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some time were little better than pirates. Edward, mixed style a palace for the Protector Somersct (for in 1645, abjured Protestantism, and was admitted which purpose the cloisters of St. Paul were taken into the Roman Catholic Church. Philip committed down), and the mansion of Longleat for his secrea assassination at the Hague, fled from justice, tary, Sir John Thynne. The vast dimensions of the became a soldier of fortune in France, and was apartments, the extreme length of the galleries, and alain in the civil wars. Elizabeth accepted the office of superior of the Lutheran abbey of Hervorden, Henrietta-Maria was espoused by Ragotzi, Prince of Transylvania, but died shortly after her marriage. Louisa fled to France, and died as abbess of Maubisson. Previous to these events, E. became a wid)w by the death of Frederick, February 17, 1629, when his right to the Palatinate devolved on Charles-Louis, who, by the treaty of Westphalia, was restored to the family inheritance, October 24, 1648. This favourable turn of affairs did not mend the fortunes of E., who was scandalously neglected by her son, the young Elector-Palatine; and all he would do for the family was to give a shelter to his youngest sister Sophia, until she was married to Ernest-Augustus, a scion of the House of Brunswick, who ultimately succeeded to the electorate of Hanover.

Deprived, in one way or other, of all her children, the Qireen of Bohemia-by which title she continued to be known-resolved to quit Holland. Relieved of her debts by the sale of jewels, and by aid of a

Holland House. pecuniary subsidy from the British parliament, she embraced an invitation from her nephew, Charles II., enormous square windows, are the leading charao. to come to England. She arrived May 17, 1661. teristics of this manner of building. The ornamenta From this time she was in a great measure indebted both within and without were cumbrous; nothing to the hospitality of Lord Craven, in a mansion which could exceed the heaviness of the cornices and ceilhe had purchased from Sir Robert Drury, in Drury ings wrought into compartments; in short, the Lane, London, Charles II. paid her little attention; architecture was just in keeping with the dress of but at her death, which occurred February 13, 1662, the period, rich and gorgeous, rather than elegant. he caused her remains to be interred in Westminster graceful, and comfortable. The following examples Abbey. Charles-Louis, her son, died in 1680, leaving of mansions of the 17th c. may be still seen near a son, who died without issue, and the Palatinate London: Holland House, Campden House ; and then went to a distant branch of the family; he left the following in Kent: Sir T. Willow's at Charlton, also a daughter, Charlotte-Elizabeth, who, in 1671, the Marquis of Salisbury's at Hatfield, and Knowle, had married Philip, Duke of Orleans, only brother the property of the Duke of Dorset. The most of Louis XIV. In 1674, she gave birth to a prince, eminent architects of those times were John Thorpe, who became the noted Regent of France during the Gerard Christmas, Rodolph Symonds, and Thomas minority of Louis XV. She died at St Cloud in Holt. 1722. The late Louis-Philippe, king of the French, ELIZABETO'POL, a town of Russian Transwas her lineal descendant. When, in 1708, the caucasia, is situated in lat. 40° 42' N., long. 46° 20 E. question of succession to the crown of Great Britain The town consists of three parts, one of which is was debated, it was found that all the descendants fortified with a bastioned wall. Its principal build. of James I. were either dead or were Roman ings are its churches and mosques, of which there Catholics, except Sophia, Electress of Hanover, and are many. A peculiarity of this town is its numer. her family. By act of parliament, that year, the ous fruit-gardens or vineyards. Horticulture, tho crown was accordingly secured to her and her rearing of silk-worms, bees, and cattle, with agricul. descendants, being Protestants ;' and in virtue of ture and mining, are the chief occupations of the this act of settlement, on the death of Queen Anne, inhabitants. Pop. (1866) 15,439, principally Tartars Sophia would have ascended the throne, but she and Armenians. predeceased the queen three months, and her son ELK, MOOSE, or MOOSE DEER (Aloes became sovereign of these realms as George I., Malchis, or Cervus alces), the largest existing species August 12, 1714. In this extraordinary and unfore- of the Cervida, cr deer family, is a native of the been manner did a grandson of the unfortunate northern parts of Europe, Asia, and America. Wheu queen of Bohemia become king of England, and full grown, it is about six feet in height at the originate the dynasty of the reigning monarch. The shoulders, and sometimes weighs 1200 pounds. The Memoirs of Elizabeth Stuart, Queen of Bohemia, by body is round, compact, and short ; the neck in Miss Benger, 2 vols., may be perused as an accurate short and thick, unlike that of deer in general, but and pleasing piece of biography.

thus adapted for sustaining the great weight of the ELIZABE'THAN ARCHITECTURE, a term head and horns. The head is very large, narrow, applied to the mixed style which sprang up on about two feet long. The horns in males of the the decline of Gothic architecture. By some it second year are unbranched, not flattened, and about is called the Tudor style, but that name belongs a foot long; as the animal becomes older, they more correctly to the Perpendicular, or latest kind begin to display a blade, with more numerous snags of Gothic. The Elizabethan is chiefly exemplified and in mature elks the blade becomes very broad, by mansions erected for the nobility in the reigns of the snags sometimes fourteen on each born ; a single Elizabeth and James I., and originated in the first antler has been known to weigh abont sixty pounds attempt to revive classic architecture, influenced, no The horns have no basal snag projecting forwards. doubt, by Holbein, who was patronised by Henry The ears are long, and have been compared to those VIII., and furnished several designs in this manner. of the ags. The eyes are small. The limbs are long, John of Padus succeeded him, and built in the and vory graceful The tail is only about four inchen


Long. The body is covered with coarse, angular shell marl underlying the extensive turbaries. Lo hair, which breaks when it is bent. On the neck England, lacustrine deposits and brick-clay contain and withers there is a heavy mane, and the throat its remains, and, associated with the mammoth and is covered with long hair. A large goitre-like rhinoceros, they are found also in ossiferous caves swelling under the throat of the younger elks has a very curious appearance. The hoofs of the E., like those of the reindeer and of the buffalo, are so constructed as to part widely, and to afford a better


Fossil Elk,

The most striking feature in this animal was ita Elk (Cervus alces).

enormous antlers. A straight line drawn between

their extreme tips in one specimen measured ten rooting on soft marshy ground or on snow: they that of any living species of deer. The beam enlarges

feet ten inches. The form of the antler differs from make a clattering when it runs. In running, it carries its muzzle forward, with the horns thrown the fallow-deer, but in adult specimens, this bifur

and flattens into palm ; a brow snag exists as in back upon the neck, so that they may not be caught by branches. Its shoulders being higher than the cates and expands somewhat as in the reindeer croup, its common gait is a shambling trot; but it -a peculiarity never observed in the

fallow-deer cau also gallop with great rapidity. The colour of group. The antler is also furnished with a back the elk is brownish black, darker in winter than in snag. Some idea of the enormous size and weight summer; the limbs, the sides of the head, and the of the antlers may be formed from the fact that, in mane are of a lighter colour than the body. Elks a specimen where the head weighed 54 pounds, their are sometimes seen in small herds, but often singly; of the neck and the limbs are very much larger and

weight was 81 pounds. To sustain this, the vertebræ they are now very rare in Europe, and are no longer stronger than in any cther deer. A tine and

almost found in parts of North America in which they were once common. They formerly extended as far south perfect specimen of this animal, from the Isle of as the Ohio. They are sometimes seen even on the Man, exists in the Edinburgh Museum. shores of the Arctic Ocean. They delight in marshy EL-KHA'RGEH, capital of the Great Oasis, districts and in forests. When compelled to eat Upper Egypt, is situated in lat. 25° 28' N., long. 30grass, they must get down on their knees to reach 40' E. In the vicinity of the town are numerous it: their proper food consists of the branches and ruins, among which are those of a temple; there is foliage of shrubs and trees. They are very timid also a remarkable necropolis. Pop. 6000. and inoffensive, except during the rutting season. ELL (allied to elbow, Ger. ellenbogen, Lat. ulna, A single stroke of an elk's fore-foot is sufficient to the fore-arm or arm in general) is a measure of kill the strongest dog. It is also an extremely wary length now little used. It was originally taken in animal, and is with the greatest difficulty approached some vague way from the arm, and hence has been by the hunter. Its sense of smell is very acute, and used to denote very different lengths. The Latin the slightest sound excites its alarm. It is, how. ulna appears to have denoted sometimes the mea. ever, much sought after in North America. In sure from the elbow to the tips of the fingers, Sweden, its destruction is prohibited ; and in Nor. sometimes that between the outstretched hands. way is placed under legal restrictions. The flesh of The English ell, as a measure of cloth, is equal to the elk is esteemed a good kind of venison ; the fat five quarters of a Yard (q. v.). is remarkably soft; the nose and the tongue are E'LLENBOROUGH, EARL OF. Edward Law reckoned delicacies. The skin is used for a variety first Earl of E., son of the first baron (many years of purposes.

Chief-justice of the King's Bench), was born 1790. The elk is easily domesticated, and was at one educated at Eton and at St John's College, Cambridge, time employed in Sweden for conveying couriers, where he graduated M.A., 1809; succeeded his being capable of travelling more than 200 miles in a father in the barony in 1818; was Lord Priny Seal day when attached to a sledge.

in the Duke of Wellington's administration. 1828– The elk of Ceylon is a deer of the group to which 1829; President of the Board of Control during the the name Rusa has been given.

short-lived Peel administration of 1834-1835, and ELK, IRISH (Megaceros Hibernicus), a large deer appointed, on the return of Sir Robert Peel in found in the Pleistocene strata. There is a double September, 1841, to the same office, which he erzor in its popular pame, for it is a true weer, relinquished a month afterwards for the post of butween the fallow and rein deer, and though abund. Governor-general of India. He received the thanks art in Ireland, it is not peculiar to that country, of parliament in 1843 for his ability and judgment' being found also in England, Scotland, and on the in supporting the military operations in Afghanistan. a ntinent of Europe. In Ireland, it occurs in the In many other respects his Indian administration


was open to censure. He was charged with reserving state of the coasts and of the metropolis, which his favour for the military, and inflicting undeserved called forth some adverse criticism. He was a slights upon the civil servants of the Company. He munificent patron of the arts, and made many made showy progresses ; addressed proclamations to valuable additions to the collection of pictures the rulers and natives of India which appeared to which he inherited with the large etates of the Banction idolatry; and, finally, in his proclamation last Duke of Bridgewater. He also built a noble concerning the sandal-wood gates of the temple of gallery for their reception, which he liberally threw Juggernaut, when brought back from Ghuznee, he open to the public. After faithfully voting with reached the climax of a series of extravagances, the Conservative party in parliament for a quarter which induced the directors of the East India of a century, he, on the retirement of the Peol Company to exercise a power only used in extreme administration in 1846, obtained a revival in his cases, and to recall him. The ministry, however, favour of the peerages of Ellesmere and Brackley. stood by him, and he was created by the crown an His last public a; pearance was in May 1850, when earl and a viscount; he also received the distinction he moved, in the House of Lords, an address to the of G.C.B. In 1846, Sir R. Peel made him first Lord crown, approving of the treaty of peace after the of the Admiralty, an office which he resigned in war with Russia. He died in 1857 at his new July of the same year, when the disruption of the mansion, Bridgewater House, London, and was Peel administration took place. In the Derby succeeded in the earldom by his eldest son, Viscount administration of 1858 he was again Minister for Brackley. India, and the author of an India Bill, which failed

ELLESMERE, a town in the north-west of to obtain the sanction of parliament. Having Shropshire, near 'a beautiful lake or mere, 19 permitted a dispatch to see the light, in which he miles north-north-west of Shrewsbury. Pop: (1871) had administered a severe and caustic rebuke to

2013. It has considerable malting establishments. Viscount Canning, Governor-general of India, an On the present site of a once stood outcry was raised against him, which threatened an ancient castle, alternately held by the English the existence of the Derby government. To avert and Welsh. this result, Lord E. resigned. He afterwards took a frequent and influential part in the debates of the

E'LLIOT, EBENEZER, the CorN-LAW RHYMER, Upper House. He was styled, by no less a judge than was born at Masborough, in Yorkshire, March 7, 1781. M. Guizot, "the most brilliant of the Tory orators.' His father was a man of strong character and narrow He was twice married—first to a danghter of the opinions, and, as appears from Ebenezer's Auto. Marquis of Londonderry, and second to the daughter biography (published in the Athenaum in 1850), of Admiral Digby. His divorce from the latter exercised no little influence on his son's modes of made some noise at the time. E, died without issue, E. was not a quick pupil; and even after his father

thinking and sympathies. When a boy at school, December 2, 1871, when the earldom and viscounty had sent him to work ir. the iron-foundry where became extinct.

he himself held the situation of a clerk, the youth ELLENRIEDER, MARIE, a female painter of exhibited no fondness for reading. Before long, very high excellence, was born at Constance in 1791, however, he entirely changed, and commenced to studied in Munich, and in 1820 went to Rome, study Milton, Shakspeare, Ossian, Junius, and other to perfect her knowledge of art. Her admiration authors. His first published poem was composed of the old German masters gave a religious bent to in his 17th year: it is entitled The Vernal Walk. her genius. On her return to Germany, she resided This was succeeded by Night, Wharncliffe, &c. In for some time at Carlsruhe, where she painted a 1821, E. began business as an iron-founder on his own • Martyrdom of St Stephen' as an altar-piece for account at Sheffield. He was very successful; and the Roman Catholic Church. She was afterwards in 1841 retired to an estate which he had purchased appointed court-painter at Munich, but has since at Great Houghton, near Barnesley, where he died fixed her residence at Constance, and devoted her. 1st December 1849. E.'s principal productions are self exclusively to her profession. Among her Love, accompanied with a letter to Lord Byron, his principal pieces are the Transfiguration of St famous Corn-law Rhymes, The Ranter, and The Village Barthelemy,' , 'Christ Blessing Little Children,' Patriarch, a work full of noble and earnest poetry, Mary and the Infant Jesus, Joseph and the all of which appeared between 1823—1830. In 1834, Infant Jesus,' 'St Cecilia,' Faith, Hope, and Charity, he issued a collected edition of his works, in 3 vols. ; and a Madonna. Marie E. is reckoned in Germany and in 1840, an edition in one volume. E. followed the greatest female artist of the present age. So Crabbe, but with more depth and fire of feeling in full of ideal grace and beauty are the heads of depicting the condition of the poor as miserable and her women and children, in particular, that it has oppressed, tracing most of the evils he deplores to been said that she seems to paint in the presence the social and political institutions of the country. of angels;' her colouring, however, is gray, dull, The laws relating to the importation of corn were and sombre, like that which prevails among the old denounced by E. as specially oppressive, and he masters of the German school.

inveighed against them with a fervour of manner E’LLESMERE, first Earl of, politician, patron and a harshness of phraseology which ordinary of the arts, and author. Francis Egerton, second minds feel as repulsive, even while acknowledged as Bou of the first Duke of Sutherland, was born flowing from the offended benevolence of the poet. 1800; graduated at Christ Church, Oxford, where But the glow of earnestness kindles his verse, and he was second-class in classics, 1820; entered the hides a multitude of faults. More enduring, howHouse of Commons, 1820, and represented succes ever, than his rhyming philippics are his descripsively Bletchingly, Sutherland county, and South tions of English, and especially of Yorkshire scenery Lancashire; filled the office of Chief Secretary for and his delineations of hunble virtue and affection Ireland from January, 1828, to July, 1830, and Secre- These are instinct with the purest spirit of poetry. * tary at War from July to November, 1830; in 1833, ELLI'PSE is the name of a figure in Geometry, assumed the name of Lord Francis Edgerton, in lieu important from its being the approximate shape of of his patronymic Leveson-Gower, He achieved the planetary orbits. It is a curve of the second considerable literary distinction as a writer of order, and is a conic section, formed by cutting graceful poems, translations from the German, etc. a right cone by a plane passing obliquely through He also published a pamphlet on the defenceless its opposite sides. It may be defined as a curve,


the sum of the distances of every point in which the circumference of an ellipse is got by multiplyino from two fixed points within the curve is always

3d? the same. These two fixed points are called the the major axis by the quantity a -(1


2.46 foci; and the diameter drawn through them is the 32.5d?

1- 412 major axis; the minor axis bisects the major at

&c.), where d= right angles. The distance of either focus from


40% the middle of the major axis is the eccentricity. ELLI'PSIS (Gr. omission) is a term used in The less the eccentricity is compared with the axis, Grammar and Rhetoric, to signify the omission of the nearer the figure approaches to a circle; and a a word necessary to complete the expression or circle may be considered as an ellipse whose foci sentence in its usual form. The object of ellipsis is coincide.

shortness and impressiveness ; accordingly, it preThere are various contrivances for describing an vails in proverbs. "Ellipses are used in all languages, ellipse, called ellipsagraphs or elliptic compasses. but the same forms of ellipses are not common to The simplest method of description is to fix on a all. Thus, 'the house we saw, instead of the plane the two ends of a thread with pins in the house that we saw,' is a kind of ellipsis peculiar, so foci, and make a pencil move on the plane, keep- far as we know, to English. ing the thread constantly stretched. The end of the ELLIPSOID is a surface of the second order of pencil will trace an ellipse, whose major axis is which the Spheroid (q. v.) is a species, and the most equal to the length of the thread. The equation to an ellipse (see CO-ORDINATES), being spheroidal

. The equation to an ellipsoid

interesting, from the fact of the form of the earth referred to its centre as origin, and to its major referred to its centre and rectangular co-ordinates is

z? and minor axes as rectangular axes, is + = 1,



72 c? where a and b are the semi-major and semi-minor axes respectively. From this equation, it may be

ELLIPTI'CITY (of the Earth). See EARTH. shewn, by the integral calculus, that the area of an ELLO'RA, a decayed town in the dominions of ellipse is equal to wab; or is got by multiplying the Nizam, not far from the city of Dowlatabad, in the product of the semi-major and semi-minor axis lat. 20° 2 N., and long. 75o 13°E. It is celebro-ed by 3:1116. may also be shewn that the length of for its wonderful rock-cut temples. Their numhal

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Temple called Kailasa, at Ellora.--From Fergusson's Handbook of Architecture.

nas not been precisely ascertained, but Erskine | process was, first to sink a great quadrangular trench reckoned 19 large ones, partly of Hindu and partly or pit, leaving the central mass standing; and of Buddhist origin. Some are cave-temples proper then to hew and excavate this mass into a temple. -i e., chambers cut out in the interior of the rock The most beautiful of these objects is the Hindu --but others are vast buildings hewn out of the temple, Kailasa. At its entrance, the traveller solid granite of the hills, having an exterior as well passes into an antechamber 138 feet wide by 88 as an interior architecture, and being, in fact, mag- deep, adorned by numerous rows of pillars. Thence nificent monoliths. In executing the latter, the he proceeds along a colonnade over a bridge into

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great rectangular court, which is 247 feet in cinally in cutaneous diseases; it is mucilaginous, length and 150 broad, in the centre of which and has a bitter astringent taste. The ELM BALSAM stands the temple itself, a vast mass of rock (Beaume d'orme), which was formerly in great repute, richly hewn and carved. It is supported by four is a brownish substance, which is found in dried rows of pilasters, with colossal elephants beneath, galls of the leaves in the south of Europe, Persia, and scems suspended in the air. The interior is &c. From these galls, in an earlier stage, flows a about 103 feet long, 56 broad, and 17 high, but the clear, viscid, sweetish liquid, called Elm Water (Eau entire exterior forms a pyramid 100 feet high, and dorme), which is used for washing wounds, contuis overlaid with sculpture. In the great court are sions, and sore eyes. — The seeds of the elm are numerous ponds, obelisks, colonnades, sphinxes, and eagerly eaten by pigeons and common poultry: The on the walls thousands of mythological figures of all elm is one of the principal timber trees of Britain, kinds, from 10 to 12 feet in height. Of the other most extensively planted, and à chief ornament temples, those of Indra and Dumarheyna are little of English scenery.—The CORK-BARKED ELM (U, inferior to that of Kailasa. Regarding their anti- suberosa), by many regarded as a variety of `U. quity and religious significance, authorities are not campestris, is distinguished by the corky wings of agreed; but at all events they must be subsequent to the bark of the branches. It is a taller and more the epic poems Ramayana or Mahabharata, because spreading tree, with much larger leaves. It is a they contain representations taken from these European tree, common in plantations in Britain, poems, and also to the cave-temples at Elephanta, but a doubtful native. - The DUTCH CORK-BARKED because they exhibit a richer and more advanced ELM (U. major) is also looked upon by many as a style of architecture,

ELLOʻRE, a town of the district of Masulipatam, in the presidency of Madras, stands in lat. 16° 42 N., and long. 81° 10' E. In an official report, the place has been indefinitely styled 'populous.' Independently of its population, properly so called, E., as a military station, has a considerable garrisor. It occupies both banks of the Jummulair, a torrent of the Eastern Ghauts, which, instead of reaching the Bay of Bengal, loses itself three miles further down, in the land-locked Colair Lake. In fact, for about 50 miles to the westward of the sea, the neighbouring country is depressed below the level of the maritime belt, the stagnant pool above mentioned not only having independent feeders of its own, but also receiving supplies, in the season of high-water, from the Kistnah or Krishna, and the Godavery. Under such circumstances, the climate of E. is at once unpleasant and unhealthy. During the Bouth-west monsoon, bringing with it, of course, the accumulated heats of the whole breadth of the penin. sula, the temperature is more particularly oppressive, having been known to rise, in the night, to 120° F.

E'LLSWORTH, a small but flourishing town of North America, in the state of Maine, on both sides of the navigable river Union, 30 miles south-east of

Common English Elm (Ulmus campestris). Bangor, and about 4 miles west of Frenchman's Bay. It exports 50,000,000 feet of timber annually, variety of U. campestris. It is still more corky in carries on cod and mackerel fisheries, and had, in its bark, and has still larger leaves. It is of very 1870, 5363 inhabitants.

quick growth, but the wood is very inferior.—The ELM (Ulmus), a genus of trees of the natural BROAD-LEAVED or Wych ELM (U. montana) is the order Ulmaceae, natives of temperate climates, with only species that can with certainty be regarded as serrated leaves unequal in their two sidles, and indigenous to Scotland. It has rough and broad small flowers growing in clusters appearing before leaves, a stem less upright than the English elm, the leaves, and containing +12 stamens and one and large spreading branches. The wood is used germen. The fruit is a samara, or compressed one for all the purposes of the English elm. The tree seeded little nut, winged all around. One of the is of very quick growth. Protuberances of gnarled most important species is the COMMON SMALL wood are not unfrequently produced, which are LEAVED or ENGLISH ELM (U. campestris), a tree of tinely knotted and richly veined; they are much 60-80 feet in height, with ovato-elliptic, doubly esteemed for veneering, and are sometimes very serrated leaves, and flowers almost destitute of valuable. Varieties of this species are known stalks. The wood is compact, and very durable as the Giant Elm and CHICHESTER ELM.—The in water. The tree is diffused all over Europe ; is SMOOTH-LEAVED Elm (U. glabra) is by some found also in the west of Asia and north of Africa, regarded as a variety of V. montana, but is distinand is used for a great variety of purposes by wheel- guished, besides other characters, by smooth leaves, wrights, machine-makers, ship and boat builders, which are much smaller. It is a native of Eng. &c.; it is also prized by joiners for its fine grain, land. A variety called the HUNTINGDON ELM is and the mahogany colour which it readily assumes much esteemed. - The CORNISH ELM (U. stricta). on the application of an acid. It is reckoned supe found in the south-west of England, is remarkable rior to the wood of any other species of elm. The for its rigid, erect, and compact branches.- Very bark is used in eing and in sugar-refining, and, different is the habit of U. effusa, a continental in times of scarcity, has been used in Norway for species with a large spreading head and smocth grinding into meal and mixing in bread, which has bark, distinguished also by the long stalks of its å less disagreeable taste than that made from meal flowers and its ciliated fruit.—The AMERICAN OF mixed with fir-bark. The inner bark is used medi- | WHITE ELM (U. Americana), which abounds in the

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