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opinions on that important question, D. published in 1861 an elaborate work entitled The Papacy and the Temporal Power, which was partly a comparative survey of the condition of the non-Catholic communions, and of the church, and partly a résumé of the history and condition of the papal states; showing that, while the temporal sovereignty was the means providentially established for maintaining the spiritual independence of the papacy, yet it was by no means essential; that the papucy long existed without it, and that even if it were overthrown, Providence would devise another means of attaining the same end. The second part was a criticism of the administration of the papal states, which is understood to have given dissatisfaction to the authorities, as being, although well meant, inopportune, and from this inopportuneness, unfriendly. A similar feeling is said to have been drawn forth by the part taken by Dr. D. in reference to the “ Catholic union,” some of the principles of which were supposed to trench dangerously upon the province of authority in matters of religious inquiry; but his orthodoxy and learning were unquestioned, and his influence, especially among Catholics of his own nationality, was very great until the approach of the time for the celebration of the council of the Vatican. It being understood that the doctrine of the infallibility of the pope would form a subject of discussion, D. look an active part in organizing an opposition. Arti. cles which appeared in the Augsburg Gazette, in Mar., 1869, and which were reprinted more fully under the nom de plume "Janus,” were ascribed to him or to his influence; and during the discussions of the council, he was entirely identified with the party opposed to the Ultramontane view. On the publication of the decree of the council, which defined the infallibility of the pope in all doctrinal teachings on faith and morals addressed ex cathedra to the universal church, D. refused to accept the doctrine. In Oct., and in depreciation of the impending censure of excommunication by the archbishop of Munich, he published an address to the archbishop, in which he claimed to be heard in the synod of German bishops, or before a committee of the cathedral chapter. His declaration on papal infalsibility called forth replies from Dr. Hergenröther and others, and was accepted, on the other hand, by the so-called old Catholic party. D. was elected rector of the university of Munich (Feb. 29, 1871) by a large majority of votes. Persisting in his refusal to submit to the authority of the council, he was excom municated by the archbishop of Munich on the 18th of April, 1871. In 1874, Dr. D. presided over the “old Catholic conference" at Bonn, where he frankly declared that he and his colleagues did not consider themselves bound by the council of Trent. He also introduced a declaration, adopted unanimously, that the eucharistic celebration in the church is not a continuous repetition or renewal of the great propitiatory sacrifice. His literary activity was little diminished. In relation to the prophecy of Orval, and other *French prophecies supposed to bear upon the late war with Germany, he published in 1873 an elaborate essay on Prophecies and the Prophetical Spirit, which has been translated into English by Alfred Plummer. In addition to his accomplishments in book-learning, Dr. D.'s attainments as a linguist, both in ancient and modern languages, were very remarkable. In 1871, D. received the honorary degree of D.C.L. from Oxford university ; and in 1872, that of LL.D. from Edinburgh. 'In 1872, the king of Bavaria conferred on him the order of merit ; and in 1874, the emperor of Germany the order of the red eagle, second class. In 1873 he was appointed president of the royal academy of scienre at Munich. He d. 1890. See OLD CATHOLICS, and Michael's Life (1892).

DOLLOND, JOHN, a distinguished optician, inventor of the achromatic telescope, was descended from a French refugee family, and b. in London, June 10, 1706. His father was an operative silk-weaver, in humble circumstances, and D. was also brought up to that occupation. Engaged at the loom all day, he devoted great part of the night to his favorite studies of mathematics, optics, and astronomy. Not content with these, he turned his attention to the most varied subjects, made himself acquainted with anatomy, and even theology, and went so far in the study of the classical languages as to translate the Greek Testament into Latin. French, German, and Italian also, he knew well. He apprenticed his eldest son, Peter, to an optician; and after the latter had established himself in business on his own account, he was joined by his father in 1752. John D. now devoted himself to the improvement of the dioptric telescope, in which he was encouraged by the most distinguished scientific men of the time. After a series of wellcontrived experiments and researches, carried on for several years, he succeeded in constructing lenses that produced images without any colored fringe. See ACHROMATIC. This was undoubtedly the greatest improvement that the telescope had received since its first invention. The memoir (published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1758) in which he gave an account of his investigations, was rewarded by the council of the royal society with the Copley medal. In 1761, D. was elected a fellow of the royal society; his death took place on the 30th of Nov. of the same year. His two sons continued to carry on the business with great reputation and success.

DOLLY SHOP, the name popularly given in London to a shop where rags and other kinds of old articles are bought, and over the door of which a black doll is usually suspended. It is understood that dolly shops are in many instances a kind of unlicensed pawnbroking concerns. For small articles a few pence are given, on the understanding ihat the seller can buy them back at an advance some days after. In Edinburgh and

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Glasgow, shops of this kind are known as wee pawns, and give some concern to magis. trates and police,

DOLMEN, the name given in France to what British archæologists call a cromlech (q.v.). The dolmen, properly so called, consists of one large unhewn stone resting on two or more unhewn stones placed erect in the earth. But the name is sometimes applied to structures where several blocks are raised upon pillars, so as to form a sort of gallery. One of the most remarkable monuments of this kind is the Pierre Couvert, about a mile and a half from Saumur. It is 64 ft. long, about 15 ft. wide, and about 6 ft. high. It has four stones on each side, four on the top, and one at each end. The stone at the e. end has fallen down; all the others appear to be as they were originally placed. Some of them are of great size, one on the roof measuring 24 ft. in length, and more than 2 ft. in thickness. All are of the sandstone of the neighborhood. The floor is unpaved. Dolmen is believed to be a Celtic word, signifying a stone table. The monuments to which the name is given are supposed to be the sepulchers of the ancient Celts or Gauls.

DOLOMIEU, DÉODAT-G01-SYLVAIN-TANCRÈDE GRATET DE, 1750-1801 ; a French geologist and mineralogist. He was one of the knights of Malta when a boy, and fought a duel with and killed a brother knight, for which he was condemned to death, but was saved in consequence of his youth. He then turned his attention to science, and visited Spain, Sicily, and the Pyrenees. He minutely described the earthquake in Calabria in 1783, and in later years studied the Alps, where he discovered the mineral "Dolomite,” which is named after him. He became professor in the school of mines and a member of the institute from its formation. In 1798, he was on the scientific staff of Bonaparte's expedition to Egypt. Here he lost his health, and on the way home was left at Messina, where he was an object of political hatred because he had revealed to the grand master of Malta the designs of the Neapolitans against that island. He was confined in a wretched dungeon, clothed in rags, and given only a bed of straw. There he was kept 21 months. Denied writing materials, he made a pen from a piece of wood, and with the smoke of his lamp for ink, wrote on the margins of his Bible—the only book he possessed-his Traité de Philosophie Minéralogique, and Memoire sur l'Espèce Minerale. At the conclusion of the treaty between France and Naples, he was released, and took the chair of mineralogy in Paris, made vacant by the death of Daubenton.

DOʻLOMITE, BITTER SPAR, or MAGNESIAN LIMESTONE, a mineral consisting of carbonate of lime and carbonate of magnesia in somewhat variable proportions, sometimes nearly equal, the carbonate of lime often greatly preponderating; and usually containing also å little—sometimes nearly 20 per cent of carbonate of iron. It is softer than limestone; usually white; sometimes gray, yellow, or brown; and occurs compact, cellular, or porous, granular, foliated, and crystallized. Its crystals are usually rhomboidal, and its cleavage is rhomboidal. It is readily distinguished from limestone by its feeble effervescence in acids. It occasionally occurs in veins, accompanied with quartz, calcareous spar, etc., but also as a rock, and forms mountain masses. It is often used as a building stone; the new houses of parliament are built of it. It is also burned and made into mortar, but the lime obtained from it remains much longer caustic than lime from common limestone; and if spread on land in the same quantity, impairs rather than increases the fertility of the soil. -Brown spar (q.v.) is a variety of dolomite.

DOLORES, a s. western co. of Col., formed in 1881 ; 1000 sq.m. ; pop. '90, 1498. It is watered by the Dolores river and contains several lofty mountains. Co. seat, Rico.

DOLPH, JOSEPH NORTON, b. N. Y.; was admitted to the bar, 1861; practiced law in Schuyler co., N. Y., 1861–62; was orderly sergeant in the “ Oregon escort," 1862; settled in Portland, Oregon, 1862; became city attorney, and dist. attorney, 1864; state senator, 1866, '68 72, 74; and was elected U. S. senator, 1882 and 1888. He d. in 1897.

DOLPHIN, Delphinus, a genus of cetacea, the type of a family, delphinido, which is characterized by a moderate size of head-differing in this from the catodontida or physeterida (see CACHOLOT)—and usually by having numerous simple and conical or nearly conical teeth in both jaws, although some of the species lose those of the upper jaw at an early age. The blow-hole is single. The family delphinidæ includes, along with the dolphins, porpoises, grampus, etc., many animals, which on account of their larger size are very commonly called whales, as the beluga or white whale, the caaing whale, the bottlehead, etc. It contains also a few species, which inhabit, not the ocean, but tropical and sub-tropical rivers, as the soosoo of the Ganges and the inia of the Amazon. The true dolphins have the snout prolonged into a rather slender heak, which is not only abruptly separated from the convex forehead, but even by a marked furrow. Both jaws are furnished with numerous equal teeth. The species are numerous, most of them recently discovered, and none of them apparently having the very wide geographical range formerly ascribed to the common D. (D. delphis), with which they were confounded. They are very voracious animals, and are said to prey not only on fishes, medusæ, cephalopods, etc., but even on the wounded and feeble of their own species. They live, however, in herds, which often delight the voyager in the ocean solitude by the gambols which they perform around his ship. They may be discerned at a great distance; as they are con

Dome.

tinually leaping from the surface of the sea, an action which, as it seems to have no obvious object, is probably the mere exuberance of animal mirth. When a shoal is seen thus frolicking at the distance of a mile or two, in a few moments, having caught sight of the ship, down they come trooping with the velocity of the wind. When arrived, they display their agility in a thousand graceful motions, now leaping with curved bodies many feet into the air, then darting through a wave with incredible velocity, leaving a slender wake of whitening foam under the water; now the thin back-fin only is exposed, cutting the surface like a knife; then the broad and muscular tail is elevated as the animal plunges perpendicularly down into the depth, or dives beneath the keel to explore the opposite side.

The common D. is found in the Mediterranean and in the northern Atlantic ocean. It is usually not more than 6 or 8 ft. long, but individuals have been seen of 10 feet. The body tapers towards the tail. The tail is crescent-shaped, and about a foot in breadth. The beak is about 6 in. long. The blow-hole is crescent-shaped, with the horns directed backwards. The color is blackish on the back, grayish on the sides, and a satiny glistening white beneath. The female D. brings forth a single young one at a time, which she suckles and nurses with great care. Although an inhabitant of the ocean, the D. emits a peculiar murmuring or suppressed lowing cry. The flesh of the D. was formerly considered a delicacy, and sailors still regard the capture of one as a happy event.

From the form of its beak, the D. receives from the French the names of bec d'ois (goose-beak) and oie de mer (goose of the sea). It was very differently regarded and designated by the ancient Greeks: it was their hieros ichthys (sacred fish), was invested with many fabulous attributes, and was the subject of many mythological legends. It was supposed to be peculiarly friendly to men. It was sacred to. Apollo, who was worshiped at Delphi with dolphins for his symbols. The figure of the D. appears on many ancient coins and medals: it is said to have been borne on the shield of Ulysses; it early appeared on the shield of some of the princes of France, and gave its name to one of the fairest of the French provinces, from which the heir-apparent of the French throne came to be styled the dauphin. It is not easy to account for the high regard in which the D. was anciently held; nor is it altogether easy to explain the very general transference of its name in modern times to the coryphene, a very different creature, remarkable for those changes of color in its dying moments which poets have delighted to celebrate.

Of the other species of D. one only occurs, and that but rarely, in the British seas, the bottle-nosed D. (D. tursio), which is said sometimes to attain a length of 24 feet. It appears to belong to the northern parts of the world.

Dolphins not unfrequently enter the mouths of rivers. A D. of the Arctic ocean (D. leucas) ascends into the fresh water of the Obi, to prey upon the ascending fishes of various kinds. See illus., WHALE, ETC., vol. XV.

DOLPHIN, BLACK, Aphis fabæ, a species of aphis (q.v.), or plant-louse, which infests the bean, and often does considerable injury to crops, sucking the juices of the plants and preventing the development of flower-buds. It is of a dull, black, or dark-green color, the young spotted with silvery white. The first that appear are all wingless, but by and by winged individuals are produced, and the pest spreads with great rapidity. It is in the succulent tops of the plants that the aphides first appear, and a cominon practice of gardeners is to remove the tops in which they are observed.

DOM, or Don (from Lat. dominus, lord). This title was originally assumed by the popes, from whom it descended, in France at least, to bishops and other dignitaries, and finally to monks. In Portugal, the title dom is confined to the sovereign and his family. The Spanish don was originally confined to the nobility, but is now bestowed by courtesy as indiscriminately as the English Mr. or gentleman. The feminine doña is, in like manner, given to ladies.

DOMAIN. See DEMESNE.

DOMAT, OR DAUMAT, JEAN, 1625–96 ; a French writer, known chiefly from his elaborate digest entitled Lois Civiles dans leur Ordre Naturel Suivies du Droit Publique, for which Louis XIV. settled upon him a pension of 2,000 livres. The work was published in English in 1722, and has passed through several editions.

DOM-BOC, or Doom-BOOK (book of dooms or sentences, liber judicialis), the code of laws compiled by king Alfred, chiefly from the west-Saxon collection of his own ances tor Ina, but comprising also many portions of the Kentish collection of Ethelbert, with the supplements of his successors, and of the Mercian laws of Offa. “Ina's collection," says Dr. Pauli, “was the only one received entire into the Codex, which was chiefly applicable to the condition of the west Saxons. A few articles were admitted here and there from the Kentish and Mercian laws, but research into this matter is not possible, as Offa's book is lost.” Alfred made few if any original laws, but contented himself with restoring, renovating, and improving those which he found already in exist ence. The west-Saxon dialect had become a written language earlier than any of the Teutonic dialects of the continent; and as the power of the clergy in Saxon England

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DOMES.—1. Cross-section of Capitol dome, Washington. 2. Cross-section of dome of

Paris. 5. Small dome of St. Peter's, Rome. 6. St. Paul's, London. 7. Cross-se
Dschamma mosque at Delhi. 10. Domes from the church of St. Taxiarchis, Ati

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