students. In order to institute a comparison with France it would be necessary to subtract from this number the students of theology numbering 5,815. The remaining 22,656 is the number of students in law, medicine, and philosophy (i. e., science and letters). France had the same year 17,503 students in the corresponding faculties. This does not include the private faculties, and the special schools of high studies. The population of Germany being forty-five millions and that of France thirty eight millions, the proportion of the number of University students is, it will be seen, the same for the two countries, viz., one for every two thousand.

It is farther interesting to note the relative distribution of students in the different universities in the two countries. Paris absorbed 9,055 of the French students, Toulouse and Bordeaux followed, but at a great distance, the former having 1,231 students and the latter 1,029, the smallest number, viz., 96 were found at Clermont. In Germany, Berlin leads with 5,478 students; Munich has 3,414; Leipsic, 3,288; Rostock stands lowest, having only 430. The inequalities it will be noticed are not so great as among the French faculties; in other words, Germany has more great centres of learning.

The report of the French Minister of public instruction upon superior instruction (1887), gives interesting statistics relative to degrees and diplomas conferred upon women.

Eighty-seven women have received the degree of bachelor of letters, and 113 that of bachelor of science. The licentiate's degree has been conferred as follows: in letters, 2; in science, 16; in law, 1; in pharmacy, I. One woman has received the degree of doctor of letters, and thirty-five that of doctor of medicine. Four have graduated as health officers. Comparatively few of these "doctresses" are French. Russia furnished 12; Germany, 1; England, 7; Roumania, 2; United States, 4; Hindustan, 1; and 8 were natives.


The normal school situated at the capital has a course of four years. The annual appropriation for the school is $15,440. The director receives a salary of $1,900, and the professors each, $1,150. The practice school is maintained at an annual expense of $5,000.


From the official report on education in Lower Burmah during the year 1888-'89, it appears that there is a considerable increase in the number of pupils as well as of schools. The number of the latter was 5,679 against 5,398 the previous year, while the pupils increased from 117,341 to 121,672. The Rangoon College, the only institution affording a University education, increases slowly, while secondary education is admitted to be unsatisfactory. The Chief Commissioner thinks this latter due to the inefficiency of the teaching agency in middle-class schools outside Rangoon, and believes that the money spent on it is to a great extent wasted. Satisfactory results will not be obtained until the general standard of efficiency amongst masters in the English middle-class schools is greatly raised; the process must necessarily be gradual, and a commencement must be made by the establishment of a normal school for second-class teachers.

A. T. S.


The following bibliography of current periodical literature includes articles upon education and other subjects calculated to interest teachers. Only articles from periodicals not nominally educational are mentioned. Articles of special importance to teachers will, as a rule, be mentioned in notes.

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An interesting description of the great orator.

Calling. Has Every One a Natural Calling. Science, April 11.

Canada through English Eyes. Goldwin Smith. Forum, May.

Cats and their Friendships. W. H. Larrabee. Popular Science Monthly, May.

Charity, A School for the Science of. J. G. Brooks. Ethical Record, April.

Chase, Salmon P. Eugene L. Didier. Chautauquan, May.

Chinese Education and Western Science. Kaw Hong Ben. Overland Monthly, May.

Christian Biography, A Dictionary of. Alfred Church. National Review, April.

Cities. Why Cities Are Badly Governed. J. Sloat Fassett. North American Review, May.

Citizen, The Rights of the. II. As a User of the Public Streets. Francis Lynde Stetson. Scribner's, May.

Civil Service Reform, Some Popular Objections to. II. Oliver T. Morton. Atlantic, May.

Classic Waters, In. Rennell Rodd. Macmillan's, April.

College Comity. Sylvester F. Scovel. Presbyterian Review, April.

Common Sense. John Sullivan Dwight. Unitarian Review, May. Consciousness, A Study of. H. C. Wood. Century, May.

An interesting paper.

Consumption, The Suppression of. G. W. Hambleton. Science, April 18 and 25.

Contains valuable suggestions for the development of the lungs.

Coöperative Home Winning - Some Practical Results of Building and Loan Associations. W. A. Linn. Scribner's, May.

Corinne. Eugene Schuyler. ner's, May.


Cortex, The Cerebral, and its Work. Henry Mandsley. Mind, April.

Cotton-Gin, The Story of the. Edward Craig Bates. New England Magazine, May.

Criminels, La responsabilité morale des. Louis Proal. Revue Philosophique, April.

Dreams. Horatio King. New England Magazine, May.

An interesting paper.

Ethics at Cambridge University. John S. Mackenzie. Ethical Record, April.

Ethics in Politics.

William M. Salter. New England Magazine, May. Exiled to the Arctic Zone. Stepniak. New Review, April.

Fees. School Fees and Public Management. J. R. Diggle. Contemporary Review, April.

Fiction, The New Watchwords of. Hall Caine. Contemporary Review, Apr. Finland, The University of. Scottish Review, April.

Based on recent literature. Folios and Footlights. L. F. Austin. New Review, April.

Germany, Present Political Parties in. Thomas Bertrand Bronson. Chautauquan, May.

God in the Government.

Fremantle. Arena, May.

Godin's" Social Palace."

W. H.



rence Grönlund. Arena, May. Greece, Education in. Henry W. Hulbert. Andover Review, May. Of Greece, the author says: her present educational system, we believe she will come out in the end to be a mighty civilizing power in three continents."

Gymnasium of a Great University, The. D.A.Sargent. Cosmopolitan, May. A valuable account of physical exercise at Harvard.

Hatred of England, The. Goldwin Smith. North American Review, May. Hindu Arithmetic. Frederic Pincott. Knowledge, April. Hinduism, The Revival of. J. P. Jones. Andover Review, May.

Humor, The Evolution of. S. H. Butcher. Harper's, May.

Huxley's (Professor) Attacks. Michael Flürscheim. Nineteenth Century, April.

Hygiène. L'éducation physique. Cadet de Gassicourt. Revue Scientif

ique, 19 April.

Ibsen, Henrik: His Early Career as Poet and Playwright. E. P. Evans. Atlantic, May.

Industrial Coöperation. David F. Schloss. Contemporary Review, Apr.

Ingersoll. A Few Words on Colonel Ingersoll. Archdeacon Farrar. North American Review, May.

Italy, The Making of. Part I. Edward A. Freeman. Chautauquan, May.

Japon, Le.-L'éveil d' un peuple oriental a la civilisation européenne. Paul Leroy-Beaulieu. Revue des Deux Mondes, April 1.

Based upon a monograph of the American Economic Association, by Doctor Ono.

Jury Verdicts by Majority Vote. Sigmund Zeisler. Forum, May.

King Victor and King Charles. Henry A. Beers. Chautauquan, May.

Labor. A Study of Skilled Labor Organizations. II. A. S. Hallidie. Overland, May.

Labor Conference, The Berlin. Emile Ollivier. New Review, April.

Labor Movement, The. (1.) A Multitude of Counsellors. H. H. Champion. (2.) The Case for an Eight Hours Day. J. A. Murray Macdonald. Nineteenth Century, April.

Lamb, Charles, and Childhood. Newell Woolsey Wells. Homiletic Review, May.

Letters and Life. A. S. Hardy. Andover Review, May.

Literary Criticism. F. W. Farrar. Forum, May.

Literary Shibboleths. Agnes Repplier. Atlantic, May.


Literature: Then and Now. Lynn Linton. Fortnightly Review, Apr. Living, Problems of:- 1. The Cost of a Shorter Day. John A. Hobson. 2. Our Farmers in Chains. Harry Jones. National Review, April.

Lotze's Moral Idealism. G. Santayana. Mind, April.

Lyrics, English Under the First Charles. Louise Imogen Guiney. Harper's, April.

Marriage: A Criticism. Clementina Black. Fortnightly Review, April.

Mathematische Zahlbegriff, Der, und seine Entwicklungsformen. II. Walter Brix.

Mental Science: A Study of Movements in Young Children. The Sensations of Movement. Science, Apr. 25.

Metaphysique, Un vieil argument en faveur de la. J. J. Gourd. Revue Philosophique, April.

"Midsummer Night's Dream," The. Julia Wedgewood. Contemporary Review, April.

Mississippi Floods, The. A. W. Greely. North American Review, May.

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Phonograph, On the Use of the, in the Study of the Languages of American Indians. J. Walter Fewkes. Science, May 2.

Political and Social Sciences, The Edmund J. James. Study of the. Ethical Record, April. Polytechnic, A South London. Nature, March 27.

Poor, Work among the Country Poor. Macmillan's, April.

Protection in Canada. Richard J. Cartwright. North American Review, May.



Les Phénomènes

moteurs et la volonté. M. L. Marillier. Revue Scientifique, 29 March and 5 April.

Psychologie naturaliste.

Bigot. Revue Bleue, April 5.


Public School Union, The Citizen's.

Donahoe's, May.

Public Schools, The Educational System in. J. E. C. Weldon.

temporary Review, May.

A valuable article.


Questions Answered, Some. Thomas G. Shearman. North American Review, May.

Recognition in Young Children. J. Mark Baldwin. Science, May 2, 1890. in the House. Reforms Needed

Thomas B. Reed. North American

Review, May.

Religion, A Girl's.

Longman's, May.


Rum-sellers, Government by. Dr. Howard Crosby. Forum, May.

Scholz, Dr. Laurentius, von Rosenau, ein Arzt und Botaniker der Renaissance. Ferdinand Cohn. Deutsche Rundschau, April 15.


Science, The Dogmatism of.
Heber Newton. The Arena, May.
Science, The Moral Teachings of.
IV. Arabella B. Buckley. Chautau-
quan, May.

School Programmes.
George W. Besman. Popular Science
Monthly, May.

Servian Kingdom, The.
Shaw. Chautauquan, May.


Silver, The Coinage of. Frederick A. Sawyer. Forum, May.


What Shall We Do with Silver? Roger Q. Mills. North American Review, May.

Smoking, The Effect of, on the Voice. Sir Morell Mackenzie. New Review, April.

Socialism, Soap-Bubbles of. Simon Newcomb. North American Review,


Socialisme d' état, Le, dans l'emIII. Les pensions pire allemand. aux invalides et les rescrits impériaux. Charles Grad. Revue des Deux Mondes, April 1.

Society and the Fad, The. Appleton Morgan. Science, May 9.

Soul. Is Soul a Baseless HypotheBibliotheca sis? James T. Bixby. Sacra, April.

Southern Problems, Safe Solutions of. George W. Cable. Our Day, Apr. Spiders and Spider-Webs, The Henry C. McCook. Strength of. Popular Science Monthly, May. Sumptuary Laws. William A. Hammond. Popular Science Monthly, May. Surgeons, The Reform of the College of. Sir Morell Mackenzie. Fortnightly Review, April.

Sweating System, The. David F. Schloss. Fortnightly Review, April. VI. Oliver Teacups, Over the.

Wendell Holmes. Atlantic, May.

Technical Education in the Code.

James Sully.

Nature, April 3.

An interesting account of George Sands' religious experiences.

Right and Wrong, The Origin of. Westminster Review, April.

Rock Gases.

Arena, May.

N. S. Shaler.

Rotterdam and Dutch Richard Heath.

view, April.



Contemporary Re

Tennyson. Part I.

John Vance


Cheney. Chautauquan, May.
Theistic Agnosticism

Chas. Caverno. Andover Review, May.
Travel. Tarry at Home Travel.
Edward Everett Hale. New England
Magazine, May.

Washington's Interest in Education. Julia K. Ordway. New England Magazine, May.

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