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was eligible to the higher offices of state. Next hur. lightnings at various times and with peculias to them, in the political and social scale, came the effects. The three of these deities which seem to people, properly so called-free, not subject person- have been the principal objects of worship were ally to the nobility; lowest stool a great number Tinia himself, armed with three different kinds of clients or bondmen, probably the descendants of of lightning, Cupra (Hera or Juno) and Meurfa subjecteil original inhabitants. On the whole, the (Minerva, Pallas Athene). Gods most peculiarly federal interdependence between the cities was far Etruscan are Vejovis, an evil Jupiter, whose thunfrom close. Single cities carried on wars in which derbolts have the power to deafen, and Nortia, the the others took no part; and when the confederacy goddess of Fate, also called Lasa Mean. Besides resolveil on general action, there were always some these, they put a host of demons over the different members which, for some reason or other, stood portions of tbe creation :—the heavens, the eartling aloof. It appears from this that the Etruscan con. and the lower regions (l'enates, Lures, and Manes. stitution was aualogous to the Greek and Roman Their deities have generally winys; and before the in their earliest stages : the cominuvity develops Assyrian bulls had come to light, some antiquanes itself into a polis or city, chooses a head, or rather established froin this a connection with the liebrew high-priest, and enters into a more or less intimate winged cherubim. Characteristic in the highest alliance with its neighbouring cities ; but, beside degree is their disciptina,' or art of divination. that king of its own, recognises a common chief This had been revealed by Tages, a grandson of only in time of war.
Jupiter, who was dug out near Tarquinii, in the The Etruscans were, as a people, less warlike than shape of a childlike dwarf with gray hair-a most any of their neighbours, especially the Romans, and striking caricature of these both chililish and senile conspicuons is their want of anything like cavalry. practices—and who died immecliately after having Theirs wils also the un-Italic custom of hiring communicated these mysteries. They were at first moldiers, anıl their energies seem principally to have the property of the noble families; but in the heen directer to the more profitable occupations of course of time, as others were initiaterl, and schools trade anul agriculture. One of the chief articles of for priests were foundled, these mystical and awe. their commerce was amber, which Germans bronght striking teachings came to be written down. It is from the Baltic to Etruria Circumpadana, whence saldening to observe here again in what monstrous it was conveyel to Greece by sea. In the western insanities the spirit of man occasionally revels, and parts of the Mediterranean, they were formidable as that, too, in the province of what is noblest and pirates; while they were welcomed by the Cartha- highest-religion. The disciplina' was developed ginians and the Greeks of Magna Græcia, as im into an exact science, fully as minutely and casuistiporters of iniligenous products of nature and art, cally sharpening its points and splitting its hairs as which they exchanged for the wealth of the East Hindu or Mohamınevlan theology woull. It taught and Sonth. That their commerce within Italy must what gods hurled the different kinds of lightning; have been very extensive, appears from the fact, that how, by the colour and the peculiar quarter of the all the states of Central Italy a lopted their system sky, the author of the bolt might be recognised ; of coinaye, baseil, like their tables of weights and whether the evil denoted was a listing or a passing measures, and many of their political institutions, one; whether the decree was irrevocable or could on the duodecimal system.
be postponedl; how the lightning was to be coaxed The striking contrast between the Etruscans and down, and how it was to be buried. This was the their Italic and Greek neighbours, which appears in speciality of the Fulgurales. The Haruspices bad as the short thickset frames, the large heals and their share the explanation of portents, prorligies, bulky extremities of the former, and the slender monsters, the fight and cries of birils, the entrails linibs and graceful harmony in the whole structure of sacriticial animals; while others ministered in the
the latter, and which runs with equal distinctness holy rites at the foundation of cities, the building through the intellectual lives of the three nations, of gates, houses, &c. Their ceremonies (a word manifests itself nowhere with greater power than in derived from their town Cære) were enilless and their religions. Equally distant from the abstract, silly, but the show and pomp with which their clear rationalism of the Latins, and the plastic joy. priests knew how to surround these jngyleries, and fulness of Hellenic image-worship, the Etruscans from which the Romans largely borrowed, made were, as far as their dumb fragments shew-for them acceptable in the eyes of the herd; and what we find on them of human worls we do not although Rome herself, with all her augurs, called understand-chained in a dark and dotard_mysti- Etruria “the mother of superstition,' there was a cism, such as a blending of a half-forgotten Eastern certain odour of tithes and fees about these rites symbol-service with barbarous religions practices which made many anxious to preserve religion in of northern savages, grafted upon archaic Greek its primeval purity.' notions, might produce. In their Pantheon, the In the entire absence of anything like a genuine predominance belongs to the evil, mischievous Etruscan account, even the outlines of the relation gods ; their prisoners are welcome sacrifices to the between their religion and that of the Greeks on heavenly powers ; they have no silent depths where the one hand and the Romans on the other are the 'good spirits' of their departed dwell, but a hell exceedingly difficult to trace; so much, however, is of the most hideous description, and a heaven where certain, that they adopted and assimilated mauy permanent intoxication is the bliss that awaits the points of archaic Greek theology, and clothe i them firtuong. They divide their gods into two classes, in a garb of their own, and that this process WAS and they place tnem in the most northern, and there gone through and repeated still more completely sore most immovable point of the world, whence by the Romans, in their turn, with respect to the they can best overlook it. The upper section is religious notions of the Etruscans. The articles on formed by shrouded, hidden gods (Involuti), of uncer. Greek and Roman religion will furnish further infortain number, who act awfully and mysteriously, and mation on this point. twelve lower gouls of both sexes, called Consentes, The high degree of civilization which the EtrasComplices. Tinia (Zeus, Jupiter) is the chief of these cans possessed long before Rome was heard of is latter, and stands between the two divisions of the testified by innumerable works of masonry and art. gods, receiving orilers for destruction from the upper The Etruscans were of an eminently practical turn onea, while the lower ones form bis ordinary council, of mind, and domestic, like the north. Trusting to ani: obey his behests. Nine of these (Novensiles) | their priests for reconcilintion with the gorls, who
always seemel irate, but whose angry de rees could bridges and sewers, gigantic, and, in the earliest easily be foreseen and averteil, they set to work in times, cyclopean-evidently erected, in Eastern developing the inner resources of the country, and fashion, by bosts of slaves- very little is extant in making the best use of their intercourse with in so complete a form as to give us au exact insight foreign countries. They thus became entinent in into their mole of construction; and were it not for agriculture, navigation, military tactics, meilicine, their tombs, our knowledge woull be exceedingly astronomy, and the like; and in all these, as well limitel. These form one of the most peculiar feaas in some of the very minutize of their dress tures in Etruscan antiquities. llewn in rocks, either and furniture, the Romans became their realy below the ground or in the face of a clill, they were disciples and imitators. The division of the year alorned outside with a somewhat Egyptian façarlo into twelve months, of the months into kalends of a temple or a house, which the insides themselves und nones and ides, the designation of the numerals, most exactly reproduce, with all their interual were Etruscan; from the saine source were deriveil decorations, furniture, am nitensils. Of the paintings the togn prælerta as well as the promp of triumphs, which run round the walls, and which are ou the lictors and apparitors, down to the ivory safest and most complete guides to tle inner life carule chairs. The towus of the Etruscans were of this vation, we will say more presently. We clean and bealthy, owing to their perfect system of must not, in conclusion, omit to mention that drainage and sewerage; they tunnelle auil exca- their temples bore in primitive times, anıl always vatel, they embanked and irrigatel, they turned retained, in some measure, so far as we can julge, swamps into cities, change the course of streams, the unfinished character of ihe wool buillings and excellel in all kinds of useful public and of northern mountain tribes—a square, half-house, private works. Their ideal was not the beautiful half-furtiticatiou, overloaded with quaint ornamen. or the spiritual, but a comfortable, anıl, if possible, tation. luxurious existence. As a special proof of their love lu their plastic and pictorial arts, Winckelmann for their own hearth, a quality probably imported has established three distinct styles—to which from the north, we might aliluce their invention Dennis has alled a fouth-vir.., the Egyptian, with of the atrium, the common sitting room of the Balıylonian analogies, the Etruscan or Tyrrhene family, where the master of the house sat sur proper, the Hellenic, and that of the decadence. rounded by his penates and the figures of his Characteristic of the first style are the prevaielivo ancestors, while the wife and her hanılmaidens plieil of straight lines, right angles, faces of an oblong, the labours of the loom or the distaff. As in the contracted oval, with a pointed chin, eyes mostly Germanic nations, woman stood in high estimatiou. drawn upwards, the arms hanging close to the side, She was the companion, not the slave of the bus. the legs close together, the drapery long, in straight band, and thus bal certainly not a little share in parallel lines, the hair disposed in tiers of curla. the softening of their primitive willness, anil in | In this style, the attitude is constrainedl, the action counteracting the sombreness of their creed. That stiff and crampeil. The progress shewn by the we find them even in their tomb-paintings engaged second style is the greater attention bestowed on in convivial carousings, dancing, races, athletic the delineation of the inuscles, wbich swell out in games, and tnat they liked their very worship disproportionate prominences on the now almost accompanied by the sound of tutes, horus, and entirely nude body. The two remaining styles trumpets, only sh- us that that glorions sky of theirs, explain themselves. Their statuary, as it appears their intercourse with the nations, their wealth and chietly on sarcophagi and cinerary urns, suggests culture, haul gradually caused their antique and likewise an Egyptian origin. The tigures are those gloony austerity to wear off, even as it wore off of their own inystical and awful Haules, instead of with the Romans and other peoples; for to assume the Bacchic processions of Greece and Rome. The with some that the boisterous scenes to which we grouping follows rather a pictorial than a plastic allude were caused more or less by the despair principle; the motion is hasty and forced ; but the arising from the loss of their independence, would be features of the deceasel, hewn on the lid, have all going somewhat too far. Licentiousness is the sure the rude accuracy of a spiritless portrait. Statues forerunner of the fall of a nation, but a whole people of deities in wood and stone have indeed been does not take refuge in enjoyment when their all is found, but very rarely. Of high renown were their lost. We know little of Etruscan literature ; it ornaments and utensils in baked clay (terra cotta), seems to have consisted mostly of rituals, religious in the manufacture of which objects the Veientes hymns, and some historical works. Whether the were especially famous. Rome, at a very early Pesceunines, certain mocking-songs, sung in alternate period, possessed of this material a quadriga and verses, with musical accompaniment, at nuptials, the statue of Summanus, made by Etruscans. Of origuateul with them or not, is not decided.
the art of working in bronze, the Etruscans were We have alluded to the high proficiency of this supposed to be the inventors : that they brought people in architecture; they were, in fact, 80 it to a very high degree of perfection, is eriilent renowned in this craft throughout the antique from the examples which remain to 18. Etatues world, that, as Solomon called Phænicians to Jeru. and utensils were manufacturel and exported in salem to build his temple, so the Romans sought immense quantities, not only to Roine, but to in Etruria the framers of their grandest masonic every part of the known world. Of ligures Or structures, such as the Cloaka Maxima, the Temple a large scale still extant, we may mention thr of Jupiter on the Capitol, &c. The peculiarly renowned She-wolf of the Capitol, the Chimæra in fantastic, and, withal, powerful mind which speaks the Museum of Florence, the Warrior of Todi in the in all their institutions, equally pervailes their Etruscan Museum of the Vatican ; a portrait-status architectural productions; biit, at the same time, of an Orator, with the inscription Aulo Meteli, in everything they built, they built either for practical Florence; and the Boy with the Goose at Leyden. or pious purposes. We cannot here enter into a The various objects of ornament and use, found discussion of their manner as it appears in various in great numbers in tombs, such as candelabra. epochs, but it never reacher anything like a distinct cups, tripols, challrons, couches, dises; articles national completeness, their eagerness to profit by of armour, as helmets, cuirasses, &c.; musical instru. ioreign examples not allowing them to develop it ments, fans, cists or caskets, are most of them to the full unalloyed. Of their walls and gates, models of exquisito finish and artistic skill. Their temples and porticoes, theatres and amphitheatres, I gepw are as numerous as those of Egypt, and, like
them, cut into the form of the scarabeus or beetle. side, the front or convex side being highly polished They were exclusively intaglios, and of cornelian, These ranged over all the phases of Etruscan art, sardonyx, and agate. On these the Etruscan and are especially and peculiarly Etruscan. None artists represent groups from the Greek mythology, but Etruscan inscriptions have ever been found or the heroic cycle, bereft, as they seem to have upon them. They will, no doubt, prove eventually been, of heroic legends of their own. They of the highest importance, not only by enabling Aro most frequently found at Chiusi and Vulci, us to follow the gradations of artistic development and wero worn as "charms and amulets. Special step by step, but by furnishing us with lists mention should be made of the metal specula, of names of gods and persons, and, it may be ne mirrors, with figures scratched upon the concave of objects.
Etruscan Mirror from Vulci, with Phuphluns (Bacchus), Semla (Somele), and Apulu (Apollo).
Hall size. After a drawing by Mr George Scharl.
Uf the vases and urns which are found in innu- shew. Life in its merriest aspects gleains in the merable quantities in Etruscan tombs, we cannot most vivid of colours all round-dancing, feasting, treat here, as they are admitted on all hands to be, loving, hunting. The Etruscans of later times bad with very few exceptions, Greek, both in design learned in the school of the Hellenes to dread death and workmanship; we must refer the reader to the less, and to think of the other world as one of wprcial article on Vases; but a few words may be continued joyfulness. Hidded on the before-inentioned tomb-paintings. They We conclude with the Etruscan language. Brevity are found chietly in the cemeteries of Tarquinii and on that point will be the more pardonable, as our Clusium ; and they are all the more important, as real knowledge of it is next to none. Scarce as they lead 118 with minute accuracy from the very the inscriptions themselves are, still one might cradle of the individual, through the various scenes of have supposed that our days, which have seen the his entire life, to its close ; and this throughout the riddle of the cuneiform character solved, mnight existence of the nation itself, beginning before the have decided ere now whether the Etruscan be foundation of Rome, and ending in the Empire; ' aboriginal' or Celtic, Slavonic or Albanese, Groek while we follow the style in its gradual developinent or Rhætian, Latin or Semitic, Turanic or Armenian, froin the Egyptian to Graco-Roman perfection. hieroglyphs, or any other of the languages which One of the annexed specimens, taken from a tomb the different savans have pronounced it to be. Our at Corneto, represents a death-bed scene; but most present information with respect to this peculiar of the other paintings, especially at Tarquinii , are of idiom consists in the following items:
It has a very different descris,tion, as the other specimens twenty-one letters, like the ancient Greek, and
reads from right to left. In transcribing words with that of their origin, and they will both have to from other languages, it softens its gutturals and be settled finally together. In the meantime we aspirates, and interchanges cognate letters, most may, without prejudice, say that there is something frequently transforming into --for instance, very seductive about Stickel's Semitic explanation Odysseus = Utage ; Polydeukes = Pultuke; Adria= of some of these inscriptions. We subjoin, in order Hatri
. The most frequent termination is e: Peleus to give the reader an opportunity of judging of the becomes Pele; Tydeus, Tyde. Aifil' and 'Ayil ril' character itself, and also for the sake of curiosity, probably mean ‘he lived,' or he lived years,' since the first and part of the second line of a large we find these words always followed by numerals. inscription found in 1822, at Perugin, with a llebrew This question of their language is naturally identical transcript, and Stickel's Semitic translation. Ila
supposes the whole to be a manifesto or solemn on Etruria and Etruscans, we will mention accusation of some expelled Rasena against the Diodorus, Strabo, Dionysius, Athenæns, Cincius in Clensi (Clusii).
his Annals, Cato in Origines, Varro in De Lingua JAZ SMAN 119AJ.ANNAt. tA/ Va Latina. Aulus Cæcinas De Etrusca Disciplina, as
of Tyrrhenian history, are lost, but some portions of
them have survived, en boilied in contemporaneous bah alamme l'arets tanna l'at ha
and later works. In morlein times, we have “This we have put up as a sign for the land and tho Gori, Museum Etruscum (Florence, 1137–1773):
Dempster, Etrurin Reyalis (Florence, 17233—1724); peoples therein."
Inghirami, Monumenti Etruschi (1821–1826); Micali, Of the very numerous writers who have treated Storia deyli antichi popoli Iuliani ; Ottfried Mu'ler,
Die Etrusker (Breslau, 1928); Micali, Monumenti and James Hogg, the Scottish poet, who, having been
a miller and spice-maker. Before he was twelve ETSCH. See ADIGÉ
years of age, he was apprenticed to a printer, and ETSHMIA'DZIN, a remarkable Armenian con served out his dreary terin of seven years, the rent in Erivan, a Transcancasian province of Russia, irksome druulgery of which he himself often after and about 16 miles west of the town of Erivan. It warls was in the habit of narrating, occasionally is of great extent, is surrounded by a wall :30 feet in soothed by dreams of, on some future day, being height, and 14 mile in circuit. l'his wall encloses an artist. Freell at last, and assisted by SOTA several distinct churches
, each of which is presided relatives, in 1805, at the age of 18, he entered on over by a bishop, is cruciform in shape, and is the study of art, and, aftır a year's prolation,
was airmounted by a kind of cupola crowned by a low admitted as a Royal Aculepy student. His career spire. For many centuries, this has been the seat is very interesting and instructive. It exhibits ore of the Catholicos (the head or patriarch of the gifted with enthusiasm for art, high resolutions, and Armenian Church). This patriarch presiiles at the great industry and perseverance, for a series of synodical meetings, but cannot pass a lecree without years invariably surpassed by many of his fellowits having the approval of the moderator, an official students, and, as has been recorded, 'looked on appointed by the Russian emperor, in whose hands by his companions as a worthy plolling person, the control of the convent virtually rests. In the with no chance of ever becoming a gourd printer.' convent library there are 635 manscripts
, 462 of Neither prizes nor medals fell to his share as a which are in the Armenian language.
student; and for several years his pictures were ETTMÜLLER, Ernst Moritz LUDWIG, an able tution Exhibitions.
rejectel at the Royal Acaulemy and British Insti.
It was only after six years writer on German antiquities, was born 5th October of hard study that he obtained a place for a 1802, at Gersdorf, near Loban, in Upper Lusatia, picture in the Exhibition of the Royal Acaulemy; and stuviel medicine at Leiposic from 18:233 to 1826, and his works only began to attract notice in but subsequently the language and history of his 1820, when the artist was 33 years of age, and gative country. In 1830, having taken his degree as he himself has said, having exhibited nine of Ph.D. at Jena, he began to deliver lectures there years to no purpose.' But the circumstance of on the German poets of the miilille nyes; but in 1833 E.'s genius being so long unappreciaterl, did not he was called to the Ziirich Acaulemy as teacher of so much arise from his works evincing no talent, the German language and literature. E.'s literary as from his class of subjects, and those technical activity has been exhibitel chietly in the editing of qualities for which his works are remarkable, not the literary remains of the Middle High-German, being appreciated at the time; for long before Luis and oller Low-German dialects. To the former pictures were saleable, his powers were highly belong his Sant Oswaliler Lelwn (Zürich, 1835): Hule appreciated by his professional brethren. On his loubes Lieler uml Sprüche (Zürich, 1860); IIrinrich's return from Italy in 1822, where he had been Von Meixnen drs trouwenlolex Lieler, Leiche, und studying the great Venetian colourists, he was Sprüche (Quedlinb. 184.3); Frawen !l«lchen Siine electeil an Associate of the Academy. In 1824, his (Žiirich, 18+6); lleinrich's l'on Veliliche Eneidle chef-l'oeuvre, •The Combat-Woman pleruling, for (Zürich, 1852). Of poems composed in Low German the Vanquished,' was purchaseil by an artist, John he published, among others, Theophilus (Quellinb. Martin. In 1828, he was elected Acailemician by 1849); and Wizlâwes IV., dler Fürxien Von Rügen, the members of the Royal Academy : while in the Lieler und Sprüche (Queillinb. 1832). In 1850 appeared, under his editorsliip, an Anglo-Saxon its high appreciation of liis talents by purchasing
same year the Royal Scottish Acuiemy testified chrestomathy, entitled Engla anul Srarna Scopas the most important of his efforts, the historical and böceras ; and in the following year his Lericon work illustrating the bistory of Judith and HoloAnglo-Saxonicum, which supplied a want long felt fernes. Testimonials so high soou haul their effect; in Germany. At an earlier preriod in bis literary E.'s pictures came into great request, and brought career, E. jaid great attention to the old Norse large prices, and he was enableil amply to repay literature, and in this department we have from liim those who, trusting to his energies, hal assisted an edition of the Völuspá, &c. E has also written him when he entered on the contest, in which, poetry, as well as elited it. His Deutsche Stamm; after so arduous a strngule, he gaineil so much köniije appeared at Zurich in 1844, his Kaiser Karl
honour. He always cherished a love and reverd. Gr. und das Fränkische Jungfrauenheer in 1847, ence for York, his native city, and baul retired and his k'arl d. Gr, und ler lleilige Goar in 1952
there some time previous to his death, which touk ETTRICK, a pastoral vale in the south of place on November 30, 1819. Selkirksl.ire, watered by the Ettrick river, which E had an exquisite feeling for colour, which bo rises amid bleak hills in the south-west corner most assiduously cultivated by studying the works of this county near Ettrick Pen, 2258 feet high, of the great Venetian misters, and constantly and runs 28 miles north-east, and falls into the painting from the life; and though, iu liis drawing, Tweed. Its chief affluent is the Yarrow, which carelessness and incorrectness may often be observed, runs 25 miles from the west, through one of the it is never vulyar, and often possesses much elevaloveliest of Scotch vales, and the scene of many tion and largeness of style." He gene.any chuse a plaintive song. Ettrick Forest, a royal hunting subjects that afforled scope for colunr, in which the tract, swarmning with deer till the time of James V., nude and rich draperies were displayed. lle executed included Selkirkshire and some tracts to the nine pictures on a very large scale, viz : The north. In Ettrick Vale, at Tushielaw, dwelt the Combat ;' series of three pictures illustrating the celebratel freebooter or king of the Borler, Adam delivery of Bethulia ly Judith ; 'Benaiali slaying Scot, who was summarily executed by James V. two Lion-like Men of Moal,'--these five, which are The district derives some note from two persons in the best of his large works, were purrkaseul hy the modern times—Thomas Boston (q. v.), a Scottish Royal Scottish Acaulemy, anıl are non in the Scoto divine, who was minister of the parish of Ettrick ; tish National Gallery— The Syrens,' now in the