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will greater h nours. Through their influence, the of a guitar, while the dancers beat time with
FANEUIL HALL, a spacious public hall in patriotisn, they were animated by the petty Boston, Massachusetts, erected in 1742 by Peter inotives of a caste, and when the war of liberation Faneuil, and presented by him to the town. lo broke out onoag their countrymen, they took no its original condition as so gifted, the building conpart in it. Is the present altered state of affairs tained a hall for public meetings, with lesser apartin Turkey, they have no political influence. See ments above, and a basement used as a market Marco Zalloni's Essai sur les Fannriots (Marseille, In 1761, it was destroyed by fire, and rebuilt. During 1824; 2d ea. 1830). Consult also Finlay's History the revolutionary struggle with England, the ball of the Greek Revolution (Edin., Blackwood and Sons, was so often used for important political meetings 1861).
that it became known as the cradle of American FANCY. See IMAGINATION.
liberty.' In 1805, the building was increased in
height by an additional story, and also increased in FANDANGO, like the Bolero, is an old Spanish width. It is now an edifice about 80 feet square; Dational lance, in f time. It is danced most grace the hall contains some fine paintings; and the fully in the country, usually to the accompaniment basement is no longer used as a market. The out
Jere given, which is taken from an original drawing, terminology of the law of Scotland, a thier tako represents this interesting historical edifice as it with the fang is one apprehended while carrying existed in 1768.
the stolen goods on his person. It is not very long FANFARE is the French name of a short and since this word formed part of the commün speech
of Scotland : lively military air or call, executed on brass instruments. It was brought by the Arabs into Spain, Snap went the shears, then in a wink, whence it passed into Mexico and the New World.
The fany was stowed behind a bink.' Fanfaron, derived from fanfare, is the name given
Morison's Poems, p. 110. to a swaggering bully or cowardly boaster, probably In England, also, the verb fang was still in use in in his own trunpet, or threatening timid people, Shakspeare's time : Destruction fang mankind ! und the term applied to his idle braggadocia and (Timon of Athens, iv. 3); and Master Fang,' in vapouring raunts is Fanfaronnade.
Henry IV., is named after his office. We still use
the phrase 'in the fangs' for in the clutches; and FANG (Ang.-Sax. and Ger., anything caught or the fangs of a dog or of a serpent are its teeth with taken, from the verb fangen, to catch). In the which it catches or holds.
FANT ERS-FAN-TRACERY VAULTING.
FANNERS, a machine employed to winnow Africa, residing on the tributaries of the Gaboon grain. In passing through the machine, the grain river, and said to be cannibals ; the accounts of this is rapidly agitated in a sieve, and falling through a savage race are, nowever, still imperfect, and what strong current of wind, created by a rotatory fan, is mentioned respecting them wants confirmation. the chaff is blown out at one end, and the cleansed particles fall out at an orifice beneath. The appa: at Ware Park, in the county of Hertford ; studied at
FANSHAWE, SIR RICHARD, was born in 1608 ratus is composed chiefly of wood, and though Jesus College, Cambridge, and in 1626, became a ordinarily moved by the hand, it is sometimes member of the Inner Temple. On the outbreak of connected with the driving power of a thrashing the civil war, he took part with the king; and in mill. The fanners superseded the old and slow process of winnowing, which consisted in throwing 1648, became treasurer to the navy under Prince ap the grain by means of sieves or shovels, while Worcester; and on his
release, withdrew to Breila
He was taken prisoner at the battle of a current of wind, blowing across the thrashing in Holland, where Charles II. was holding his court foor, carried away the chalf
. 'A machine for the in exile. After the Restoration, he was appointed winnowing of corn was, as far as can be ascertained, ambassador at the court of Madrid, where
he died for the first time made in this island by Andrew in 1666. F. was an author of considerable reputaRodger, a farmer on the estate of Cavers in Rox: tion. His most celebrated work, now very rare, iş burghshire, in the year 1737. It was after retiring from his farm to indulge a bent for mechanics, that a translation of Guarini's Pastor Fido, the lyrical he entered on this remarkable invention, and began passages of which are rendered with remarkable
skill and elegance. The volume in which it circulating what were called Fanners throughout the country, which his descendants continued to appeared was published in 1664, and contains other do for many years.?-Domestic Annals of Scotland, pieces in prose and verse. by R. Chambers, vol. ii. Strangely enough, there FANTA'SIA, in Music, the name of a composition was a strong opposition to the use of this useful of a similar character to the capriccio; also given to instrument, the objectors being certain rigid extempore effusions performed by a musician who sectaries in Scotland, who saw in it an impious possesses the rare gift of producing, as it were, offevasion of the Divine will. To create an artificial hand music like a well-studied, regular composition. wind, was a distinct flying in the face of the text, Hummel was more celebrated for his extempore “He that formeth the mountains, and createth the fantasias on the pianoforte than even for his pubwind.'-Amos iv. 13. Apart from the folly of the lished compositions. Frederick Schneider was equally objectors, who carried their fancies to the extent great for his free fantasias on the organ. of petty persecution, we are amazed at their apparent neglect of the fact that the winnowing of
FANTOCCI'NI. See PUPPET. corn by artificial means, in which fans performed FAN-TRACERY VAULTING, a kind of Late a conspicuous part, is mentioned repeatedly in Gothic vaulting (15th c.), so called from its resemthe Old Testament. See Fan. The advantages in blance to a fan. The ribs or veins spring from one using the fanners soon overcame all prejudices on point, the cap of the shaft, and radiate with the the subject, and the objections to the use of the same curvature, and at equal intervals, round the machine are now remembered only by tradition, surface of a curved cone or polygon, till they reach and by a passage in one of the imperishable fictions the semicircular or polygonal ribs which divide the of Scott". In the tale of Ola Mortality, Mause roof horizontally at the ridge level. The spaces Headrigg is made anachronously to speak to her between the ribs are filled with foils and cusps, mistress about a newfangled machine for dighting resembling the tracery of a Gothic window; hence the corn frae the chaff, thus impiously, thwarting the name fan-tracery. The spaces between the outthe will Divine Providence, by raising wind lines of the fans at the ridge level, are called by for your leddyship's use by human art, instead Professor Whewell (German Churches) ridge lozenges of soliciting it by prayer, or patiently waiting for In Henry VIL's Chapel, Westminster, one of the whatever dispensation of wind Providence was pleased to send upon the shieling-hill.'
FA'NO (Lat. Fanum Fortunæ, so called from the temple of Fortune which the Romans erected here in commemoration of the defeat of Asdrubal on the Metaurus) is the name of a town and seaport of Italy, in the province of Urbino e Pesaro, finely situated in a beautiful and fertile district on the shore of the Adriatic, 30 miles north-west of Ancona, and near the mouth of the Metaurus. It is well built, is surrounded with walls and ditches, has a cathedral dedicated to St Fortunato, and numerous churches containing many valuable paintings, among which are several of the best works of D menichino, and an excellent · Annunciation' by Guido. The remains of a triumphal arch of white marble, raised in honour of Augustus, form perhaps the chief object of classical interest at Fano. Pop. 8960, who carry on considerable trade in corn and oil, and in silk goods. Here, in 1514, Pope Julius II. established the first printing-press with Arabic letters known in Europe. The port of
From King's College Chapel, Cambridga. the harbour become, to some extent, choked up with best examples of this kind of vaulting, these lozengee sand
are occupied by pendants, which produce a most FANS, The, a race of aborigines in Equatorial astonishing effect, looking like arches resting on
nothing. They are, however, supported with great liquids and solids, though previously effected by ingenuity by internal arches, rising high above the others (and F. has ever been the foremost tu visible vaulting. This is one of the tours-de-force acknowledge another's priority), he has really made which astonish the vulgar, but are only adopted his own, not only by the extent and accuracy of when art has reached a low level, and has in a great his experiments, but by the exquisite experimental theasure given place to artifice. Fan-tracery is a very methods by which he effected the results. His beautiful kind of vaulting, and is peculiar to England, ideas on regelation, and its connection with the where it originated, and where alone it was practiced. motion of glaciers, have not met with uaiversal Among the finest examples are Henry VII.'s Chapel acceptance, though (see Heat, ICE, GLACIER) there at Viestminster; St. George's, Windsor ; and King's is no dispute as to his being correct in his face. Jo College Chapel, Cambridge. Fan-tracery is also fre- regard to Conservation of Force, there can be de quently used in the vaulting of cloisters, as at Can- doubt that he has been led into a fallacy, by terlury, Chester, etc.
mistaking the technical use of the word force (sico FA'RADAY, MICHAEL, D.C.L., 1832, one of the FORCE), for in his article on the subject he describe most distinguished modern chemists and natural experiments made with the view of proving tto philosophers; splendid instance of
conservation of statical, not dynamical force, obtained by patience, perseverance, and genius, whereas the doctrine of conservation asserts merely over obstacles of birth, education, and fortune the conservation of energy,' which is not statical He was born in 1794, near London, his father being force. He may be right also, but if so, it will be a blacksmith. He was early apprenticed to a book by a new discovery, having no connection whatever binder; yet even then he devoted his leisure time with conservation of energy.' to science, and amongst other things, made experi.
His Christmas lectures at the Royal Institution, ments with an electrical machine of his own con- though professedly addressed to the young, construction. Chance having procured him admission, tain in reality much that may well be pondered in 1812, to the chemical lectures of Sir H. Davy by the old. His manner, his unvarying success in (q. v.), then in the zenith of his fame, he ventured illustration, and his felicitous choice of expression, to send to Davy the notes he had taken, with a though the subjects are often of the most abstruse modest expression of his desire to be employed in nature, are such as to charm and attract all classes some intellectual pursuit. Davy seems to have at of hearers. Besides two sets (already mentioned) first endeavoureal to discourage him, but finding on chemical subjects, we have his Lectures on the him thoroughly in earnest, soon engaged him as Physical Forces, a simple work, but in reality most his assistant at the Royal lýstitution. He travelled profound, even in its slightest remarks. with Davy to the continent, as assistant and But the great work of his life is the series of amanuensis. On their return to London, Davy Experimental Researches on Electricity, publisher contided to him the performance of certain experi- in the Philosophical Transactions during the last inevts, which led in his hands to the condensation thirty years and more. Fully to understand all the of gases into liquids by pressure.
Here he first discoveries contained in that extraordinary set of shewed some of that extraordinary power and papers, would require a knowledge of all that has fertility which have rendered his name familiar to been discovered during that time as to Electricity, every one even slightly acquainted with physics, Magnetism, Electro-inaguetism, and Diamagnetism. and which led to his appointment, in 1827, to Sir We may merely mention the following, almost all H. Davy's post of Professor of Chemistry in the of which are discoveries of the first order. They Royal Institution. We shall give a brief summary are given in the order of publication, which is of his more important discoveries and published nearly that of discovery: 1. Induced Electricity, works, arranging the different subjects according to 1831, comprehending and explaining a vast variety their position in various branches of science, rather of phenomena, some of which have already been than in their chronological order.
applied in practice (especially as Magneto-electri. In chemistry, we have his treatise on Chemical city) to light-houses, electro-plating, firing of mines, Manipulation, 1827; 2d ed. 1842, even now a telegraplıy, and medical purposes. Electric currents very valuable book of reference. His Lectures on the derived from the earth's magnetism. 2. The ElectroNon-metallic Elements, and Lectures on the Chemical tonic State of Matter, 1831; 3. Identity of ElecHistory of a Candle, delivered at the Royal Insti- tricity from Different Sources, 1833; 4. Equivalents tution, were published within the last few years. in Electro-chemical Decomposition, 1834; 6. ElectroAs discoveries or investigations of a high order in static Induction --Specific Inductive Capacity, 1838; this branch of science, we may mention-New 6. Relation of Electric and Magnetic Forces, 1838 ; Compounds of Chlorine and Carbon, 1821; Alloys 7: The Electricity of the Gymnotus, 1839; & of Steel, 1822; Compounds of Hydrogen and Hydro-electricity, 1843 ; 9. Magnetic Rotatory Carbon, 1825; Action of Sulphuric acid on Naph | Polarisation, 1846, effected by means of the optical thaline, 1826; Decomposition of Hydrocarbons by glass already mentioned; 10. Diamagnetism and Expansion, 1827; and the very valuable series of the Magnetic Condition of all Matter, 1846; II. esperiments made in 1829–1830, on the Manufac. Polarity of Diamagnetics, and the Relation of ture of Glass for Optical Purposes, which resulted Diamagnetism to Crystalline Forces, 1849; 12. w one of his greatest discoveries, to be afterwards Relation of Gravity to Electricity, 1851. This, as ceuti, ned.
before remarked, is F.'s attempt to prove a con. As practical applications of science, his Prepara-servation of suiticul force. The results are all tion of the Lungs for Diving, and Ventilation of negative, but are none the less worthy of careful Light-house Lamps, are conspicuous, as are also his study; the mode of experimenting detailed in the celebrated letter on Table-turning, and his lecture paper, and the precautions taken and required, on Mental Education.
render it a model for every physicist. 13. Atmo. To enumerate only the most prominent of his spheric Magnetism, 1851. An attempt to explain publications on physical science, we may commence the diurnal changes of the earth's may netic forca with the Condensation of the Gases (already referred by the solar effect on the oxygen of the air ; a very to); then we have Limits of Vaporisation, Optical interesting paper. Deceptions, Acoustical Figures, Regelation, Relation We have omitted many things well worthy of of Gold and other Metals to Light, and Conservation notice even in so slight a sketch as this, but Pi'a of Force of these, the condensation of gases into name will be found in these pages in connectior
with something new in nearly every branch of physics. swelling up of the first stomach, and sometimes He died in August, 1867.
stupor or epilepsy. The overgorged stomach can, FARCE, a dramatic piece of a low comic char- i moreover, be felt by pressing the closed fist upwards acter. The difference between it and comedy proper and backwards underneath the false ribs on the is one of degree, and not of kind. The aim of both right side. The symptoms often extend over ten is to excite mirth; but while the former does so by days or a fortnight. Purgatives and stimulants are a comparatively faithful adherence to nature and to be given. For a full-grown beast give, in three truth, the latter assumes to itself a much greater or four bottles of water or thin gruel, + ib. each of licence, and does not scruple to make use of any common and Epsom salt, 15 ground croton beans, extravagance or improbability that may serve its a drachm of calomel, and two ounces of ginger. I purpose. It does not, therefore, exhibit, in general, no effect is produced, repeat this in 12 or 15 hours i refined wit or humour, but contents itself with Inject soap and water clysters every hour, withhold grotesque rencontres, and dialogries provocative of all solid food, and allow only sloppy mashes, treacle fua and jollity. The name is differently explained and water, or thin linseed tea. An occasional bottle In any case, it comes originally from the Latin of, ale, with an ounce or two of ginger, often expefarcire, to stuff; but while Adelung says that, in dites the action of the physic, and wards off nausea che middle ages, farce signified in Germany certain
and stupor. songs, which were sung between the prayers during FAREHAM, a town and sea-bathing place in divine service, others derive it from the Italian the south of Hampshire, on a creek at the northfarsa, this from the Latin farsum (stuffed); while west end of Portsmouth harbour, 12 miles eastPaolo Bernardi states that it comes from a Pro south-east of Southampton, and 9 miles northFençal word farsum, meaning a ragout, or mess of north-west of Portsmouth. It has manufactures of different ingredients, an opinion which has this to earthenware. Pop. about 6500. say for itself, that the dramatis personæ, Jackpudding, &c., were generally named after special
FAREL, GUILLAUME, one of the most active dishes or mixtures. The first farces are said to promoters of the Reformation in Switzerland, was have been composed by the society of the Clercs de born in the year 1489 in Dauphiné. He studied Bazoche in Paris, about the year 1400, as a contrast at Paris, and was at first distinguished by his to the ecclesiastical plays performed by the reli- extravagant zeal for the practices of the Catholic gious orders. _The most widely celebrated and the Church. Truly,' says he in one of his letters, the oldest is the Farce de Maitre Pierre Pathelin, which papacy itself was not so papistical as my heart.' some consider to be a composition of the 13th C.,
Intercourse with the Waldenses, and with his but which was more probably executed by one
friend Lefevre d'Etaples, induced him to study the Peter Blanchet, about 1480. Subsequently, Molière Scriptures; the result was his conversion to Proelevated and refined the farce into pure comedy, in testantism, and F., who was by nature vehement bis Méilecin Malgré lui, Malade Imaginaire, Les even to indiscretion, immediately commenced to Fourberies de Scapin, and other inimitable produc- proselytise. The chief scene of his labours was tions. In England, the origin of the modern farce France and Switzerland. At Basel, 15th February dates from about the commencement of the 18th 1524, he opened his career of controversy and century. It then began to be regarded as some evangelisation by publicly sustaining 30 theses on thing distinct from comedy proper, and to consti. the points in dispute between Roman Catholicism tute a special theatrical entertainment. Of all the and Protestantism. In less than two months, he numerous farces which have been performed before
was compelled to leave, mainly on account of a English audiences, only those of Samuel Foote have quarrel between himself and Erasmus, whom, on kept a place in literature.
account of his moderate or trimming policy, F. had FARCY in horses depends upon the same causes and afterwards to Montbeliard, where his icono
compared to Balaam. F. next went to Strasbourg, as Glanders (q. v.), which it usually precedes and clastic way of preaching the gospel excited the accompanies. "The absorbent glands and vessels, alarm of his friends, several of whom, Ecolamusually of one or both hind limbs, are intlamed; padius among others, censured him sharply for his tender, swollen, hard, and knotted. The vitiated violence. His zeal was next manifested in the lyrupb'thns poured out softens, and ulcers, or farcy canton of Bern. It was also chiefly through his buds appear. Unlike the ulcers of glanders, they exertions that the towns of Aigle, Bex, Olon, are curable, but require time and care. They must Morat, and Neuchâtel followed the example of be scarified with the hot iron, which, to prevent Bern in embracing the Reformation. In 1532, he their spreading, may also be gently run over the went to Geneva, where his success was at firet adjacent sound skin. Good feeding and comfortable so great, that on account of the agitation excited, lodgings are essential, and if they do not interfere he had to leave the city. He returned in 1533, with the appetite, give tonics, such as a drachm
was again compelled to withdraw, but once more each of sulphate of copper and iodine, repeated entered it in 1534. This was his year of triumph; twice a day.
the Reformers filled the churches, and the Catholic FARDEL-BOUND, a disease of cattle and clergy, who had made themselves odious to the steep, consists of impaction of the fardel bag, or citizens by abetting the despotic schemes of tho third stomach, with food, which is taken in between Duke of Savoy, retired to Lausanne and Fribourg. the leaves of this globular stomach, there to be In August 1535, the town council of Geneva for. fully softened and reduced. When the food is mally proclaimed the Reformation. F., however, anusually tough, dry, or indigestible, consisting, was a missionary, not a legislator, and the organifor example, of overripe clover, vetches, or rye sation of the Genevan Church passed into the grass, the stomach cannot moisten and reduce it hands of Calvin (q. v.). The severity of the new with sufficient rapidity ; fresh quantities continue ecclesiastical discipline produced a reaction, and in to be taken up, until the overgorged organ becomes April 1538, the two reformers were expelled from paralyzed, its secretions dried up, and its leaves the city. F. took up his residence at Neuchâtel
, affected with chronic inflammation. The slighter where the reformed church was in a state of deplorcases so common amongst stall-fed cattle are loss able disorder. He composed its differences, and of cud,' indigestion, and torpidity of the bowels. drew up a constitution, which it accepted, after la severer form, there is also fever, grunting, long and stormy debates, in 1542. In Septeinbes
of the same year, we find him fighting the battle retical treatises on Poetry, that lie has influenced of the Reformation at Metz. After his return the development of the poetic literature of Portugal, to Neuchatel, he frequently visited Calvin, whose in which he was long regarded as an oracle. His authority in Geneva had been completely restored. poetry exhibits talent and spirit, but is on the whole It was
on one of these occasions that he was tasteless and bombastic. F. is not to be confounded present at the burning of Servetus, and though with another Portuguese author of the same name, not, comparatively speaking, a bigoted Calvinist, who was born at Lisbon in 1581, and died at Evora he allowed his orthodoxy on that occasion to choké in 1655, and who was one of the most learned his humanity, exclaiming, as the unhappy heretic numismatists of his age. attered his last prayer to God from the flames: "See what power the devil has over one who has bees, instead of pollen, to denote the pol.en of
FARI'NA is the term used by many writers on allen into his hands.' In 1557, along with Beza, fowers collected by bees for feeding their larva he ws sent to the Protestant princes of Germany See BEE to implore their aid for the Waldenses, and on his return-inexhaustible in his activity-he sought
FARI'NA, a Latin term for meal or flour, which a new sphere of evangelistic labour in the regions has been adopted into the English and other lanof the Jura Mountains. When trembling upon guages, and is very frequently employed both in threescore-and-ten, he married a young wife, very scientific and popular works. The term farina is inuch to Calvin's disgust, who sarcastically speaks also frequently extended to many substances, which of him under the circumstances as our poor agree with the meal of the corn-plants or Cerealia brother.' But neither his newly formed domestic (q. v.), in containing much starch, and food made ties, nor the infirmities of age, could quench his of such substances is often called farinaceous, its missionary zeal
. In 1560—1561, he proceeded to qualities more or less resembling those of the food his native Dauphiné, and passed several months derived from the cerealia of the different kinds of at Gap, preaching against Catholicism with all farina, those produced by mere trituration of the the ardour of his youth. In November 1561, he seeds of grasses (corn), hold the first place for was thrown into prison; but was shortly after importance and usefulness. Most similar to them rescued by his friends. In 1564, he paid a visit are those obtained in the same manner from certain to the dying Calvin; his strength, however, was
other seeds. See CEREALIA. The farina of the now nearly exhausted, and on the 13th September different kinds of Pulse (q. v.), or seeds of leguminous 1565 he expired at Neuchâtel
, leaving a son named plants, has considerably different properties For Jean, who survived him only three years. F. was the qualities, chemistry, commercial importance, &c., a man of extensive scholarship, and wrote largely, of the different kinds of meal, see MEAL-Other but his works very inadequately represent the farinaceous substances, consisting chiefly of starch, genius of the man. Compare Kirchhofer's Das are obtained from roots-often from tubers of Leben Wilhelm Farels (2 vols., Zurich, 1831–1833), plants of very different natural orders ; some kinds and C. Schmidt's Etudes sur Farel (Strasbourg, also, as sago, from stems. Cassava meal, which 1834).
contains, along with starch, much vegetable tibre
and protein or albuminous substances, is commonly FAREWELL, CAPE, the southern extremity of called farina (Farinha) in many parts of South Greenland, lies in lat. 59° 49 N., and long. 43° 54' America, where it is a principal article of food. W. It is generally beset with ice, which, according Fossil farina, mountain milk, or Agaric mineral, to recent authorities, appears to come from the is a deposit of silicitied animalcules, obtained from north-east, and to sweep round into Davis' Strait. China, &c. In 100 parts, it consists of silica 50% Hence it is but little known; and, in fact, the alumina 264, magnesia 9, water and organic matter Danish traders, in passing to and from the settle-13, with traces of lime and oxide of iron. ments on West Greenland, seem uniformly to maintain an offing of more than 100 miles.
FARI'NI, CARLO LUIGI, an Italian author and
statesman, was born in 1822 at Russi, in Ravenna, FARI'A Y SOUSA, MANOEL, a Portuguese in the north of Italy. Having, with great success, historian and poet, was born of an ancient family at studied medicine at Bologna, F. first became known Caravella, in the province of Entre Minho e Douro, by several publications belonging to the science of 18th March 1590, and studied at the university of medicine, and soon afterwards by contributions to Braga. For some time he was in the service of the various scientific periodicals. In 1841 and 1842, Bishop of Oporto, but shortly after 1613 he went to having mixed himself up with politics, he was Madrid, where, however, he did not long remain, as obliged to leave the Roman States, and change he found no opportunity there of improving his his residence repeatedly until he finally settled at circumstances. "In 1631, he obtained the office of Turin. The amnesty following shortly upon the secretary to the Spanish embassy at Rome, where accession of Pio Nono, opened to F. not only his his extensive acquiremente procured him the notice native country, but also a new career, through the of Frpe Urban VIII and of all the learned men of liberal system inaugurated by the supreme pontiff. the city. After some time, he returned to Spain, In 1847, he was called into the reformed ministry, and died at Madrid 3d June 1649. F.'s writings as a substitute to the home secretary ; in 1848, he ere partly in Spanish, and partly in Portuguese. was present in the suite of Carlo Alberto at Voita, of the former, we may mention, Discursos morales and after the flight of the king, protesteil against
politicos (2 vols., Madr. 1623-1626), Epitome de the proclaiming of a republic. During the short hos Historias Portuguesas (Madr. 1628), Comentarios ministry of the unfortunate Rossi (q. v.), F. was sobre la Lusiada (2 vols., Madr. 1639), Asia Portu- director-general of the sanitary and prison departgruesa (3 vols., Lisbon, 1666—1675), Europa Portu- ment at Rome, from which post, however, he retired guesa (3 vnls., Lisbon, 1678–1680), Africa Portuguesa as soon as the reaction under Antonelli began to (Lisbon, 1681), and the greater portion of his poems, be established. Upon the occupation of Rome by which he collected under the title of Fuente de the French, F. became once more an exile, but for Aganippe o Rimas Varias (Madr. 1644–1646). a short time only, for in Piedmont he found a These poems consist of sonnets; eclogues, canzones, home as well as public honours. In 1850, he and madrigals. F., however, composed about 200 held the seat of Minister of Public Instruction is sonnets and 12 ecloguies in the Portuguese language; the cabinet of Victor Emanuel II., and on retiring and it is mainly by these, and also by three theo- from office, was named a member of the supreme