Page images


and assumes a gray, brown, purple, violet, and at It is the ergot of rye which is always employeá; length a black colour, as the viseid exudation dries also called SPURRED RYE, or Secale cornutum. It and hardens. The structure differs very much from has been employed also as a sedative of the circulathat of the properly developerl seed; the qualities i tion, to check various kinds of hæmorrhage. Ergot are not less different, almost one-half of the whole is administered in various forms-powder, decoction, substance consists of fungin; and the cells contain, extract, tincture, oil of ergot, &c.--In large or freinstcad of starch, globules of a peculiar fixed oil-quent doses, ergot is a poison, sometimes producing OIL OF ERGOT, to which the remarkable qualities of convulsions, followed by death ; sometimes gan. ergot are supposed to be chiefly or entirely due grene of the extremities, resulting in mutilation Oil of ergot forms about 35 per cent. of the ergot of or in death.

rye. Ergot appears Ergot of rye consists of 35 per cent of a peculiar
to have been first fixed oil, 14 of ergotin, 46 of fungin, the remainder
observed in rye, in being gum, fat, albumen, salts, &c. Ergot burns
which it becomes very with a yellow-white flame, and treated with water,
conspicuous from the yields a reddish coloured liquid with acid properties.
large size it attains, In considerable quantities, it is a poison to the
sometimes an inch or lower animals as well as to man.
even an inch and a
half in length. It is,

E'RGOTISM, the constitutional effect of Ergot however, not uncom.

of Rye (q. v.). See also RAPIIANIA. mon in wheat and E'RIC is the Scandinavian form of the name barley, although in Henricus, Enrico, and Henry of southern nations, them it is not 80 Many kings of the name reigned separately in conspicuous, from its Denmark and Sweden, and some ruled over the general resemblance whole of Scandinavia after the union of Calmar. to the ordinary ripened The memory of the two earliest rulers of the name grain. Rye-grass is in Denmark merits our notice from their associa. often affected with tion with the introduction of Christianity. Eric L., ergot, as are many who died in 860, protected the Christians in the other grasses ; and it latter part of his reign, and, under the direction of is of frequent occur- the missionary Ansgar or Anscharius, founded the rence in maize, in cathedral of Ribe, the first Christian church in the which also it attains land. In his time, the Northmen began those incur.

its greatest size. Ergot sions into more southern countries, which wero Ergot of Rye. has been supposed to destined to exercise so permanent an influence on

be merely a disease European history, Eric II. followed in the steps occasioned by wet seasons or other climatic causes of his father, and permitted Ansgar to prosecute But it appears now to be fully ascertained, that the labour of converting and civilising the people, it is a discase occasioned by the presence of which won for him the title of the Tutelar Saint of the mycelium of a fungus; the spores of which the North. To Eric II. is ascribed the reorganisation may perhaps be carried to the Hower through of those guilds which finally merged in the munici. the juices of the plant, for there is reason to pal corporations of the middle ages, but which were, think that ergot in a field of grain may be pro- at first, a mere modification of the heathen brother duced by infected seed. Mr Quekett, in 1838, hoods of the Scandinavian heroic ages, and consti. described a fungus, a kind of MOULD (9. V.), which tuted associations, whose members were a privileged he found in ergot, and to which he gave the name class, separated by distinct laws, rights, and duties of Ergotaetia abortifaciens. Link and Berkeley from the rest of the people. Denmark s'iffered in afterwards referred it to the genus Oidium; and the 12th c. in an equal degree from the t vo Erica they, as well as others, believed it to be the true who ruled over her, for while Eric, surnamed Emun, ergut fungus. The spores of this ergot mould, how. exhausted the strength of the land by the indomitever, vegetate readily, under proper conditions of able pertinacity with which he endeavoured, by warmth and moisture, in situations very different force of arms, to compel the Vandals and other from that in which ergot is produced; and its piratical neighbours to accept the Christianity which presence is perhaps a consequence rather than the he thrust upon them, Erío the Lamb' crippled cause of ergot. The true ergot fungus seems to the powers and resources of the crown by his pusil. have been discovered by Tulasne, who published a lanimous subserviency to the clergy. The three description of it in 1853. That of the ergot of rye Erics (Eric VI., VII., and VIII.) who occupied the is called Cordiceps (or Claviceps) purpurea; its throne, with only the intermission of a few yean, mycelium alone exists in ergot, but if the ergoted from 1241 to 1319, are associated with one of the grains are sown, the fungus develops itself in its most disastrous periods of Danish history. Long perfect form, growing in little tufts from the surface minorities, the suicidal practice of dismembering the of the ergot, with stem about half an inch long, crown-lands in favour of younger branches of the and subglobular head. Allied species appear to royal house, and futile attempts to restrain the produce the ergot of other grasses.

ever-increasing encroachments of the church, com. Eryot is inflammable; the fixed oil which it con- bined to bring the country to the brink of destruction. tuns, indeed, makes it burn readily if brought into Eric VI. (Plogpenning) and Eric VIL (Glipping) contact with the flame of a candle. It is a valuable were both assassinated, the former at the instigation medicine, exercising a specific action on the womb, of a brother, and the latter in revenge for a private particularly during labour, and by the greater injury. Eric VIII., the last of the name before the Frequency and force of the contractions which it union of Calmar, died childless, and was succeeded, causes when cautiously administered, often most in 1319, by his ambitious brother Christopher, wra beneficially hastening delivery.. Its employment saw himself compelled to repay his partisans at the for this purpose is said to have originated-in conse- expense of almost all the prerogatives and appanages qusnce, probably, of an accidental discovery-with a which still belonged to the crown. provincial female practitioner in France. "Its intro In Sweden, the first of the name who merits our duction into British practice dates only from 1824. notice is King Eric, surnamed the Saint, who ww


slain in battle in 1161, after a short reign, which his evil passions involved them, threw off their was signalised, in that age of anarchy, by the allegiance in 1568, and solemnly elected his brother foundation of many churches and monasteries, and John to the throne. For nine years, the unhappy by the promulgation of an excellent code of laws, Eric suffered every indignity at the hands of the known as St Eric's Lag. This law contained keepers appointed by his brother to guard him, and provisions by which a higher status in society in 1577, he was compelled to terminate his miserabl: was secured to women, by granting them a fixed existence by swallowing poison, in obedience to his proportion of the heritage of their male relatives, brother's orders. Singular to say, this half madman and certain definite privileges within their house was a person of cultivated understanding, and he hold. St Eric waged frequent war with the solaced his captivity with music and the compositiou Fiups, and compelled them to adopt the outward of psalms, and in keeping a voluminous jourual. forms of Christianity. The two namesakes and

ERI'CEÆ, or ERICA'CEÆ, a natural order of descendants of St Eric, who ruled in Sweden during the 13th c., and Eric XII., who reigned from exogenous plants, consisting chiefly of small shrulra,

The leaves aro 1350 to 1359, have little claim to our notice, for opposite or in whorls, entire, destitute of stipules, internal disturbances and wars with their neigh- often small, generally evergreen and rigid." The bours brought about the same fatal results as those flowers are soinetimes solitary in the axils of the which are associated with the reigns of the Erics in leaves, sometimes grouped in different modes of Denmark during the middle ages. In 1412, on the inflorescence, and are often of great beauty, in death of the great Margaret, her relative, Eric of which respect no order of plants excels this; tho Pomerania, succeeded to the triple crown of Scandi. beauty of the smallest species, and of those which navia, in accordance with the articles of the famous have very small flowers, rivalling that of others treaty of Calmar. The noble heritage that had which are trees profusely covered with magnificeut been bequeathed to Eric required a firmer hand clusters. About 900 species of this order are known, and a braver spirit than his to keep it in check; of which the greater nunber are natives of South and his reckless disregard of treaties and oaths, his Africa, which particularly abounds in the genus neglect of his duties, and his misdirected ambition, Erica, and its allies—the true Heaths (q. V.), led, after years of dissensions, maladministration, and although some of them are also found to the utmost disaffection, to the inevitable result that Eric was limits of northern vegetation. They are rare within declared to have forfeited the respective thrones the tropics, and only occur at considerable eleva. of the several kingdoms, which proceeded to elect tions. Few species are found in Australia. Many rulers of their own. The intestine wars to which of the E. are social plants, and a single species some this cordition of things gave rise, plunged the whole times covers great tracts, constituting their principal of Scandinavia into anarchy, and sowed seeds of dissension among the three kindred nations, which the heaths of Europe and the North of Asia.

vegetation. This is most strikingly exemplitied'in bore fatal fruits in subsequent ages. The last ten Medicinal properties exist in some of the E., as years of Eric's life were spent in the exercise of the BEARBERRY (see ARBUTUS), and the GROUND) piracy in the island of Gothland, whither he had LAUREL of North America (Epigwa repens), a popular retired with his mistress and a band of followers, remedy in the United States for affections of the and from whence he sent forth piratical expeditions bowels and urinary organs. Narcotic and poisonous to pillage both friends and foes. Eric married

qualities are of not unfrequent occurrence. See Philippa, daughter of Henry IV. of England, whose ANDROMEDA, AZALEA, KAlmia, LEDUM, RHODODENmemory is still cherished in the north, on account of DRON. The berries of some species are edible (see the many noble deeds with which local tradition ARBUTUS and GAULTHERIA), although aone associates her zame. Eric XIV., the last of the name much esteemed.- The RHODODENDREÆ have some. who reigned in Sweden, had the distinction of being times been regarded as a distinct order, but are at once one of the worst and one of the most unhappy generally considered a suborder of E.

, containing of the name. He succeeded, in 1560, to the throne the genera Rhododendron, Azalea, Kalmia, Ledumu of his father, Gustaf Vasa, who was perhaps the

&c. The larger leaves and flowers, and gener greatest and worthicst monarch that ever reigned ally also the larger plants of the order

, belong to over Sweden, and immediately on his accession, he this suborder; which, however, contains also many made known the difference that was so unfavourably small shrubs of subarctic and elevated mountainous to distinguish his reign from that of his father, by regions. quarrelling with his brothers, thwarting the nobles,

E'RICHT or E'RROCHT, LOCH, lies in the and opposing the lower orders. His tickleness and extravagance were displayed in a succession of north-west of Perthshire and south of Inverness. embassies, which were in turn sent to almost every shire, in an uninhabited district, the wildest and European court to demand a consort for this vacillat- most inaccessible in Scotland, amid the Grampian ing monarch, who usually changed his mind before mountains. Its banks rise steeply from the water', his envoys had time to fulfil their missions. Eliza- edge. It is fourteen miles long and nearly one mile beth of England and Mary of Scotland were more broad, and it extends in a south-west direction from than once the objects of his matrimonial schemes ; near Dalwhinnie on the Dunkeld med Inverness but when the resources of the country had been road. By one outlet it joins Loch Ranuoch, and loy seriously crippled by these costly and absurd expe- another it runs into Loch Lydoch, its waters ulti. ditions, Eric married a Swedish peasant-girl, who mately reaching the Tay: Its surface is about 1500 ultimately acquired an influence over him which was feet above the sea, and it never freezes. In a cale ascribed by the superstitious to witchcraft, since she at the south end of the loch, Prince Charles lay hich

in 1746. alone was able to control him in the violent paroxysms of blind fury to which he was subject. It is prob E'RICSSON, JOHN, a distinguished engineer, was able that Eric laboured under remittent attacks of born in Sweden in 1803. After serving for some insanity, and that to this cause may be attributed time as an officer of engineers in the Swedish arny, the blood-thirsty cruelty with which he persecuted he removed in 1826 to England, and continued to those of his own relatives or attendants who fell occupy himself with improvements chiefly on steam ander his suspicion. His capricious cruelties at length machinery and its applications. It is to E. that Klienated the minds of his subjects, who, wearied steam navigation owes the Screw-propeller (q. v.). with the continuous wars and disturbances in which ! In 1939 bo went to New York, United States, whicre





he has lived since, and has brought out his improved the court of Charles the Bald. In the controversies raloric engine, etc. He constructed the iron-clad of his time, regarding predestination and transub Monitor which successfully opposed the Merrimack in stantiation, he took part. His philosophic opinions Hampton Roads, March 9, 1862. See CALORIC EN- were those of a Neo-Platonist rather than of a

scholastic. His love for the mystic doctrines of the E’RIE, one of the five great lakes which empty them- old Alexandrian philosophers' was shewn by his Belves by the St. Lawrence. It separates Upper Canada translation of the writings ascribed to Dionysice the and Michigan on its left from Ohio, Pennsylvania, Areopagite, which proved to bo a well-spring of and New York on its right. It is the most southern mysticism during the middle ages. E. held that of the five, receiving, at its north-western extremity, God is the essential ground of all things, from whom the waters of Lakes Superior, Michigan, and Huron, all things emanate, and into whom they return by the river Detroit, and discharging them at its again. Pantheism, therefore, lurks in his system Dorth-east by the Niagara into Lake Ontario. With His principal work is De Divisione Naturæ (pub u length of 240 miles, E. has a breadth varying from lished by Gale, Oxford, 1681). One of its leading 80 to nearly 60 miles, with an area of 9600 square when both are properly apprehended. E uttered

thoughts is the identity of philosophy and religion, miles. It is 16 feet below Lake Huron, and 322 and his opinions with great boldness, and he exhibited 555 respectively above Lake Ontario and the Atlantic. At its south-western extremity are several islands,

no less subtlety and strength of intellect in their

defence. wherсon the native grape finds a climate more

He expressed his contempt for theo equable and an autumn of longer continuance

logical dogmatism, and vindicated the authority of than in the regions generally in the same lati- reason over all other authority. His words are: tude in the United States, and where it has, in from authority; and when the former is not con:

Authority is derived from reason, and not reason consequence, been successfully cultivated for sev: firmed by the latter, it possesses no value. Consult eral years past. It is by far the shallowest of Hjort's Joh. E. oder vom Ursprunge einer Christlichen the five great lakes. Its mean depth is stated at 120 Philosophie (Copenh. 1823), Standenmayer's Joh. . feet; and from this comparative shallowness, and the und die Wissenschaft seiner Zeit (Frankfurt, 1834), consequent liability to a heavy ground swell, as well and Taillandier Scot. E. et la Philosophie Scholastique as on account of the small number of good harbours, (Strasburg and Paris, 1843). the navigation is peculiarly difficult and dangerous. The chief harbours on the south or United States ERI'GERON, a genus of plants of the natural shore, besides Buffalo and that of Erie, are those of order Composite, suborder Corymbiferee, having Cleveland, Sandusky City, and Toledo; and on the heads (flowers) of many florets, the florets of the ray north or Canadian shore, Ports Dover, Burwell, and numerous, in several rows, of a different colour from Stanley. Lake E. receives no rivers of any conse- those of the disc. Two or three species are natives quence. Its commercial importance, however, has of Britain, the most common of which, E. acra 148 been largely increased by art. It is connected by one

a stem 16-18 inches high, narrow entire caves, canal with the Hudson, and by more than one with flower-stalks forming a kind of corymb, flowers with the Ohio, while on the British' side it communicates yellow disc and pale-blue ray. It has a powerful vith the Ontario by means of a still more available odour, which is said to keep away fleas, and the work, the ship channel of the Welland. Its naviga- name FLEA-BANE is sometimes given to the plants tion generally closes in the beginning of December, Its ashes contain about 5 per cent. of potash, for and the lake remains more or less frozen until March the sake of which it is sometimes collected and or April. The commercial importance of Lake Erie burned. E. Philadelphicum, a native of North has been greatly increased within a few years by the America, with pale-purple ray, and a fetid smell, is establishment of numerous lines of railroads connect-valued in the United States as a diuretic. ing its ports with the interior. The amount of busi ERINACEUS and ERINACE'ADÆ.

Sen ness transacted thereon is almost incalculable. Lake HEDGEHOG. Erie was the scene of a nava! engagement between the British and Americans, September 10, 1813, in which of whose birth the most different statements are

ERI'NNA, a Greek poetess, concerning the date the latter were victorious.

advanced. According to some, she was the intimate ERIE, a port on the lake of its own name in the friend of Sappho (hence she is likewise called the State of Pennsylvania, stands in lat. 42° 8' N., and Lesbian singer), and was born at Rhodes, or on the long. 80° 10' W. Its harbour, one of the largest and little island of Telog, situated west of Rhodes ; while best on the coast, is formed by an island of four miles others maintain that she lived in the age of Demosin length, which, under the appellation of Presque thenes ; and others again, perplexed by such a wide isle, still preserves the memory of its having been a difference in point of time, have recourse to the peninsula." The belt of water which is thus sheltered hypothesis of two poetesses of this name. E. acquired is known as Presque Isle Bay, and forms a natural such celebrity by her epic, epigrammatic, and lyric harbour for the city. It is now protected by a break- poems, that her verses were compared with those of water. It is 34 miles long and 1 mile wide, and Homer, although she died at the early age of 18 varies in depth from 9 to 25 feet. While much has The genuineness of the fragments that still exist been done to improve the natural advantages of its under her name, has been disputed on good grounds position, E. has been connected by means of a canal These have been collected by Schneidewin in the with the Beaver, a feeder of the Ohio; and this work, Delectus Poesis Graecæ Elegiacæ (Göttingen, 1838). independently of its navigable facilities, affords exten- Compare Malzow De Erinnce Lesbiæ vita et Reliquiis sive water power to mills of different kinds. It is the (Petersburg, 1836). terminus of the Philadelphia and Erie Railroad, and

ERIOBO'TRYA. See LOQUAT. is by other lines connected with New York, Cleveland, &c. This port is destined to become an important cen

ERIOCAULACEÆ, a natural order of endogen. tre of trade. Pop. (1870) 19,646; (1880) 27,730.

ous plants, nearly allied to Restiacere, and containing ERI'GENA, JOANNES Scotus, a famous philoso

about 200 known species, many of which are aquatio pher of the middle ages, was born probably in or marsh plants. The E. are chiefly natives of the Ireland and flourished during the 9th century. cies, Eriocauion septangulare, JOINTED PIPEWORT

tropical parts of America and Australia. One spe Very little is known regarding his history. He is found in the west of Ireland, and in some of the appears to have resided principally in France, at




Hebri les ; a little grass-like plant, growing in lakes last war between Russia and Persia, E. was stormed which have a madly bottom, and exhibiting small by the Russian general Paskewitsch, who received the globular heads of flowers. From its botanical affini- surname of Eriwanski; and by the treaty of peace

ties, and with reference concluded at Turkmanjai, 220 February, 1828, it was
to geographical distri. given up by Persia to Russia, along with the province
bution, no British plant of the same name. It is now an important Russian
is more interesting. The post, as in former times it formed the bulwark of
E. form a remarkable Persia against the Turks, and afterwards against
feature of the vegeta- Russia. In the year 1840 it was much devastated by
tion of some parts of an earthquake.
South America ; but

E'RLANGEN, a town of Bavaria, is situated in many of the species the midst of a well cultivated district, on the right bear little resemblance bank of the Regnitz, 10 miles north of Nürnburg: to their humble north. It is a handsome town, and is surrounded by walls

congener, being pierced by seven gates; its streets—a great number Ve almost shrubby. 4 of which were erected after the year 1706, when a

feet high, with leafy, fire consumed a large portion of the town-aro much-branched stems, straight and regular. It is divided into the Old each branchlet ter- and New Towns, the latter founded in 1686 by minated by a large Christian, markgraf of Bayrenth. E. is the seat of white ball, composed

a university, of a gymnasium, of agricultural and of a vast number of

industrial schools, and other institutions. The smaller heads, placed university, however, is the chief building. It was on peduncles of unequal founded in 1742, and is celebrated as a school of length.' Many of them Protestant theology, is attended by between 400 also grow on arid moun- and 500 students, has a library containing 100,000 tainous regions ; others in flat sandy grounds,

vols. and 1000 manuscripts, and also zoological and which are tooded

in the mineralogical collections, &c. E owes its prosperity

to the migration thither of a number of refugees wet season.—Gardner's

from France, who were compelled to flee on the Travels in Brazil.

revocation of the Edict of Nantes, and who introERIODENDRON, duced many new branches of manufacture at a genus of trees of the Erlangen. Besides its extensive stocking and glove natural order Stercu- manufactories, which provide the greater part of

liaceae, natives of tropi- Germany with their goods, E has great mirror and Jointed Pipewort (Eriocaulon cal countries, the thick tobacco factories, and manufactures of combs and

septangulare): woody capsules of which horn ware. E, became a Bavarian possession by the 4, tuft of leaves, flower-stalk with contain a kind of wool treaty of 1809. Pop. in 1871, 12,511. flowers, and part, of creeping surrounding the seeds. root; 8, seed; c, bract or scale; These trees are there. Hungary, in the county of Heves, of which it is

E'RLAU (Hung. Eger), an episcopal city of d, fimale flower; e, pistil; J, male flower.

fore sometimes called capital, is situated on both banks of the river

WOOL-TREES. The wool Erlau, in a delightful valley skirted with vine-clad of E. Samanna is used in Brazil for stuffing pillows. hills. It is surrounded by old walls, pierced by E. anfractuosum, of which one variety, found in the six gates; has four suburbs, in which the greater East Indies, is sometimes called E. Indicum, and portion of the inhabitants dwell; and although in another found in Africa, E. Guineense, is a tree of general its streets are narrow and have a neglected great height, 150 feet or more. The African variety appearance, it is rich in fine public buildings. The or species is called Rimi and BENTANG. Park men- principal of these are the Lyceum, with a valuable tions it by the latter name. Barth says it is gene. library, and an observatory 172 feet high; the rally to be seen growing near the principal gate of recently built, the episcopal palace, the large towns in Hansa. Its wood is soft and spongy, Franciscan and the Minorite monasteries, a richly chiefly used for making canoes. The seeds of E. embellished Greek church, a county hall, and Indicum are eaten in Celebes. They are roundish, the new barracks. E. has also a gymnasium, an and of the size of peas. The trees of this genus episcopal seminary, a normal and drawing school, have palmate leaves. The flowers are large and a hospital founded in 1730, which possesses a beautiful

capital of nearly 400,000 guilders, and other import. ERIVA'N (Persian, Rewan), the fortified capital ant institutions. The two baths, the Turkenbad of Russian Armenia, situated to the north of Ararat, and the Bischofsbad, both of which are much in the elevated plain of Aras or Araxes, lat. 40° 10' resorted to during the bathing-season, are supplied N., long. 44° 32' E., 3312 feet above the level of the from two warm springs which rise from the bank

It consists of the town, properly so called, and of the Erlau. The cultivation of the vine is the the fortress, which is surrounded on three sides by principal occupation of the inhabitants. The E high walls, and provided with aqueducts; a stone wine, the best red wine of Hungary, is prod:ced in bridge over the Zenga, which here falls into the considerable quantities, and is in request even in Araxes; a barracks, three mosques, one of which foreign countries. There are also manufactures of has been converted into a Russian church, the linens, woollens, hats, &c., and an important weekly palace of the Sardar, and a bazaar. Pop. about market, which has a beneficial effect upon the indus 15,000, who are engaged in agriculture and com- try of the town. Pop. 19,815 most of whom are merce. E. was formerly the capital of the Persian Roman Catholic in religion, and Magyar in race. province of Aran, celebrated for its silk. In the E owes its importance to the very old bishopric beginning of the 16th c., the khan Rewan, at the founded here by $t Stephen in the beginning of the command of Ishmael, the shah of Persia, erected a 11th c., and which, in 1804, was raised to an arch. strong fortress, which he called after his own name, bishopric. An Armenian school was established at E. in 1629. ERLKÖNIG, in German, is the name applied to a but transferred to Ejmiadzin in 1631. During the poetical, personified, natural puwer which, according



10 German poetical authorities, prepares mischief of Britain. It is in its winter dress that it is called and ruin for men, and especinily for children, E., and yields a highly valued fur; more valuable, through delusive seductions. The name not con- however, when obtained from the coldest northern nected with the root erle, is synonymous with regions than from more southern and temperate Elfen Konig. The E. was introduced into German countries. In its summer dress it is caled Stoate poetry from the Sagas of the North, through Herder's It displays indomitable perseverance in the pursnit translation of the Erlkönig's Daughter from the of its prey, which consists very much of rats, water. Danish, and has become universally known through voles, and other such snall quadrupeds ; with young Goethe's ballad of the Erlkönig.

hares and rabbits, grouse, partridges, &c. The eggs ERMENONVILLE, a village in the south-east of of birds are as welcome to it as the birds them. the department of Oise, in France, in the possession selves. The E. is a native of all the northern parts of the Girardin family. It is celebrated for its beauti- of the world. Its range extends even to the south ful and extensive parks, and as being the resting of Europe. It delights in moorish districts, and is place of Ronsseau, for which reason it is much visited tolerably abundant in the north of Scotland. It is in summer by strangers from Paris. It was also from Norway, Lapland, Siberia, and the Hudson's the residence of Gabrielle d'Estrées, the mistress of Bay territories that the E. skins of commerce are Henry IV., who inhabited a hunting-tower, part of obtained, which are used not only for ladies' winter which is still standing, and bears her name.

It garments, but for the robes of kings and nobles, and became still more celebrated after the death of for their crowns and coronets. E. has thus obtained Rousseau in 1778. During the revolution, his a distinct recognition in heraldry. In making up ashes were removed to the Pantheon, but conveyed E. fur, the tails are inserted in a regular manner, so back to E. after the restoration. It had nearly

that their rich black shall contrast with the pure been purchased by the Bande Noire, but a larger white of the rest of the fur. sum was offered by Stanislaus de Girardin, the well ERNE (Haliæëtus), a genus of birds of the family known liberal deputy, and E. was preserved for the Falconidæ, and of the eagle group ; differing from

lovers of art, of nature, and of the true eagles in the greater length of the bill, in historical monuments.

the toes and lower part of the tarsi being destitute E'RMINE, white fur, with black of feathers, and generally, also, in frequenting the spots; the reverse of which, or a sea-coast and the banks of lakes and rivers to feed black fur with white spots, also on fish, in feeding like vultures on carrion almost as used in heraldry, is called Contre readily as on newly killed prey, and in inferior Ermine. Ermine is commonly used courage. The only British species is the COMMON

to difference the arms of any mem- E. (ů. albicilla), also known as the Sea Eayle or Ermine. ber of a family who is connected

with the law. A cross composed of four ermine spots is said to be a Cross Ermine.

ERMINE, or STOAT (Mustela erminea), a species of Weasel (q. v.), considerably larger than the com. mon weasel, but much resembling it in general form and other characters, as well as in habits. The E. is almost ten inches in length, exclusive of the tail, which is fully four inches and a half long. It is of a pale reddish-brown colour in summer, the under parts yellowish white, the tip of the tail black : in winter-in cold countries or severe seasons—the


Common Erne (Haliæëtus albicilla).

Summer and winter dress.

White-tailed Sea Eagle. It is much more common in Britain than the Golden Eagie, is sometiines seen even in the south of England and in inland districts, occasionally visiting deer-parks to prey on very young fawns or to devour dead deer; but is of more

frequent occurrence in the north of Scotland, doing Ermine :

considerable injury to flocks in Sutherlandshire, particularly during the season of young lambs. Its

favourite haunts, where it roosts and makes its apper parts change to a yellowish-white or almost nest, are the shelves and ledges of stupendous preci. pure white, the tip of the tail, however, always pices on the coast, where its scream often mingies icinaiping black. This change takes place more with the noise of the perpetual surge. It sometiines frequently in the northern than in the southern also breeds on crags beside inland lakes, as at the parts of Britain, but sometimes even in the south Lakes of Killarney, and more rarely even on trees. of England; and when it is only partially accom. Fishes are certainly its favourite food, although its plished, the animal presents a piebald appearance, mode of procuring them is not well known; but nad very often remains so during the milder winters / water fowl are also its very frequent prey. It is


« PreviousContinue »