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difficulties various methods, more or less satisfactory, the gravity of advanced years. Edward used to have been employed. For several years E. was the speak of her as his 'sweet sister Temperance.' chief theocratical counsellor of Jehorum. Under the During her sister's reign, this demureness was reign of Jehu and his successors, he gradually with exaggerated into prudery, and the vanity which, in drew from public affairs, and died in Samaria in the after years, with ampler means at its command, reign of Jehoash, grandson of Jehu (about 840 B. C.). displayed itself in the utmost profusion of personal It has been customary to draw a parallel between decoration, then sought for distinction by excess E. and Christ; and his mildness and gentleness- of plainness. Her Protestantism, and the way in always excepting the story of the destruction of the which court was paid to her by the Protestant children at Bethel, which has perplexed all humane nobility, caused uneasiness to Mary and her council readers of Scripture-seem to justify this. E. is On her sister's command, she conforned to pusy, canonized in the Greek Church ; his day is the 14th but the insincerity of the conformity imposed apud of June.

Upon the pretext of having been con. ELI'XIR (Lat. elizare, to extract by boiling), a cerned in Wyatt's rebellion, she was sent in 1554

She entered it with all the gloomy term in pharmacy which has come down from the to the Tower. days of alchemy, and is applied to various prepara- forebodings which the fate of so many royal ladies tions consisting mostly of solutions of aromatic who had been recently within its walls, could and bitter vegetable substances in spirits of wine. suggest. In daily fear for her 3:e, many months The terin tincture is now more common.

ELIXIR passed. Indeed, the warrant for her execution was OF VITRIOL, or Aromatic Sulphuric Acid, is

at one time prepared ; and it is unquestionable that

prepared from 14 fluid ounces of sulphuric acid (oil the stern bigotry of Mary and her councillors, of vitriol), 10oAuid ounces of rectified spirit, & oz. but for the fear of popular commution. The people,

Gardiner and Bonner, would have sacriticed E., cinnamon in powder, 1 oz. ginger in powder. The acid is gradually added to the spirit, and the however, regarded E. with great favour, and many mixture being placed in a closed vessel, is allowed alreadly looked forward to the time when the to digest at a gentle heat for three days; the death of Mary should free the court from foreign cinnamon and ginger are then added, and after influence, and give room for a milder government. being allowed to stand about six days, the whole Thus the life of E. was saved, but for some time is strained through cloth. The elixir of vitriol is longer she was kept a prisoner at Woodstock. useful for quenching thirst, sharpening the appetite, During the remainder of Mary's reign, E., thongla checking profuse perspiration, and often reducing occasionally at court, resided chiefly at her l'esi. the action of the pulse.

dence of Hatfield House, in Hertforilshire, where from 10 to 40 minims, and is administered in a and the study of classical literature, under the

The dose may range she occupied herself with feminine amusements, wine-glassful of water, or some mild liquid, as infusion or conserve of roses.-ELIXIR VITÆ OF

learneil Roger Ascham. Matuolus is composed of alcohol, and upwards of

When Mary died (17th November 1558), E. was

Her accession twenty aromatic and stimulating substances, and twenty-five years of age. was at one time administered to patients suffering welcomed alike by Catholic and Protestant. The from epilepsy.

former were, outwardly at least, the majority in ELIZABETGRAD, a town of South Russia, is who really cared for the peculiar doctrines of the

Mary's reign ; but among them there were few situated in the midst of a delightful plain, on the Roman Church, and there were many who were banks of the lugul, in lat. 48° 27' N., long. 32° 15' E., about 130 miles north from Kherson. It consists of and cruel persecution. Like E. herself, there were

weary of priestly interference, foreign dictation, a town proper and four suburbs, is well built, its many who had conformed merely to save themselves streets straight, wide, and adorned with avenues of from trouble. They had obeyed the Six Articles trees.

E. has a large arsenal within the walls, and in Henry's time; had agreed to the Protestant is protected by six bastions. A considerable trade settlement of Edward ; had turned with Queen is carried on here in the produce of the surround Mary, and were now ready to turn again with ing districts; and an annual fair is held, which is Queen Elizabeth. The Protestants, of course, who attended by many thousands of dealers; commerce had never believed the sincerity of E.'s conformity; is also carried on with Poland and Moldavia. In welcomed her to the throne. E. then began, amidst the immediate neighbourhood of the town there are dangers and difficulties, a reign which, contrary to apwards of 30 wind-mills. Great numbers of cavalry the expectation of all, was of uvexampled length are always present in E., as it is the leadl-quarters and prosperity. It would be wrong not to attributo of the military colonies east of the river Bug. Pop. to her influence some effect in producing the great in 1867, 31,968.

changes which, during the next forty-four years, ELI'ZABETH, Queen of England, was the took place in England; but so far as these changes daughter of Henry VIII. and the unfortunate Anne were not produced in the natural course of the Boleyn, and was born 7th September 1533. While development of the nation's powers, and so far as she was yet in her third year, her mother was they bear the mark of an individual mind, they belicaderAfter her mother's execution, she was bear much more the impress of the bold yet cai tious sent to the country, where, in comparative poverty judgment and clear intellect of the great minister, And seclusion, under the care of ladies who leaned to Cecil, than of the sovereign's will. It is to the the 'new learning,' and sometimes, though seldom, highest praise of E. that her first act on succeeding with the companionship of her brother Edward, or was to consult with such a man, and that to the her sister Mary, the greater part of her early youth very last she could bend her capricious temper to was spent. When Catharine Parr became queen, his control. E., who was a favourite with her, was more seen at How the government influence was to be directed, court; but from some unknown cause, she incurred was not long in being shewn. Till parliament should her father's displeasure, and was again sent to the meet, E. isened a proclamation that the English conntry. Her father died when she was twelve language should be used in the greater part of the years old. During the reign of her brother Edward, church service, and that the Host should not be her life passed quietly and peacefully. She was elevated by the priest during mass. This suffi. then remarkable for a great demur ness and sobriety ciently indicated into what hands power had passerl, of mapuer, discoursing with her elders with all and was enough to throw the inass of the indifferent

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to the side of the Protestants, and to cause a Protest- afterwards, they followed the same path. No war ant majority to be returned to E.'s first parlia- was undertaken in her reign for the sake of terriment. The acts of this parliament must be ever torial conquest. To strengthen her own throne, E. memorable in our history. It was then that Eng- secretly succoured the Protestants in Scotland, in land took its position as a Protestant power. The France, and in the Low Countries ; but shu nad few Book of Common Prayer, retaining, doubtless, some open wars. To be at peace with a government, nay, mixture of medieval thought, but still vivid with apparently to be upon the most amicable of terms new energy, was appointed to be used in all with it (as E. was with the French court, while she churches; the Thirty-nine Articles were settled as sent assistance to the Huguenots at Rochelle), and the national faith ; the queen was declared to be at the same time to aid its rebellious subjects, was head of the church. Thus all allegiance to Rome in those days thought only part of the politio was thrown off. This revolution was soon accomo dissimulation without which, it was believed, no plished, and with little turmoil. The bishops, with nation could be safely ruled. To maintain the one exception, refused to conform ; but as a sign of security of her own throne, and to prevent foreign the times, marking how thoroughly the priesthood interference in English matters, was the main. must have become demoralised before their power spring of E.'s foreign policy; and she lost no oppor. was lost, it is noteworthy that of the 9000 clergy- tunity of weakening and tinding occupation abroad men who held livings in England, there were fewer for any foreign power that unduly threatened her than 200 who resigued, rather than obey the new authority. order of things.

The one great blunder of England's policy was The policy of E.'s ministers was one of peace and the treatment of Mary Queen of Scots. Had E economy. They found the nation at war with pursued a straightforward course, when her rival France and Scotland, and one of their first acts was thrown into her hands, much evil might have was to secure peace upon favourable terms. Ever) been spared. Some of the English ministers were

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prepared to take effectual measures to remove a life This led to naw evils. The participation of tao which might be turned into so dangerous a tool in Catholic party in the plots was retaliated by perse. the hands of Catholics. E shrank from that course, cution. Many suffered under an act passed in but had not the courage and generosity to set 1585, making it treason for a Catholic priest to be Queen Mary at liberty. Had this course been taken, in England, and felony to harbour one. These cruel Mary woud have gone to France or Spain, would measures were the ultimate means of bringing upon have made a foreign marriage, and as a foreigner England the most menacing foreign attack which she would have lost the only sources of her real had suffered. Philip of Spain had long meditated power--the sympathies of the Scotch and English vengeance against England. The greatest state in Catholics. As it was, E. retained her a prisoner, Europe, enriched by splendid acquisitions in the New and thus for years gave cause to conspiracy after World, could ill brook that a power of the second conspiracy among the English Catholics. For a rank should incite rebellion among her subjects in rebellion incited to set Mary free, the richest and the Netherlands, should aid the Protestants in their most popular of the English nobility, Norfolk, was desperate struggle against Alva, and allow its ships executed. The discovery of every new plot led to (little better than pirates, it must be confessed) to demands, on the part of parliament, for the execu. enter the Spanish harbours, and cut out the rich tion of Mary. The plots then took a graver aspect. laden galloons. These were the real reasons : to The assassination of E, and the placing of Mary restore the Catholic faith, and to revenge the death on her throne, became the object. On the dig- of a Catholic queen, furnished ostensible reasons. covery of Babington's conspiracy for this purpose, Years had been spent in preparation. In 1588, the the popular cry was irresistible, and was joined Invincible Armada' sailed from the Tagus, manned in by Cecil and Walsingham, and others of E.'s by, 8000 sailors, and carrying 20,000 soldiers. To ministers, who had sinned too deeply against Mary aid these, a land-army of 100,000 men was to be to run the risk of her succession to the throne. transported from the Netherlands under the Duke With reluctance and hesitation, the sincerity of of Parma. The news roused all England, and every which need not be questioned, E. consented ; and man who could carry arms Protestant and Catholio Mary, after long years of confinementy was con- from 18 years of age to 60—was enrolled in the damned and executed.

forces. The old queen herself rode at Tilbury,


energetically encouraging the army. A fleet of and produced dignified replies that she would 200 vessels and 15,000 seamen gathered itself on attend to the matter when the time came. Yearg the southern coasts, and waited the attack. Supe- passed on, and she remained a spinster. Catharine rior skill and courage gained the victory for the of Medici, queen-mother of France, intrigued to English ; and what these had begun, the force of marry her to one of her sons, Henry of Anjou the elements completed. The splendid Armada was ' (afterwards Henry III.), or the Duke of Alençon, broken and destroyed before it could join the land, afterwards Duke of Anjou. When the foreigu army, not a soldier of which ever left foreign envoys pressed the suit of the latter, E. wag ground ; while not a seaman of the fleet, save those 38 years of age, and her suitor 19; but they whom shipwrecks sent, ever set foot on English ingeniously flattered her that she and he looked ground.

of the same age, for she, by her good preservation, E. died on 24th March 1603, having lived nearly looked nine years younger than she was; wbile 70, and reigned nearly 45 years. If the life of the duke, by his wisdom, gravity, and matura her rival, Mary of Scotland, read somewhat like a inteliect, looked nine years older. This flattery, tragedy, the private life of E. might afford abundant with more plausible attractions, was without effect. materials for comedy. Always parading her wish to E.'s position gave too much scope for the develop. live an unmarried life, E. coquetted with suitor ment of the unamiable and ridiculous features of after suitor till long after that period of life when her character. The personal vanity displayed in such proposals verge upon the ridiculous. Of ber her extravagant dress, her conversation, hier high father's schemes to marry her to the Scotch Earl of and disposed' dancing, excites a smile, not lessened Arran or to Philip the son of Charles V.-afterwarıls when we read of the irritable mistress boxing the husband of Mary-it is unnecessary to speak, for E. ears of her councillors, cuffing her attendants, had personally little to say in regard to them. But indulging in expressive masculine oaths, and amusing she was scarcely more than a child when her flirta- herself with rongh masculine sports. The assertion tions with the handsome Lord Admiral Seymour- that she was of a cruei disposition is false. That the brother of the Protector Somerset-had passed she could do cruel things when her vanity was the bounds of decorum. In Mary's reign, E. was concerned is sufficiently attested by her orilering flattered with the attentions of her kinsman, the Earl the right hand of a barrister, named Stubbos, to of Courtenay, and she declined the hand of Phili- be struck off for writing a remonstrance against bert of Savoy, pressed on her by her sister's council. her marriage with the Duke of Alençon, which When queen, with some hesitation she refused the she thought unduly reflected on herself; but in offer of Philip II., who was desirous of perpetuating her reign, the reckless waste of human life which his influence over England, and she began that marked the reigns of her predecessors was unknown. connection with Leicester, which so seriously com- She was not, however, of tine feelings. Her brother promiseul her character. It is certain that she could compliment her on the calm mind and elegant loaded him with honours as soon as she had them | sentences with which she replied to the communi. to bestow; allowed him to become a suitor for her cation of the death of lier father. On the news of hand within a few days after the sudden death of her sister's death, she burst out with rhapsodical his wife, Amy Robsart, attributed by all England quotations from the Psalms; and when she heard of to his agency; and allowed him to remain a suitor the execution of her lover Seymour, she turned long after his open profligacy had disgusted the away the subject with something like a jest. By nation, and had even opened her own eyes to his her attendants, she was more feared than loved. worthlessness. If we credit the scandal of the The one quality which never failed her, was pertimes, the intimacy was of the most discreditable sonal courage ; and when she chose, her demeanour kind. If we credit those sources of information, was stately and royal. Religiou was with her, recently turned to more profit by Mr Froule than as with a great proportion of the nation at that by any of his predecessors, which are found in the time, a matter more of policy and convenience dispatches of the Bishop of Aquila, ambassador of than of feeling or principle. She preferred Pro. Philip II. in London, preserved in the archives of testantism, from early associations, because it gave Simancas, not only was the moral character of E. her the leadship of the church, freed her from sullied with the darkest crimes, but even the quality foreign interference, and was more acceptable to for which she has ever been most honoured, her her ministers and to the nation. But she had English patriotism, was mere affectation. These conformed in Mary's time to Catholicism with little dispatches represent her as accessory-at least, after difficulty ; and, haul there been necessity for it, sho the fact-tv the murder of Amy Robsart, and as would rather have reigned a Catholic than not bavo offering to Spain to become a Catholic, and to restore reigned at all. To the last, she retained in her the Spiınislı ascendency in England, if Philip would private chapel much of the ritualism of the Ronan support her on the throne as the wife of Leicester; Church; and while refusing her Catholic subjects anil they represent her as being restrained from the exercise of their religion, she entertained the giving wily to the fatal consequences of her will ullresses of Catholic suitors. How thoroughly passion only by Cecil's control. That there is some incapable she was of appreciating, a matter of basis of truth in this revelation, it is scarcely religious principle may be gathered from the fact, possible to deny ; but the hatred with which that she lookeil upon the great Puritan movement, Philip regarded ., after her refusal to marry him, destined soon afterwards to play so important a has undoubtelly led the courtly bishop to gross part in the nation's development, as some frivolous exaggerations. It is undeniable, however, that had controversy about the shape of clerical vestments. E. followed her own inclinations, she would have of toleration, then well enough understood by married Leicester. Her ministers, wisely for the Bacon and the more aulvanced spirits of the age, nation, preveutel this, but E. never seriously enter she had no conception. tained another proposal. Cecil could prevent her What makes the name of E. so famous, wae marrying whom he would not, but he could not the splendour of her times. In lier long reign, furce er to marry whom he would. Among less the true greatness of England began. Ficed from distinguisheid suitors, the Archduke Charles of the possession of those French provinces which Vienni, and Prince Eric of Sweden, pressed their rather harassed than enrichedd --- with little domestic buit in vain. Petitions from parliament to the cominotion-with no great foreign wars-with an Quicen to marry only excited her maidenly wrath almost complete immunity from religious persecution


the nation turned to the arts of peace. An one of the small beginnings of our vast colonial unequalled literature arose. The age that produced empire. The social condition of the people aleo Spenser, Shakspeare, and Bacon, could not be greatly improved in her reign. The crowds of other than famous. Under Frobisher and Drake, vagabonds which the monastic institutions bad maritime adventure began, and the foundations of fostered, and who had pillaged the country in all our naval force were laid. Commerce, from being ways on the secularisation of the monastic property, a small matter in the hands of a few foreign died out, or were absorbed in industrious employmerchants, developed itself largely: The Exchange ments. The last traces of bondage disappeared. of London was opened in E.'s time; and in the Simultaneously with the growth of greater comfort charter which she granted to that Company of and intelligence in the people, parliament began to Merchant Adventurers, which afterwards took the assert, with greater vigour, its constitutional rights. name of the East India Company, may be seen the right of the Commons to free speech, and to

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m:tiate all money bills was steadily asserted; and parents of her future husband. She early displayed the right or the Crowd to grant monopolies, or to what may be called a passion for the severities of issue proclamations having the force of law, vigor- the Christian life, as it was conceived in those days. cusly assailed. In the later years of her reign, the She despised pomp, avarice, ambition; cultivated attempts of E. to gain arbitrary power, and her humility, and exhibited the most self-denying benecaprices, had forfeited the popularity which she volence. Her conduct, even as a girl, astonished 80 anxiously cultivated. But after her death, her the Thuringian court; but such was the grace and fame revived ; and during the time of the Stuarts, sweetness of her disposition, and the excellence of amid the jealousy of the Scotch, the troubles of her beauty, that Louis-though her affections secmed the civil wars, and the hatred of a Catholic sove to be given wholly to God-still wished to marry reiga, the nation looked back with fond regard to her. They were united when E. was only 14. Louis the long reign of the Good Queen Bess, when himself, far from blaming the devout girl whom he peace had prevailed, and the government had been had made his wife for her long prayers and ceasethoroughly English.

less almsgiving, was himself partially attracted to a ELIZABETH, St, daughter of Andreas II., king similar mode of life. A boy and two girls were the of Hungary, was born at Presburg in 1207. At the fruit of their union; but the happiness of E., in so ago of four, she was affianced to the Landgraf of far as it depended on anything earthly, was shattered Tharingia, Louis IV., called the Pious, and brought by the death of her husband in 1227, when absent tu bis court to ve edw-ated under the eyes of the lon the crusade headed by Barbarossa. Her confessor


Conrad of Marburg, a narrow fanatical monk (to councillor. E, however, did not possess the qualitiee whose miserable teaching E. mainly owed her requisite in a ruler. She wanted energy, knowledge, perverted idea of life and duty), had trained her to and love of business, and allowed herself to be stille the emotions of her nature as sinful, and guided by favourites. In order to strengthen her the poor widow hardly dared to bewail her loss. position, E. took pains to win over her nephew, Great misfortunes soon befell her. She was deprived the young prince Peter, the son of her sister, the of her regency by the brother of her deceased Duchess of Holstein-Gottorp. She summoned him husband, and driven out of her dominions on the to Petersburg in the year 1742, and proclaimed him plea that she wasted the treasures of the state by her successor. E. took part in the Austrian War her charities. The inhabitants of Marburg, whose of Succession, and in spite of the opposition of miseries she had frequently relieved, refused her France, despatched an army of 37,000 men to che an asylum, for fear of the new regent. At last she assistance of Maria Theresa, and thereby hastened found refuge in a church, where her first duty was the conclusion of the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle is to thank God that he had judged her worthy to 1748. E. shewed herself less placable towards Ruffer. Subsequently, after other severe privations, Frederick II., against whom she cherished a persou al such as being forced to take up her abode in the enmity, excited by some severe expressions he had stable of a hostelry, she was received into the employed respecting her. At the commencement monastery of Kitzingen by the abbess, who was her of the Seven Years' War, she allied herself with aunt. When the warriors who had attended her Austria and France, and marched her troops into husband in the crusade returned from the East, she the Prussian states. Her troops gained the victory gathered them round her, and recounted her suffer in the battles of Grossjägerndorf and Kunersdorf, ings. Steps were taken to restore to the unfor- and took possession of Berlin, but without any tunate princess her sovereign rights. She declined decisive result

. E. died before the expiration of the regency, however, and would only accept the the war, 5th January 1762. She founded the revenues which accrued to her as landgravine. The university of Moscow and the Academy of Art at remainder of her days were devoted to incessant St Petersburg. Though no person was put to death devotions, almsgivings, mortitications, &c. There during her reign, the most shocking punishments is something mournfully sublime in her unnatural were inflicted, and thousands were exiled to Siberia Belf-sacrifice. We shudder even in our sympathy and Kamtchatka. E had several illegitimate when we read of this beautiful tender-hearted crea- children. Profligacy, espionage, and persecution ture washing the head and the feet of the scrofulous reigned in her court, the administration of justice and the leprous. Murillo has a painting (now in was restrained, and tho finances neglected; but E the Museum at Madrid) of this act of evangelical was nevertheless extremely strict in the observance devotion. The solemn tragedy of her brief life of the public ordinances of religion. assumed towards its close à ghastly intensity ELIZABETH STUART, Queen of Bohemia through the conduct of her confessor, Conrad, who, remarkable not only as a heroine, but as forming under pretence of spiritual chastisement, used to the connecting link between the ancient royal strike and maltreat her with brutal severity. The families of England and Scotland and the present alleged cause of this was Conrad's aversion to her reigning dynasty, was born in the palace of Falke squandering' her money among the poor. Perhaps land (q. v.) on the 19th of August 1596. On the he thought it should have gone to him. At last her accession of her father, James VI. of Scotland, to health gave way; and on the 19th November 1231, the crown which fell to him by the demise of Queen at the age of 24, E. died, the victim partly of ill. Elizabeth, in 1603, she accompanied the family to usage and partly of a mistaken theory of religious England, where she was educated. On the 14th ch life, but as gentle and saintly a soul as figures in the February 1613, E. was married to Frederick, Electorhistory of the middle ages. She was canonised Palatine, whom she soon after accompanied to his four years after her death. See Montalembert's residence, the castle of Heidelberg (q. v.); see also Histoire de Sainte Elisabeth de Hongrie (Paris, 1836). PALATINATE. When the Protestant princes of The Rev. Charles Kingsley's dramatic poem, entitled Germany sought for a fitting person to fill the The Saints Tragedy (London, 1848), is founded on throne of Bohemia, they made choice of Frederick, the story of E.'s life.

who accepted the perilous honour, partly, perhaps, ELIZABETH PETROʻVNA, Empress of Russia, from the ambition of his wife, who is alleged to have daughter of Peter the Great and Catharine I., was longed for the title queen. The Palatine removed born in the year 1709. On the death of Peter II. with E. and three children to Pragne, which they in 1730, she allowed Anna, Duchess of Courland, entered, October 21, 1619. Frederick and E. occu. to ascend the throne, she herself being apparently pied the throne of Bohemia only about a year. By indifferent to anything but the indulgence of her the forces of the Catholic League, the army of passions. Anna died in 1740, and Ivan, the son of Frederick was routed at the battle of Prague, her niece (also called Anna), an infant of two November 8, 1620, and the oyal family fed into months, was declared emperor, and his mother exile, for already the Palatinate was laid waste. regent during his minority. Shortly after this, a With her husband and children, and a few faithful plot was formed to place E upon the throne; the attendants, E. took up her residence at the Hague, Iwo principal agents in it were Lestocq, a surgeon, and ever afterwards the family lived in a state of and the Marquis de la Chetardie, the French dependence. E. was the mother of thirteen chil. ambassador. The officers of the army were soon dren, the eldest of whom was accidentally drowned won over; and on the night of the 5th December in Holland, and three others died young. The next 1741, the regent and her husband were taken into were Charles-Louis and Rupert, and, following in custody, and the child Ivan conveyed to Schlüssel- order, were Elizabeth, Maurice, Edward, Philip, burg. The leading adherents of Anna were con Louisa, Henrietta-Maria, and Sophia. From this demned to death, but pardoned on the scaffold, and numerous offspring, E. derived little comfort in her exiled to Siberia. By eight o'clock in the morning, misfortunes. Charles-Louis was a selfish, calculat. the rev ation was completed, and in the afternoon ing person, with low, disreputable habits. Rupert all the troops did hoinage to the new empress. (q. v.), the 'mad cavalier,' and his brother, Maurice. La Chetarlie was handsomely rewarded; and fought in England during the civil war, and, a1 er Lostocq was created first physician to the empress, the loss of the royalist cause at the battle of Preaident of the College of Medicine, and privy Naseby, they betook themselves to the sea and for

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