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EYE.

organs in higher anima!s, but the compound eyes developed in man and mammals, it is probably are extremely elaborate and complex in their sufficiently strong to produce the slight action structure. They are two in number, appearing as required ; while for the vision of distant objects hemispherical masses on the sides of the head. When the lens is carried back towards the retina by the examined with the microscope, their surface is seen elasticity of the connecting tissues. It would appear, to be divided into an enormous number of hexagonal however, from the recent researches of Cramer, facets, which are in fact corneæ. In the ant, there Helmholtz, Allen Thomson, and others, that the are only 50 of these facets in each eye; in the common accommodation is effected rather by a change in the house-fly, 4000; in butterflies, upwards of 17,000; form than in the position of the lens. It has been and in some of the beetles more than 25,000. Each experimentally proved, that when the eye is turned cornea is found to belong to a distinct eye, provided from a distant to a near object, the antero-posterior with a nervous apparatus, and exhibiting a lens, iris, diameter of the lens becomes elongated, and the and pupil. Strauss Durckheim, who has carefully anterior surface becomes more convex, while the studied these structures in the cockchafer, suggests opposite changes take place in turning the eye from that, the eyes of insects being fixed, nature has made a near to a distant object. According to Helmholtz, up for their want of mobility by their number, and the radius of curvature of the anterior surf.cs of thó by turning them in all directions ; so that it might lens diminishes on turning the eye to a near object be said that these little animals have a distinct eye from ten to six millimetres (from about 0:4 to 0-24 of for every object.

an inch), while the most projecting point of the same Compound eyes of similar structure occur in many surface is brought forward about 6-2 of an inch. of the crustaceans.

Whichever view be adopted, the ciliary muscle 3. Having now described the anatomical structure takes an active part in the process. According to of the eye in man and certain of the lower animals, the observations of Hueck, the focal distance may we are able to proceed to the consideration of the be changed about three times in a second. The ases of the various parts of this organ. Assuming a accommodation from a near to a distant object is general knowledge of the ordinary laws of geometrical effected much more rapidly than the converse optics (see DIOPTRICS, LENS, &c.), we will trace the process. course of the rays of light proceeding from any There are two well-known forms of defective luminous body through the different media on which vision in which this power of adaptation is very they impinge. If a luminous object, as, for example, much limited--viz., short-sightedness or myopia, a lighted candle, be placed at about the ordinary and long-sightedness or presbyopia. The limitation, distance of distinct vision (about ten inches) from however, is not due to a defect in the muscular the front of the eye, some rays fall on the sclerotic, apparatus to which we have referred, but to an aud being reflected, take no part in vision; the abnormality either in the curves or in the density more central ones fall upon the cornea, and of these of the refracting media. In short-sightedness from some also are reflected, giving to the surface of the too great a refractive power from either cause, the eye its beautiful glistening appearance; while others rays from objects at the ordinary range of distinct pass through it, are converged by it, and enter the vision are brought too soon to a focus, so as to cross aqueous humour, which probably exerts no percep- one another, and begin to diverge before they fall tible effect on their direction. Those which fall on on the retina ; the eye in this case being able to and pass through the outer or circumferential part bring to the proper focus on the retina only those of the cornea are stopped by the iris, and are either rays which were previously diverging at a large reflected or absorbed by it; while those which fall angle from a very near object. The correction for apon its more central part pass through the pupil, this deficiency is accomplished by interposing and are concerned in vision. In consequence of its between the eye ard indistinctly-seen objects a efractive power, the rays passing through a com concave lens, with a curvature just sufficient to paratively large surface of the cornea are converged throw the images of external objects at the ordinary so as to pass through the relatively small pupil and distance of distinct vision backwards upon the impinge upon the lens, which, by the convexity of retina. In long-sightedness, on the other hand, there its surface, and by its greater density towards the is an abnormal diminution of the refractive power centre, very much increases the convergence of the from too flat a cornea, a deficient aqueous huinour, rays passing through it. They then traverse the or a fattening of the lens, so that the focus is vitreous humour, whose principal use appears to be behind the retina. This defect is corrected by to afford support to the expanded retina, and are convex lenses, which increase the convergence of the brought to a focus upon that tunic, forming there an rays of light. Long-sightedness, as its name pres. exact but inverted image of the object.

byopia indicates, usually comes on at a comparatively This inversion of the image may be easily exhi- advanced period of life, while short-sightedness is bited in the eye of a white rabbit or other albino most cominonly met with in young persons; but animal, after removing the muscles, &c., from the both these rules present occasional exceptions; and back part of the globe. The flame of a candle held the common belief that the latter affection naturbefore the cornea may be seen inverted at the ally disappears after the middle period of life, is back of the eye, increasing in size as the candle is altogether erroneous. brought near, diminishing as it retires, and always We have already noticed the most essential use of moving in a direction opposite to that of the flame. the iris-viz., its power, under the influence of

The adaptation of the eye to distinct vision at light upon the retina, of modifying the size of the every distance beyond that of a few inches, is pupil, so as to regulate the amount of light entering extremely remarkable, and numerous attempts have the eye. But this is not its only use; one of its been made to explain the mechanism by which its offices being to prevent the passage of rays through focal length admits of alteration under the influ- the circumferential part of the lens, and thus to ence of the will. One view that has met with obviate the indistinctness of vision which would much support is, that the focal length is modified arise from spherical aberration (the unequal refrac. by a slight movement of the lens. In the eye tion of the rays passing through the centre and of the bird there is a structure termed the ciliary near the margin of the lens), in the same manner as murcle, which obviously approximates the lens to the the diaphragms employed by the optician. But cornea when a short field of view is required, and there are additionally two other means by which althou;h the orresponding structure is only slightly this spherical aberration is prevented, which so well

EYE

Mastrate the wondrous mechanism of the eye, that before the eyes, gives the appearance of a continnous we cannot omit to notice them. They are described ribbon of light, because the impression made by it hy Professor Wharton Jones as follows:

at any one point of its course remains on the retina 1.). The surfaces of the dioptric parts of the eye are until it again reaches that point. It is owing to not spherical, but those of the cornea and posterior this property that the rapid and involuntary act of surface of the lens are hyperbolical, and that of the winking does not interfere with the continuous anterior surface of the lens elliptical --configura. vision of surrounding objects ; and, to give another tions found by theory fitted to prevent spherical illustration of its use, if we did not possess it, the aberration. This discovery was made at a time act of reading would be a far more difficult performwhen it was not known but that the dioptric parts ance than it now is, for we should require to keep of the eye had spherical surfaces.

the eye fixed on each word for a longer period, (2.) The density of the lens diminishing (as we otherwise the mind would fail fully to perceive it. have already shewn) from the centre to its periphery, Again, in consequence of the retention of sensations the circumferential rays are less refracted than by the retina, the image of an object may continue they would have been by a homogeneous lens with to be seen, especially in certain morbid states of the similar surfaces. This elegantly simple contrivance system, and in twilight, for some seconds after the has been hitherto inimitable by human art.'— The eyes have been turned away from it, and this physi. Actonian Prize Treatise, 1851, p. 50,

ological phenomenon has probably given origin to Chromatic aberration, which is caused by the many stories of ghosts and visions. Thus, if a person unequal refrangibility of the primitive rays of which has unconsciously fixed his eyes, especially in the white light is composed, when transmitted through dusk, on a dark post or stump of a tree. he may, on an ordinary lens, whereby coloured fringes are looking towards the gray sky, see projected there a produced, is practically corrected in the eye, although gigantic white image of the object, which may it is doubtful whether it is entirely absent. The pro realily be mistaken for a supernatural appearance. vision, however, on which the achromatism depends These ocular spectra are always of the comple. has not been determined with certainty, probably mentary colour to that of the object. Thus, the because we do not yet know the relative refractive spectrum left by a red spot is green; by a violet and dispersive powers of the cornea and humours spot, yellow; and by a blue spot, orange. However of the eye. Sir David Brewster denies that the great may be the velocity of a luminous body, it can chromatic aberration receives any correction in the always be seen; but if an opaque body move with eye, and maintains that it is imperceptible only in such rapidity as to pass through a space equal to consequence of its being extremely slight.

its own diameter in a less time than that of the 4. We have hitherto been considering the eye as duration of the retinal impression, it is altogether an optical instrument which projects pictures of invisible; and hence it is, for example, that we cannot external objects on the retina ; we now come to see bullets, &c., in the rapid part of their flight. the action of the nervous tunic, the retina, and its A small portion the retina, corresponding to adaptation to the physical construction of the eye. the entrance of the optic nerve, is incapable of

When the retina or the optic nerve is stimulated, exciting the sensation of vision when it receives we have the sensation of light, whatever may be the the image of an object. According to Volkmann nature of the stimulus employed-as, for example, if this small invisible spot exactly corresponds in size it be a blow on the eye in the dark, or irritation of with the artery lying in the centre of the optic the optic nerve from some morbid condition. The nerve. If the blind spot' had been situated in the sensation of light, then, consists in a recognition by axis of the eye, a blank space would always have the mind of a certain condition of these nervous existed in the centre of the field of vision, since the structures, and this condition may be induced by the axes of the eyes in vision correspond. But as it is, application of any stimulus; the ordinary stimulus the blind spots do not correspond when the eyes are obviously being the rays of light which fall upon the directed to the same object; and hence the blank retina. There must, however, be a certain amount which one eye would present is filled up by the of light for the purpose of vision. Every one knows other eye. Mariotte, early in the last century, first that it is difficult and painful to discern objects in a described the existence of these blind spots. Any very faint light; and, on the other hand, that on one may satisfy himself of their existence by the suddenly entering a brilliantly lighted room from following simple experiment. Let two small black the dark, everything appears confised for one or two circles be made upon a piece of paper, about four or Beconds. There is, however, a gradual adaptation tive inches apart, then let the left eye be closed, and of the retina to different amounts of light. Persons the right eye be strongly fixed upon the left-hand long immured in dark dungeons acquire the power circle. If the paper be then moved backwards and of distinctly seeing surrounding objects ; while those forwards, a point will be found at which the right. who suddenly encounter a strong light, are unable hand circle is no longer visible, although it reappears to see distinctly until the shock which the retina when the paper is either brought nearer or removed has experienced' has subsided, and the iris has duly further. Although no other part of the retina contracted. In protecting the retina from the sudden possesses the complete insensibility presented by the effects of too strong a light, the iris is assisted by blind spot, it is probable that its anterior portions the eyelide, the orbicular muscle, and, to a certain have very little to do with vision. When using only extent, by the eyebrows. Moreover, the dark one eye, we direct it towards the object we wish to pigment of the choroid coat acts as a permanent inspect, in such a way as to throw the image to the guard to the retina, and where it is deficient, as in back of the globe ; and when the eye is thus fixel, albinog, an ordinary light becomes painful, and the objects near the boundary of the field of vision are protective appendages, especially the eyelids, are in less distinctly seen than those at its centre. constant use.

The extent of the field of vision for a single eye, The persistence, during a certain time, of impres- the head being fixed, has been calculated by Di sions made on the retina, facilitates the exercise of Young. He found that the eyeball was capable of sight. A momentary impression of moderate inten- a movement of 55 degrees in every direction, so that sity continues for a fraction of a second; but if the a single eye may have perfect vision of any point impression be made for a considerable time, it endures within a range of 110 degrees. for a longer period after the removal of the object. We have not yet referred to the longitudinal Thus, a burning stick, moved rapidly in a circle range, or greatest distance of human vision; iniloedo

EYE-EYEBRIGHT.

The eye may

this range varies so extremely that it is difficult to near-sightedness (myopia), far-sightedness (presby. assign an arbitrary limit to it. Many uncivilised opia), the appearance of bodies (muscæ) floating in races, as the North American Indians, and the or before the eye; and there may be double vision inhabitants of the vast Asiatic steppes, possess (diplopia), with both eyes or with one. For further powers of sight which would appear almost incredible on this point see Vision. The parts between the if they had not been thoroughly and frequently eye and its bony orbit may be the seat of inflammacorroborated. Our information is more definite tion, abscess, or tumour, making the eye protrude. regarding the limits of human vision in regard to The movements of the eyeballs may be affected the minuteness of the objects of which it can take from palsy of the motor nerves, or from contraction cognizance Ehrenberg has carefully studied tbis of the lateral recti muscles, causing inward or outsu vject, and has arrived at the following results. ward squinting. See SQUINTING. The side of the smallest square magnitude usually lose all feeling, from palsy of the fifth pair of nerves. visible to the naked eye-either of white particles The whole of the same side of the face, nostril, and on a black ground or conversely—is about forth of mouth, will be in the same condition, and the eye an inch; and with the greatest condensation of light becomes inflamed and disorganised. Substances and effort on the part of the observer, squares with thrown against the eye may injure it. Quicklime a side as small as otth of an inch may be recog. is rapidly destructive to the eye, slaked lime and uised, but without sharpness or certainty. Bodies mortar less so. When one of these, or any other smaller than these, when observed singly, cannot be caustic, has got into the eye, sweet oil is the best discerned by the naked eye, but may be seen when thing to introduce, until the surgeon arrives to placed in a row. Much smaller particles may, how- remove them. If it is oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) ever, be distinctly seen, if they powerfully reflect that has been the cause of the injury, a weak solulight; thus, gold-dust, which in none of its diameters tion of soda may be used in the first place to neutralise exceeded path of an inch, is easily discernible in the acid. In gunpowder explosions near the eye, common daylight. The delicacy of vision is far besides the burn, the particles are driven into the greater for lines than for minute areas, since opaque surface of it, and will cause permanent black threads of poorth of an inch may be discerned when stains over the white of the eye, unless they are held towards the light.

carefully removed at the time. When chips of glass, Various topics which the reader might perhaps stone, &c., are driven into the interior of the eye, have expected to find noticed, such, for instance, as there is little hope of it being saved from destruc

single vision with two eyes,' 'the appreciation of tive inflammation. When only partially sunk into solid forms by the sense of vision,' . correct vision the cornea, as is often the case with sparks of hot with an inverted image on the retina,' &c., which iron, or 'fires,' as they are led, the rubbing of belong fully as much to metaphysics as to physiology, the projecting part on the eyelid causes great pain, will be discussed in a future article on Vision. In and the surgeon has not much difficulty in removing the meantime, we may refer those who desire them. Most commonly these, or other foreign information on these points to Professor Bain's bodies,' as particles of dust, sand, seeds, flies, &c., treatise on The Senses and the Intellect.

merely get into the space between the eyeball and EYE, DISEASES OF THE. The diseases of the eye the lids, almost always concealed under the upper, enumerated by the surgeon are very numerous,

as it is the larger, and sweeps the eye. They cause partly from the variety of the tissues and parts of great pain, from the firmness and sensitiveness of which it is formed, partly because the exposed the papillary surface of the lid, soon excite inflam. situation and transparency of the eye enable mation, and their presence, as the cause, is apt to the diseases to be seen. Nearly all its parts are

be overlooked. The lid must be turned round to liable to inflammation and its consequences.

See find them. To do this, pull the front or edge of the OPHTHALMIA. The eyelids are liable to various lid forwards by the eyelashes, held with the finger diseases, as growths of several kinds, most of which and thumb, and at the same time press down the the surgeon may remove; inflammation, as blear back part of the lid with a small pencil or key. eye (ophthalmia tarsi); to be misdirected inwards The lid will readily turn round, when the body may or outwards, Entropium and Ectropion (q. v.); and be seen about its middle, and may be removed with the upper eyelid may fall down (ptosis) from palsy the corner of a handkerchief. Another plan, which of the commun motor oculi nerve. The eyelashes the person himself may try, is to pull forward the may grow in upon the eye (trichiasis), and produce upper lid by the eyelashes, and push the lashes of serious results. When plucked out, they grow the lower lid up behind it, when the foreign body again; and if they still grow in upon the eye after may be brushed out. After the bodies are removed, this palliative treatment has been tried several a feeling as if they were still there may remain for fines the surgeon has to cut down on their roots, some time. ud dastroy them. The duct which conveys away the tears to the nose is liable to inflammation and in the north of Suffolk, near the source of the

EYE, a parliamentary and municipal bomagb obstruction, causing watery eye. See the article

Waveney, 20 miles north of Ipswich. Its streets LACHRYMAL ORGANS, The cornea is liable to opacity in various degrees. The mere nebula or It sends one member to parliament, the parliamen.

are rather narrow and irregular. Pop. (1871) 2396. cloudy condition, either limited or general, may pass off, and leave the cornea again clear; but the white tary, borough including eleven parishes." Eye, in mark, which is the cicatrix or scar of an ulcer, is the town. There was formerly a castle and priory

Anglo-Saxon, means island ; the river surrounding permanent, although it may become smaller by the

here. disappearance of the surrounding haze.

The pupil may be closed as the result of iritis, or of operations EYEBRIGHT (Euphrasia), a genus of plants of for cataract, and an artificial pupil may be made by the natural order Scrophulariaceæ, having a tubular either of the three methods—incision, excision, or calyx, the upper lip of the corolla divided, the separation—but the operation is seldom attended lower of three nearly equal lobes, the cells of the with success. For opacities of the crystalline lens, anthers spurred at the base, a two-celled capsule vee CATARACT. For an account of diseases of the and striated seeds. Some of the species are rootnervous parts of the eye, see AMAUROSIS. Various parasites. The only British species is the COMMON afections of vision may arise from peculiar or altered E. (E. officinalis), a little plant of at most six or conditions of the refracting humours of the eye- 28 eight inches in height, with ovate serrated leaves

EYE-PIECE-EZRA.

anil white or reddish flowers streaked with purple, 1 of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar, announces tho appearing singly in the axils of the leaves. It is complete overthrow of the kingdom of Judah, on cerv abundant in many pastures, and even on high account of its increasing unfaithfulness to God;

mountains, whereas in the second (chapters 25—32) threatens the surroundvery northern regions—it ing nations, which were exulting maliciously over is often to be seen of only the ruin of Judah, with divine punishment; and an inch in height, gemming the third (chapters 33—48) prophesies the future the ground abundantly deliverance of the Hebrew nation, and the rebuild. with its bright little ing of Jerusalem. This last portion is generally flowers. It is a very believed to contain several Messianic predictions, widely distributed plant, three of which are considered specially remarkable a native of most parts of (chaps. 36–37, 38, 39, and 40—48); and it is Europe, the north of Asia, beyond all question that only under a world wide the Himalaya, &c. It was dispensation like the Christian, can the glorious once in great repute as a visions of the prophet receive a historical realisation cure for ophthalmia, and The book is full of magnificent but artificial syla. is still much used in rustic bolism, and of allegories difficult to understand ; practice for diseases of the whence Jerome calls it'a labyrinth of the mysteries eye. A spot on the corolla, of God;' but here and there, as in chapters Ist something like a pupil, and 2d, it contains visions that indicate the possesgave it much of its reputa- sion on the part of E. of a most vivid and sublime tion, whilst the fanciful imagination. E.'s authorship of the book has been doctrine of signatures pre- questioned. The Talmud says, it was written by vailed in medicine; but it the Great Synagogue, of which E. was not a

has been found really effica- member; and Ewald, believing that traces of later Common Eyebright cious in catarrhal'inflam- elaboration are quite obvious, suggests that the Euphrasia oficinalis). mations of the eye, and in collection and combination of the various prophecies

other catarrhal affections. into a book may not have been the prophet's 14 is a weak astringent. It is the Euphrasy of own doing. The opinion of most critics, however, dilton, with which he represents the archangel is, that a prophet who was so much of a literary Llichael as purging the visual nerve of Adam. artist as E., was more likely to have completed the EYE-PIECE, the name given to the microscope book himself than to have left such a work to

others. by means of which the image of the object formed

The text is far from being in a perfect in the focus of a telescope is observed. See

condition. It is partly corrupted by glosses, has TELFSCOPE.

partly been retouched by later hands, and may

often be amended by the Septuagint version. The EYLAU, usually called Prussian Eylau, a town best commentaries on the book of Ezekiel are in the government of Konigsberg, and 22 miles those of Hävernick (Erlangen, 1843) and Hitzig sonth of the town of that name, contains about 3000 (Leip. 1847). inhabitants, and is celebrated for the battle fought there between Napoleon and the allies—Russians Christ. He was descended from a distinguished

E'ZRA, a Jewish lawgiver of the 5th c. before anil Prussians—under Bennigsen, February 8, 1807, priestly family, and was resident in Babylon in The French force amounted to about 80,000, and the reign of Artaxerxes Longimanus. With this the allies numbered 58,000, but were superior in monarch he seems to have been in considerable artillery. The battle was opened soon after day: favour, and in the year 478 B.C. obtained permission light by a furious attack made by the French left to return to Jerusalem with

a band of his country on the Russian right and centre, which, however, men amounting to 1754. His services to the new proved utterly unsuccessful, the attacking corps colony in regard to their civil and religious conbeing all but completely destroved. The murderous dition were very iinportant. He endeavoured to struggle was repeatedly renewed, and the promise re-impose more strictly th: law of Moses, forbidding of victory alternated now to the one side and now to the other. Night closed upon the whole allied such ties where they had been formed. He also

marriages with heathen women, and disannulling line pressing onward and driving the French before introduced into Jewish literature the square Chaldee them. Nevertheless, the victory is generally claimed character, instead of the old Hebrew or Samaritan by the latter, chiefly because the allied forces, one, which had been customary till then ; but the unable to recruit their strength, were ordered to tradition that he re-wrote from memory the sacrer retreat from the field on the night of the battle, and books burned at the destruction of the temple, to retire upon Konigsberg. The loss of the allies is deserves no regard; and it is likewise a mere estimated at about 20,000, while that of the French tradition that as president of the so-called Great must have been considerably greater.

Synagogue (an assemblage of Jewish scholars) he EZEKIEL (meaning ‘God will strengthen,' or arranged and completed the canon of the Old Testastrength of God'), one of the Hebrew prophets, ment. See BIBLE.—The book called by his name, was the son of the priest Buzi, and along with along with the book of Nehemiah, formed, among Jehoiachin, king of Judah, was carried captive, the Jews, the first and second books of Ezra. It when still a young man, to Mesopotamia, by order records events which extended over a period of of Nebuchadnezzar, about 598 B. C. He was a nearly 80 years, and divides itself naturally into member of the Jewish community which settled on two parts. The first six chapters embrace a period the banks of the river Chebar, and first appeared of 21 years, and relate the history of the first as a prophet about the year 594 B.C. His pro- return from the Babylonish captivity; the rest of phetic career extended over a period of 22 years. the book chronicles the second return under Ezra the The date of his death is not recorderl.—The book priest, in the reign of Artaxerxes Longimanus. The of Ezekiel consists of three great parts: the first book is partly written in Chaldee, and is probably the (chapters 1-24), composed before the final conquest work of various authors.

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TYE sixth letter in the Latin and F, in Music, is the fourth note of the natural English alphabets, corresponding to diatonic scale of C, and stands in proportion to C the Vau of the Hebrew, and the as 4 to 3, and is a perfect fourth above C as funda. Digamma (q. v.) of the old Greek mental note. F major, as a key, has one flat at its alphabet. See ALPHABET. F and v signature—viz., B flat. F minor has four flats the are called labio-dentals, from the same as A flat major, of which it is the relative organs employed in producing them; minor.

they belong to the class of consonants called Aspirates (q. v.), and bear the

FAAM, or FAHAM (Angræcum fragrans), an same relation to each other that exists between the orchid, native of India and the Mascarene

Isles, anaspirated labials and b. In Latin, s had a pecu- of its leaves, which

is owing to the presence of

much prized in the East for the delightful fragrance liar sound, different from that of Greek ®, as we learn from Cicero and other Latin writers.” What Coumarin (q. v.), and resembles that of the Tonka the sound was, we do not exactly know, but it Bean and of Vernal Grass. In the Isle of Bourbon, approached to the nature of a strongly breathed h, an infusion of F. leaves is in great repute as a curo as is indicated by the fact that in the Sabine dialect In France, it has been successfully employed, under

for pulmonary consumption and as a stomachic. it sometimes takes the place of h, as Sab. fircus Lat. hircus (a he-goat); and the Latins made use

the name of Isle of Bourbon Tea, as an expectorants both of faba and haba for'a bean. This affinity anti-spasmodic and stomachic. is also shewn in modern Spanish, where h takes the FABACEÆ. See LEGUMINOSE place of the Latin f; as Lat. femina, Sp. hembra; becomes, in Spanish, ul , as Lat. flamma = Sp. llama.

FA'BER is the name of two artists, father and F, in English and other Teutonic tongues, corres

John F., the elder, was born in Holland, ponds to p in Greek and Latin; as Lat. and Gr. where he acquired a knowledge of the art of pater Eng. father; Gr. pod., Lat. ped. - Eng.

mezzotinto-engraving. Subsequently, he came to foot; Lat. pisc- = Eng. fish; Gr. pur = Eng. fire; England, and died at Bristol, May 1721. His works Lat. vulp- = Eng. wolf. In some words, v takes the do not exhibit much talent.—The younger F., also place in German off in English ; as Ger. vater =

called John, obtained, however, a high reputation Eng. father; Ger, vier Eng. four. In the Aber- as an engraver in mezzotinto. His principal works deenshire dialect, f takes the place of wh, as fat are the portraits of the Kit-Cat Club, and the for what ; fup for whip. This seems to be a relic of Beauties of Hampton Court, several of which are the Teutonic pronunciation of w (= v), still to be executed with great freedom, vigour, and beauty. observed in the Cockney pronunciation of vill for F: lived in London, where he is believed to have

died in 1756. will, ven for when; but why the sharpening of the labial into f should be confined to one circumscribed FABER, Rev. GEORGE STANLEY, a learned and district of Scotland, and to the case of w followed voluminous divine of the Anglican Church, was the by h, it is hard to say.

eldest son of the Rev. Thomas Faber, and was born F'in Lat. and Greek becomes b in Eng.; as Gr. 25th October 1773. He entered University College, and Lat. fer Eng. bear; Lat. frater Eng. Oxford, in 1789, where he achieved a brilliant brother. See Letter B.

academical reputation.

Before his 21st year, he More remarkable are the interchanges between f was elected Fellow and Tutor of Lincoln College. and the series d, th, t. Lat. foris = Gr. thura, Eng: In 1796, he took his degree of M.A., was Bampton door ; Lat. fera = Gr. ther, Eng. deer; Eng. red, Lecturer for 1801, in which capacity he delivered Sans ruthira, Gr. eruthros, Lat. rutilus, rufus, ruber. the lectures subsequently published under the titlo In Russian, Feodor, Afanasja = Theodor, Athanasia. of lIorce Mosaicæ; and in 1805 became vicar In words originally common to both Greek and of Stockton-on-Tees, in the county of Durham. Latin, the Greek © is represented in Lat. by f; as After several changes, he received from Bishop

Lat. fama. But in spelling Greek words Van Mildert, in 1832, the mastership of Sherburn with Latin letters, the Romans, after the time of Hospital, near the city of Durham, where he died Cicero, were careful to represent o, not by s, which 27th January 1854. F. wrote upwards of forty had a somewhat different power, but by ph. This works, several of which, especially those upon mode of spelling words derived from Greek is still prophecy, have enjoyed a very extensive popularity. adhered to in English, German, and French, although All his writings are marked by strong masculine the distinction in sound has long been lost sight sense, extensive classical erudition, and a hearty of. The distinction began to disappear in the Latin love of hypothesis.' The principal are - The Geniue itself in the time of the later Roman emperors, and Object of the Patriarchal, the Levitical, and the when inscriptions shew such spelling as Afrodite Christian Dispensations (1823, 2 vols.); The Diffi for Aphrodite ; and this simplification is followed culties of Infidelity (1824); The Sacred Calendar of in modern Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese. Ph Prophecy (1828, 3 vols.); The Primitive Doctrine of is sometimes erroneously used in worils having Election (1836), reckoned by some critics the most ao connection with Greek; as Adolphus, for the valuable of all F.'s writings; The Primitive Duc. Teutonic Adolf or Adalolf-i. e., 'noble wolf.' trine of Justification (1837); and Eight Dissertations

Gr. Onun

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