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eight officers, and after an examination of five hours, was condemned to death. Half ap hour later, the sentence was put into execution. So cruel and audaciously criminal an act has fixed a deep stigma on the character of Bonaparte. M. Dupin has published the records of the trial, and shown the illegality of the proceedings of the military commission. This illegality was publicly acknowledged by Gen. Hullin, the president of the court. After the restoration, the bones of the judicially murdered duke were taken up, and interred in the chapel of the castle at Vincennes.
ENGINEER AND ENGINEERING. Engineering, the business of the engineer, is the art of designing and superintending the execution of works of a constructive character, such as roads, railways, bridges, canals, harbors, docks, works for supplying water to towns, drainage and sewerage works, mining machinery, and the working of metals.
Engineering may be divided into several branches: mechanical, electrical, mining, civil and military. The two broadest branches are mechanical and civil engineering, and all of the other branches of engineering may be considered as special departments of one or the other of these two branches. The branches of engineering are constantly becoming more specialized. The military engineer is an officer in the service of government, whose duties are principally to construct fortifications, to make surveys for warlike purposes, to facilitate the passage of an army by the construction of roads and bridges; in short, to execute all engineering works of a military nature.
The civil engineering profession is subdivided into several sections, according to the special nature of the employment of its members. The railway engineer projects and superintends the execution of railways and all the works in connection with them, such as the alteration of roads and streams, the construction of viaducts, bridges, cuttings, and embankments. The hydraulic engineer constructs the works connected with the supply of water to towns, the filtering of water, its collection in reservoirs, and its distribution through a town or district; the irrigation and drainage of tracts of country; the protection of low lands from inundation, and the use of water as a motive-power. The dock and harbor engineer has the management of all works connected with the sea or navigable waters, such as the construction of piers, breakwaters, docks, harbors, and light-houses. The mechanical engineer is principally concerned in the manufacture of machinery, the working of metals, the construction of ships, steamers, cannon, and all the various structures in which the metals bear a prominent part. Then there is the mining engineer, who discovers minerals and manages mines; there are engineers who are specially engaged in the drainage of towns, and electrical engineers who are engaged in the designing and construction of plants for electric lighting, electric railways and electric power transmission.
In all engineering works, the contractor takes a very important part; he executes the works from the designs and under the direction and superintendence of the engineer, and on his good management the success of undertakings largely depends.
The engineering works of antiquity are both numerous and prominent, many of them remaining while all other traces of their constructors have been swept away. The most notable of the works belonging to very remote antiquity are the harbors of the Phenicians, the palaces and sewerage of Nimroud, and the pyramids of Egypt; next in order come the harbors of ancient Greece, the bridge of boats across the Dardanelles, made by Xerxes, to transport his immense army into Europe, and his canal across the isthmus of the peninsula of mount Athos. The buildings of ancient Rome next claim attention-its theaters, temples, baths, and aqueducts, some of which carried water from distances of more than 50 m. into Rome; its roads, bridges, and drainage-works vie in extent and magnificence with the most celebrated works of modern times.
From that period down to the commencement of the 18th c., the most extensive works executed are the canals, embankments, and other hydraulic constructions used by the Dutch for the purposes of inland navigation, and to protect their low lands from the sea; the canals of North Italy, the cathedrals and fortifications of medieval Europe.
Civil engineering, as a distinct profession, may be said to have originated, in England, about the middle of the last century; since that time, the improvements in the steam-engine by James Watt, its subsequent application to the railway system by George Stephenson, and its use in navigation, have given a great impulse to commerce and civilization; which, in their turn, have created the necessity for the numerous and magnificent engineering works of modern times; such as the innumerable railways, roads, and canals that intersect this and foreign countries; the bridges, water-works, docks, harbors, and vessels that facilitate our commerce and increase our comfort and prosperity. Among the most remarkable of these works may be mentioned the tubular bridges of the St. Lawrence and Menai strait, the Niagara railway suspension bridge, and the electric telegraph system.
The education of those who would rise to eminence in the profession, must embrace a fair knowledge of pure mathematics and of the mixed sciences of natural philosophy, such as mechanics, hydrostatics, hydraulics, and optics. They should acquire a knowledge of the principles of projections, and should aim at being good draughtsmen and rapid and accurate arithmeticians.
In conclusion, it may be said that every day opens fresh fields to engineering science and labor ; and that as the first beginnings of the art are lost in the obscurity of remote antiquity, so we see no termination to its usefulness and necessity.
The more important operations involved in engineering are treated of under such heads as AQUEDUCT ; BRIDGE ; CANAL; DYKE; EMBANKMENT; RAILWAYS ; Roads; SUSPENSION BRIDGES ; TUBULAR BRIDGE; WATER-SUPPLY.
ENGINEERS, CORPS OF, organized in the United States in 1802, to consist of 1 col., 1 lieut.-col., 2 majors, 4 captains, 4 first and second lieutenants and cadets, the whole number not to exceed 20, to be stationed at West Point and to constitute a military academy. In 1838 the corps was increased to 47 officers ; and a corps of topographical engineers in addition, was organized. In 1846, sappers, miners, and pontoniers (bridge builders) were added. In 1861, at the beginning of the civil war, three additional companies were provided for, and one of topographical engineers was added. This company was disbanded in 1863, and its officers sent to the corps of engineers. 1866 the battalion of engineers was organized from the companies already authorized, the station being at Willets Point, New York. The officers of the battalion, which comprises 500 enlisted men, are 1 lt.-col., 4 captains, 3 1st lieuts., and 7 20 lieuts. There are 34 sergeants, 34 corporals, 8 musicians, 210 privates 1st class, and 212 privates 2d class. The officers of the corps comprise 1 brig:-gen'l, 6 cols., 12 lieut.-cols., 24 majors, 30 captains, 26 1st lieuts. and 10 20 lieuts. Their duties embrace reconnoitering and surveying for military purposes; the selection of sites and formation of plans and estimates for military defenses; the construction and repair of fortifications and their accessories of every description ; the planning and superintending of defensive or offensive works of troops in the field, the examination of routes of communications for supplies and for military movements, and the construction of military roads and bridges ; also the execution of river and harbor improvements, and such other duties as the President may order. * Until 1866 an engineer officer was always appointed as superintendent of the Military Academy at West Point, but since that year all branches of the service are admitted to their share of supervision. The first appointment of an engineer in the United States Navy was in 1836, a year before any similar appointment was made in the English navy, but the corps was not organized and incorporated in the navy register until 1843. The Secretary of the Navy wrote Captain M. C. Perry, in November, 1837, that the Fulton was allowed, as recommended by the Commissioners of the Navy, and approved by the navy department, 2 1st class engineers at $800 per year each, 2 2d class engineers at $500 per year each, 8 firemen at $25 to $30 per month, and 4 coal-heavers at $15 per month. This was the germ of the engineer corps of the navy, which, by law of August 5, 1882, is to consist of 10 chief engineers, having the relative rank of captain in the navy, 15 with the relative rank of commander, and 45 with the relative rank of lieutenant-commander ; 60 passed-assistant engineers, with the relative rank of lieutenant and lieutenant, junior grade ; and 40 assistant-engineers of the relative rank of ensign. The present regulation for the appointment to the engineer corps requires that the class about entering upon the fourth year's course at the naval academy shall be divided into two portions, based upon the number of vacancies that have occurred the previous fiscal year in the line and marine corps combined and the engineer corps. Upon graduation the cadets are appointed to the grade of assistant engineer in a number corresponding to the total number of vacancies in that grade for the previous fiscal year, but whether vacancies exist or not at least two shall be appointed each year.
On board flagships, the chief engineer of the vessel is usually one of the general staff of the commander-in-chief, and in this position he exercises a general supervision over all the engineers of the fleet or squadron, makes quarterly inspections of machinery, and decides upon all ordinary repairs. Previous to the departure of any of the vessels on detached service he sees that they are provided with all that may be required in the engineer's department. He examines into the coal used by the squadron, reports upon its quality, and sees that it is properly stored at the depots, and that there is always a sufficient amount on hand for the probable use of the various vessels. The chief engineer has charge of the boilers and machinery, coal-bunkers and store-rooms, and keeps an account of the expenditure of coal and all other stores in his department. The assistants in the engineer's department carry into execution all orders received, and have care of the various portions of machinery, the boilers and their dependencies. They stand the watches in the engine-room when the vessel is under way under steam, and are responsible for the working of the machinery. The cadet engineers act as assistants, may be assigned to duty in charge of the engine-room and perform such other duties as may be assigned them by the chief engineer. The pay of a fleet engineer is $4400 per year ; the sea-pay of a chief engineer is $2800 for the first five years after date of commission, $3200 for the second five years, $3500 for the third five years, $3700 for the fourth five years, $4200 after twenty years from the date of commission. The passed-assistants receive $2000 for the first five years, $2200 for the second five years, $2450 for the third five years, and $2700 for the fourth five years. The assistants receive $1700 for the first five years, and $1900 for the second five years. The cadet engineer receives $950 per year.