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collectively called cats or the cat tribe. They are, generally speaking, the most carnivorous of all the carnivora, holding the same relative place among quadrupeds that the falconidæ do among birds. Their organization is admirably suitable to their habits. They have a very lithe muscular frame; the body is rather long, and remarkably flexi. ble; the limbs generally short. Few of the species possess much fleetness, but most of them excel in climbing and in leaping. When moving rapidly over the surface of the ground, they generally advance by a series of zigzag bounds, rather than by direct running. They are mostly inhabitants of forests, and many even of the larger species live much among the branches of trees, although some of the largest do not leave the ground. They all advance stealthily on their prey; which all of them kill for themselves, and devour in a perfectly fresli state, and generally whilst still warm and quivering. When they have approached within a sufficient distance, they complete the seizure by a spring, many of them uttering a roar or yell as they do so, and thus rendering their victory more secure by the consternation which paralyzes the object of their attack. Their movements are extremely noiseless, owing to the soft velvety pads with which their toes are provided. Their claws are strong, much curved, very sharp, and retractile; being with drawn by special muscles and ligaments into sheaths when not in use, and their points even turned upwards, so that they are not blunted by unnecessary friction, and do not interfere with the movements of the aniral by accidentally hooking objects which are in the way. The last bone (phalanx) and joint of the toe exhibit peculiarities requisite for the extension and retraction of the claws. The fore-feet have five toes, the hind. feet four. The head of the F. is characterized by great breadth of skull, whilst the muzzle is short, and sometimes even rounded; the jaws are moved by very powerful muscles, and the articulation of the lower jaw is such that it has no rotatory motion; the teeth also being so shaped, and those of the two jaws so fitting to each other, that they cut like scissors--the lower teeth shutting

within the upper and are not at all adapted to the trituration of food. There are six small incisors in each jaw, followed on each side by one very large canine tooth, adapted for prehension; and this by two premolars, or false molars, which, particularly in the lower jaw, are compressed and sharp-edged, their edges rising to a central summit, with inferior lateral cusps, so that flesh between them is subjected to a cutting action in various directions. Finally, there is on each side of each jaw one true molar, and in the upper jaw of many species, a second true molar. The crowns of all the teeth are covered with enamel. The tongue is rough, with horny papillæ directed backwards, by which it is fitted for cleaning the bones of the prey. The stomach is simple, the intestines short, and digestion rapid. The senses of sight and hearing are extremely acute; the eyes are adapted to seeing both by day and by night; the sense of smelling is also very acute, although apparently not equal to that of dogs; the sense of taste is supposed to be less acute; the bulbs from which the long whiskers arise appear to possess the sense of touch in great perfection, and the whiskers thus become useful in ihe progress of the animal through entangled thickets.

The F. agree so much in form and structure, that many naturalists still refuse to divide the Linnæan genus felis. None of the F. are gregarious. Almost all of them, when taken young, seem capable of domestication, but in general they are little to be trusted. The species are numerous. They are distributed over Europe, Asia, Africa, America, and the islands adjacent to these continents; but none are found in Australia, where their place is supplied by the carnivorous marsupial quadrupeds. The largest species are chiefly found in warm climates. No species is known to be common to the old and new worlds, although some are very nearly allied.

Vast numbers of the larger F. were brought from Africa and the east for those savage sports and shows in which the ancient Romans delighted. Five hundred lions were slain in five days at the opening of Pompey's theater, and five hundred panthers have been let loose at once in a similar Roman arena. The wealth of Indian princes has also been often spent in fights of such beasts.

The principal F. are noticed in separate articles, as Lion, TIGER, JAGUAR, PUMA, LEOPARD, PANTHER, CAT, TIGER-CAT, LYNX, CHEETAH, OUNCE, CARACAL, SERVAL, OCELOT, etc.

FE'LIX (POPE) I.-IV.-FELIX I., reckoned the 26th in the succession of popes, succeeded Dionysius in the see of Rome probably in the year 269. His pontificate is chiefly interesting as an early example of the relations of the Christian church to the Roman empire, and of the recognition by the state of the civil rights of Christians. In the pontificate of F.'s predecessor, Dionysius, Paul of Samosata, bishop of Antioch, had been deposed by a council held in that city. Paul having resisted the sentence, the matter was laid before F., Dionysius being now dead; and, as Paul held possession of the church and church buildings, the bishops were obliged to claim the interference of the emperor Aurelian, who was passing through Antioch on his return from Palmyra. Aurelian returned a decision which is often appealed to in modern controversy, to the effect that the buildings shou belong to the person “ to whom they should be adjudged by the bishops of Italy and Rome.” °F. afterwards suffered martyrdom in the persecution of the same emperor, Aurelian, probably in 274.-FELIX II. occupied the Roman

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