Page images


9, &c.


fiş arate numbers will be understood from the follow- and in the form of an ointment in cutaneous in, tablo:

liseases. A decoction of them is used to cure scab 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,

7, &c.

in swine. They have a fetid odour when bruised,

and their taste is acrid. The tuberous root was 1. 1, 3, 6, 10, 15, 21, 28, &c. II. 1, 4, 10, 20, 35, 56, 84, &c.

formerly esteemed in scrofula, but perhaps only on ul 1, 5, 15, 35, 70, 126, 210, &C.

account of a supposed resemblance to scrofulous &c. &c.

tumours. The natural numbers are here taken as the basis, FIJI, FEEJEE, or VITI ISLANDS, a group anıl the first order of figurate numbers is formed of islands of volcanic origin, in the South Pacitic from the series by successive additions ; thus, the Ocean, situated in lat. 15° 30'-—20° 30' S., and long. 6th number of the first order is the sum of the first 177°—178° W. They were discovered by Tasman, five natural numbers. The second order is then the Dutch navigator, in 1643. There are altogether formed from the first in the same way; and so on.

about 225 islands, 80 of which are said to be inha. If instead of the series of natural numbers, whose bited. The principal are—Viti Levu, or Great Fiji, difference is 1, we take series whose differences are and Vanua Levu (Great Land), the former having 2, 3, 4, &c., we may form as many different sets of an area of about 90 miles by 50, with an estimated figurate numbers. Thus :

population of 50,000, and the latter extending over

100 miles in length, with a breadth of 20 mils, and 1. 3. 5, 7, 1. 1, 4, 9, 16, 25, &c.

a population of about 30,000. The total population II. 1, 5, 14, 30, 55, &c.

of the group has been variously stated at from III. 1, 6, 20, 50, 105, &c.

130,000 to 300,000. Of the other islands, the most &c. &c.

important and best known are Ovolau, the residence Oos

of most of the whites ; Vuna, or Somosomo; Kan. 1, 4, 7, 10, 13, &c.

davu, Koro, Mbau, and Taviuni. Shoals and reefs I. 1, 5, 12, 22, 35, &c.

surround the islands, making the access to them II. 1, 6, 18, 40, 75, &c.

very dangerous. Earthquakes are common, and III. 1, 7, 25, 65, 140, &c.

destructive hurricanes are periodical. The tempera&c.

ture ranges from 60° or 70° to upwards of 120°; but The name figurate is derived from the circumstance, the mean is set down at about 80°. On Vanua that the simpler of them may be represented by Levu, there are several hot springs, ranging from arrangements of equally distant points, forming 200° to 210°. The soil, which is of a deep yellow geometrical figures. The numbers belonging to the loam, and well watered, is exceedingly fertile, even first orders receive the general name of polygonal, to the very summits of the mountains, which, in and the special names of triangular, quare, penta- Great Fiji, reach an elevation of more than 4000 feet. gonal, &c., according as the difference of the basis is The chief vegetable productions are the bread-fruit 1, 2, 3, &c. Those of the second orders are called tree, the banana, plantain, and cocoa-nut. The yam pyramidal numbers, and according to the differ- and the taro are extensively raised, and great care ence of the basis, are triagonally, quadragonally, or is bestowed on the culture of the yangona (kava), pentagonally pyramidal. The polygonal numbers from which an intoxicating liquor is obtained. The may be represented by points on a surface; the sugar-cane, arrow-root, nutmeg, caraway, capsicum, pyramidal by piles of balls.

tea-plant, &c., flourish. Cotton grows wild, two The general formula for polygonal numbers, from kinds of tomato are found, and the botany, so far which any particular one may be found by substi- as can be judged, is rich. The domestic animals tuting the proper values for n and r is,

seem to be limited to a few fowls and hogs. The (r — 2) n2 – (1 – 4)n

agricultural implements of the Fijians are of the 2

most primitive character ; but in manufactures of where n = number of the term required, r = the a rude kind they are further advanced than other denomination (3 if triagonal, 5 if pentagonal, &c.).

Polynesians. The natives are of middle size, strong

limbed and short necked ; complexion between a FIGURE, in general, is the outline or surface of copper colour and a black, and hair dark, curly, a body determining its form or shape. In Arith and bushy. They are horrible cannibals, and shipmetic, figure denotes a numerical character such as wrecked mariners frequently fall victims to their 1, 2, 3, &c. Figure, in Geometry, denotes a surface insatiak!e appetite for human flesh, though they are or space enclosed on all sides, and is superficial said to prefer coloured to white men, objecting to when enclosed by lines ; solid, when by surfaces. the latter that they smell too much of tobacco.' See REGULAR FIGURES, SIMILAR FIGURES, &c. The Fijians are divided into various tribes, each

FIGURED BASS, in Music, is a bass part with governed by its own chief, whose rule is absolute, figures placed over the notes, which indicate the and to whom, in a variety of ways, the most abject harınony to be played to each note, and serves as a homage is tendered. Of late years, great efists guide to the accounpanist. Ludovico Viadana is for their conversion have been made, especially said to have been the inventor of figured bass in the by Wesleyan missionaries. In 1857, there wers 17th century.

54,281 attendants upon the religious services conFIGURE-STONE. See SOAP-STONE.

ducted by these missionaries. Compare Williams

and Calvert's Fiji and the Fijians (2 vols., Lond. FI'GWORT (Scrophularia), a genus of plants of 1858). A letter in the Athenarum (February 22, the natural order Scrophulariaceo, having a nearly 1862), and dated ‘Levuka, Fiji, August 2, 1861, globose corolla, with a small 5-lobed limb; the affords still more recent information concerning lowest lobe reflexed ; and four stamens with an | these islands. From this source, we learn that in additional rudimentary one. They are mostly order to escape from the insupportable exactions herbaceous plants, and natives of the temperate parts and tyrannies of the Tonguese (the boldest and of the eastern hemisphere, not possessed of much most ambitious of all the Polynesians), who have beauty either in flowers or foliage. The roots of planted hostile colonies in Great Fiji, the king and some are purgative and emetic. The leaves of the chiefs of this island formally offered to cede it to KNOTTED F. (S. nodosa), a common plant in moist Great Britain. Her Majesty's consul, Mr Pritchard, grounds in Britain, are used for fomentation of at once hastened to England with the news, and tumours, repellent powers being ascribed to them, on his return intimated to the Fijians that Hur


FILANGIERI—FILE, FILING. Majesty's government had taken the cession into his foot. He then cuts the teeth by striking with favourable consideration. The king and chiefs there- a hammer a short stout chisel, held obliquely at an upon solemnly ratified their offer, but the offer was angle of about 12° or 14° from the perpendicular. formally declined by the British government on the The object of this will be easily understood, for 11th of July, 1862.' It is making rapid progress in if the chiselwere perpendicular, a furrow like civilization. Men of capital,' says the writer in the the letter V would be indented, and an equal burr Atheneum, are beginning to flock hither ; flourishing struck up on each side; but, instead of this, a plantations of sugar, coffee, and cotton are established, cutting tooth like that of a saw, but with less and extensive tracts of land have been purchased for obliquity, is required ; this is effected by the obli. sheep runs.

quity of the chisel, and a burr is thrown up on one FILANGIE'RI, GAETANO, one of the most dis

side only-viz., towards the tang. tinguished judicial writers and reformers of his tance between the teeth is secured in this way:

The astonishing regularity observable in the dig. century,

was born of noble parentage at Naples in The cutting is commenced at the point of the tile; 1752. Having early abandoned the career of arms the chisel is then drawn backwards, laid upon the to which he was originally destined, he devoted his blank, and slid forwards till it reaches the burr intellect to the study of morals, politics, and legis- raised by the last cut; the blow is now stiuck, lation. In 1774, the promulgation of some wise and another tooth and burr produced, which serves judicial reforms, limiting the arbitrary jurisdiction

The of courts, having met with considerable opposition distance between the teeth thus depends on the

a guide for the next cut; and so on. from these legal officials, young F. published a force of the blow and the obliquity of the cut; for defence of the royal decree, and at once attracted the the heavier the blow, the greater the ridge or burr, favourable notice of court and minister. In 1777, and the obliquity determines the distance of the cut he was appointed court-chamberlain ; and in 1780, published the first volume of his great work, Lá from the burr; the skill of the workman consists, Scienza della Legislazione. The first part is devoted therefore, in the precise regulation of the blows to an analysis of the essentially fixed ethics of legis- series of courses of chisel-cuts, which are oppositely

Most files are double cut-that is, they have two lation, and of those principles which are modifiable inclined at an angle of about 55° to the central line according to local and national exigences; the second treats of the two great problems of all poli of the tile. The second course is made in the same tical economy, wealth and population; the third, manner as the first, but with lighter blows, and is of criminal law in its widest extent; the fourth, of usually somewhat tiner than the first. This angular public instruction ; and the fifth, which considers Files used for soft metals which are liable to clog

crossing converts the ridges into pointed teeth. occlesiastical and religious law, was on the eve of the teeth, are single cut-that is, they have but one being published, when its author, in 1788, was

course of cuts. Taper files have the teeth finer prematurely cut off at the age of 36, leaving in this

towards the point. Rasps for wood are cut with work an incomplete but splendid monument to the pointed chisels ; each tooth being an angular pit noble sense of justice and the exalted humanity with a strong burr, instead of a long furrow. The of its author. The best Italian edition, which also newly cut teeth in the soft steel are preserved from includes his Opuscoli Scelti, is in 1 Classici Italiana injury by being laid upon the softer pewter block (6 vols. 8vo, Milan, 1822).

before referred to. The rapidity with which the FILA'RIA. See GUINEA-WORM and THREAD. blows are struck varies with the fineness of the

file ; 60 or 80 cuts are commonly made per minute. FILBERT. See HAZEL.

Files have to be very carefully hardened and

tempered. If heated too strongly, or made too FILE, FILING. A file is a steel tool, having hard, the steel is so brittle that the teeth tear off ; its surface covered with teeth or serratures, and if too soft, they wear down rapidly, and the file used for cutting down and shaping metals and soon becomes useless. Great care is also required in other hard substances. There is little doubt that keeping them straight, as the sudden cooling neces. in the earliest stages of metal-working, when bronze sary for hardening is very apt to warp the steel. implements first superseded those of stone, rough At first sight, it would appear, from the simplicity stones were used for the purposes to which files and continual repetition of the movements required are now applied ; nevertheless, the use of files dates in file-cutting, and the precision and regularity of from high antiquity. They are mentioned in the the work, that it is an operation specially adapted Old Testament in the first book of Samuel, xiii. for machinery. Many attempts have been made to 21, also in the Odyssey,

cut files by machinery, but with only partial success; Files are made of almost every conceivable shape, the chief difficulty arises from the necessity of modi. to suit the very varied purposes to which they fying the force of the blow to suit the hardness of are applied-flat, square, round or t-tail, trian. the steel. It is practically impossible to supply a gular, half-round, feather-edged, &c., besides being large number of blanks all of exactly the same hardvariously bent, in order to get at intricate work. ness; and if the machine be adjusted to suit the Nearly all these files are made thicker in the middle, hardness of one blank, it may strike tuo heavy or or bellied,' the object of which will be explained too light a blow for the next; whereas the workman under FILING.

feels at once the hardness of the steel he is working Files require to be made of the very best steel, upon, and adjusts his blows accordingly. which is first forged into the required shape, and is FILING.–To the uninitiated, this may seem a then called a "blank.' The blanks are then finished simple operation of rubbing one piece of metal upon more accurately to the required form by grinding, another, and requiring only muscular strength ano planing, or filing.

no skill. This is far from being the case, for a The blanks thus prepared and well softened (see skilful workman will, in a given time, with a giver TEMPERING) are next handed to the cutter, who amount of muscular work, cut away a far greater * sits astride on a low bench or stool, and has before quantity of metal ith a than one who is unhiin a stone anvil, with a flat piece of pewter laid skilful, for he makes every tooth cut into the work, apon it. The blank is held upon the anvil, with instead of rubbing over it. To do this, he must its tang towards the cutter, by means of a long adapt the pressure and velocity of motion of tha loop of leather-strap, into which the cutter places file to the coarseness of its teeth, and tbe hardness,




FILE-FILLAN. brittleness, and toughness of the material he is work- of Italy– Italia, Italia, ( tu cui feo la sorte-and ing upon.

heroic odes, severely classic in form, are the chief To file flat, that is, to avoid rounding the sharp works of Filicaja. His career as patriot, citizen, edges of a narrow piece of work, is very difficult, and man, won him reverence and love as universal and some years of continual practice is required as was the admiration accordel to his works. In before an apprentice can do this well, especially in advanced age, he was appoint judge and senator, •simoothing up' or finishing work before polishing, and in 1702 was called to one of the highest magis. and there are some who never succeed in filing, terial offices in Florence, where he died in honoured emoothing, and polishing without rounding the edges peace, September 24, 1707. His works, under the of fine work. The power of doing this constitutes title of Poesie T'oscane di Vincenzo da Filicaja, the main test of skill among mathematical instru- Senatore Fiorentino e Accademico della Crusca, were ment makers and other metal-workers. The flattest published after his death. The best edition is that surface can be obtained by laying the work, where of Venice (2 vols. 1762), containing both the Italian its form admits, upon a piece of cork held in the and Latin verses of the author. vice, and filing it with one hund, the pressure on FI'LICES. See FERNS. the file being communicated by the forefinger. It is mainly to aid the workman in filing flat thread or wire, and grano, a grain or bead), the old

FI'LIGREE, from the Italian filigrana (filo, a that the rounded or bellied form is given to files ; filigree-work being ornamented with small beads, this partially compensates the tendency of the The name is now applied to delicate wire-work hands to move in a curved line with its convexity ornaments, usually made of gold or silver wire, upwards when they move forward and apply pres- which is twisted into spirals and other convoluted sure, as in the act of filing.

FILE (Fr. file, a row, Lat. filum, Ital. fila, filo), in a military sense, is used to signify any line of men standing directly behind each other, as rank refers to men standing beside one another. In ordinary formations of the present day, a battalion stands two deep, or in two ranks—front and rearwherefore a file consists of two men. Sometimes, however, the battalion may be formed much more solidly, as in a square, when the file comprises a far larger number. The number of files in a company describes its width, as the number of ranks does its depth : thus, 100 men in 'fours deep' would be spoken of as 25 files in 4 ranks.

FILIA'TION, the correlative of paternity. In the law of Scotland, the filiation of a child is the process by which its paternity is determined. The general rule that the father is he whom the marriage points out (pater est quem nuptiæ demonstrant), is a presumption which may be overcome by shewing its impossibility in point of fact-as, for example, where the husband is impotent, or where he has been absent from his wife during the period between the eleventh solar and the sixth lunar month preceding the birth. As regards natural children, a copula

Filigree Ornaments: more than ten months before birth does not filiate, From a drawing by M. Mariana, in the Florence Exhibition but it forms an important adminicle of proof, which,

(1861). till the passing of 16 Vict. c. 20, it was held might be completed by the oath of the mother. As to the forms; and these spirals, &c., are combined to form effect of that statute on the previously existing law, a sort of metallic lace-work, which is shaped into see EvINENCE, and SEMI PLENA PROBATIO.

brooches, earrings, crosses, head ornaments, and

others of a very light and elegant character. This FILICA'JA, VINCENZO, a lyrical poet of Italy, work is chiefly done in Malta, Sardinia, the Ionian was born at Florence, of an ancient but impoverished Islands, and some parts of Turkey. It sometimes family in 1642. Deeply wounded, while yet a receives the general name of Maltese work. youth, in his affections, he resolved to dedicate his undivided genius to heroic, martial, and sacred

FI'LIPO.D'ARGIRO, SAN, a town of Sicily, in themes, forswearing all amatory compositions for the province of Catania, and about 30 miles westthe future, and perversely consigning his exquisite north-west of the town of that name, stands on the love inspirations to the flames. În six sublime right bank of the Traina, in an exceedingly fertile 1.des, F. celebrated the deliverance of Vienna in district. It contains a ruined Saracenic castle, and 1693 from the besieging forces of the Turks, chiefly several religious edifices. Saffron of good quality, affected by the heroism of John Sobieski, king of and in considerable quantity, is grown in the Poland, and of Charles Duke of Lorraine. On the vicinity. Pop. 7300. San F. stands on the site publication of the odes in Florence in 1684, F. of the ancient Sikelian city of Agyrium, the birthbecame, almost in spite of himself, famous, and place of Diodorus Siculus the historian, and which, attracted the notice of Queen Christina of Sweden, about 400 B. c., is said to have had 20,000 citizens. an ardent admirer and munificent protectress of FI'LLAN, ST. Two Scoto-Irish saints of the Italian letters and genius. Relieved from harassing name of Fillan appear in the church calendars, pecuniary embarrassments by the liberal patronage and have left their inark on the topography of of Christina, F. was enabled, with undisturbed Scotland and Ireland. (1.) ST. FILLAN, or Fuolan, powers, to devote himself to composition, some of surnamed the Leper, had his yearly festival on his most touching verses being addressed to his the 20th of June. His chief church in Scotland royal benefactress. Patriotic sonnets, the grandest was at the east end of Loch Erne, in Perthshire, of which is a lament over the internal weakness where ‘St. Fillan's Well' was long believed to have




supernatural powers of healing. A seat in the rock according to Guillim, contains the fourth part of the of Dunfillan still keeps the name of 'St Fillan's chief. Chair ;' anil two cavities beside it are said to have been hollowed by St F.'s knees in prayer. His Irish

FI'LLIBUSTERS, another name for the piratica church is at Bållybeyland (anciently called Kill. adventurers whose origin and history are treated helan or Kill Faelain), in the barony of Cullenagh, become familiar to English ears as the designation

of under BUCANEERS (q. v.). Recently, it has in Queen's County. (2.) ST FILLAN, the abbot, the of certain lawless adventurers belonging to tho son of St Kentigerna of Inchcaileoch, in Loch United States, who have attempted violently to Lomond, lived in the 8th c., and had his yearly festival on the 7th or 9th of January. His church possess themselves of various countries in North in Ireland was at Cluain Maoscna, in Fartullach, America. The plea urged by these persons hus in the county of Westmeath. His chief church in generally been, that such countries were a porey to Scotland was in Perthshire, in the upper part of anarchy and oppression, and could only attain to Glendochart, which takes from him the name of prosperity by annexation to the United States Strathfillan.

and the introduction of democratic'institutions, and Here, a well-endowed priory, dedi. cated in his honour, was repaired or rebuilt in the obedience to law, while themselves lawless adven

The most notorious of these fillibusters beginning of the 14th century. King Robert Bruce

was the late William Walker, whose expedition made a grant of money to the work, in gratitude, probably, for the miraculous encouragement which against Nicaragua in 1855 was so far successful he was said to have received on the eve of Bannock that he kept his ground in that country for nearly burn from a relic of the saint-one of his arm. bination of the various states of Central America

two years. At last, he was driven out by a combones enclosed in a silver case. Another relic of St 7.--the silver head of his crosier, or pastoral staff He was subsequently captured and shot, September --has been preserved to our time. It is called the 12, 1860, at Truxillo, in Central America, in the *Coygerach' or Qugrich,' and appears in record course of another piratical expedition. as early as the year 1428, when it was in the here FILLMORE, MILLARD, an American statesman, ditary keeping of a family named Jore or Dewar, the thirteenth president of the United States, was who were believed to have been its keepers from born in Cayuga county, New York, on the 7th of the time of King Robert Bruce. They had half a January 1800. His history presents a remarkable boll of meal yearly from every parishioner of Glen- example--not, however, unparalleled in America dochart who held a merk land, and smaller quan. -how one who, without the advantages of early tities from smaller tenants; and they were bound, education, and without any aid from influential in return, to follow the stolen cattle of the parish- connections, may rise to the very highest position joners wherever their traces could be found within in the government. His parents removed, near the the realm of Scotland. The Quigrich, besides its close of the last c., from New England to Cayuga virtues in the detection of theft, was venerated also county, which was then a wilderness. Young F. for its miraculous powers of healing. In 1487, the reached, it is said, the age of 19 without ever right of keeping it was confirmed to Malice Doire or having seen a grammar or a geography. In 1821, Dewar by King James III. in a charter, which was he removed to Erie county, in the western part presented for registration among the public records of New York, making the journey principally on of Scotland so lately as the year 1734. Sixty years foot. Soon after, he entered a law-office in Buffalo, later, the Quigrich still commanded reverence; but and, while pursuing his legal studies, supported its healing virtues were now only tried on cattle, himself by teaching a school. He commenced the and its once opulent keepers had fallen to the rank practice of law at Aurora, in Erie county, and in of farm-labourers. It was publicly exhibited in a few years rose to eminence in his profession. He Edinburgh in the year 1818, before being carried was elected in 1829 to the state legislature, and in to Canada, where it now is, in the hands of a 1832 was chosen a representative to Congress. Here descendant of its old custodiers, a farmer named he distinguished himself by the faithfulness and Alexander Dewar. He puts such a value on the ability with which he discharged his public duties. relic, that he has hitherto refused to part with it He was elected in 1832 by the anti-Jackson party, for less than £400 sterling, or 1000 acres of Canadian and was re-elected as a Whig in 1836, 1838, and land. It has been recently figured and described by 1840. In 1841, Mr F. was appointed chairman of Dr Daniel Wilson in a paper in the Canadian Jour- the committee of Ways and Means, after the speakernal, No. xxiv., reprinted in a pamphlet, with the ship, the most responsible as well as the most title of The Quigrich, or Crosier of st Fillan (Toronto, honourable position in the House of Representa1839); and in the Proceedings of the Society of tives. Under his auspices and direction, the celeAntiquaries of Scotland, vol. iii. part ii. p. 233, plate brated tariff of 1842 was prepared and carried xxvi. (Edin. 1861). A linn in the river Fillan through the House. In 1848, he was elected to the or Dochart, in Strathtillan, was long believed to vice-presidency of the United States, with General work wonderful cures on insane persons, who were Taylor as president, and entered upon the duties immersed in the stream at sunset, and left bound of his office in March 1849. General Taylor having band and foot till sunrise in the ruins of the neigh: died in July 1850, Mr F. succeeded to the presi

. houring church of St dency for the unexpired portion of the term of fow Fillan. A hand-bell, years. Although his party was a minority in both which bore the name houses of Congress, his administration was marked of St Fillan, was by a number of useful measures, but by his signaalso believed to work ture to the act for the rendition of fugitive slaves miracles,

to bondage he forfeited the esteem of the friends of FILLET, in Archi- liberty. Among his most important measures niny tecture, a small space modore Perry for the purpose of opening the ports

be nientioned the expedition sent out under CouPillots.

or band like a narrow
ribbon used along with

of Japan to American commerce-an undertaking

at least for the time, eminently success. mouldings. a, a, a (see fig.) are examples of fillets,

ful. When he retired from office on the 4th of both in classic and Gothic architecture.

March 1853, he left the country in the enjoyment FILLET, in Heraldry, is an ordinary which, of a high degree of prosperity. He was the


which was,


FILTER, FILTRATION. candidate of the American party for the presidency in the domestic filters that are offered for sale are 1856; but in the contest which followed, having failed well adapted for their required purpose. In pur. to move with the progress of opinion, he received chasing a filter, the buyer must not be satis:ied no electoral votes except those of Maryland. After with merely seeing that the water which has his retirement from public life, Mr F. resided at Buf- passed through it is rendered perfectly transparent falo (which had previously been his home for some —this is so easily done by a new and clean filter-years) until his death, which occurred on the 8th of but he should see that the filter is so constructed as March, 1874.

to admit of being readily cleansed, for the residual FILTER, FILTRATION. When solid matter matter must lodge somewhere, and must be someis suspended in a liquid in which it is insoluble, it how removed. When large quantities of water bave may be_separated by various means. Under the to be filtered, this becomes a serious difficulty, and article Fining, various methods of causing such many ingenious modes of overcoming it have beco suspended matter to collect together and sink to devised. In most of these, water is made to ascend the bottom or float on the surface, and thereby through the filtering medium, in order that the clearing the liquid, are described. The process of impurities collected on it may fall back into the filtration consists in passing the liquid through impure water. Leloge's ascending filter consists some porous substance, the interstices of which are of four compartments, one above the other; the too sinall to admit of the passage of the solid par. upper part, containing the impure water, is equal ticles, the principle of the action being the same in capacity to the other three. This communicates as that of a sieve; but as the particles of fluids are by a tube with the lower one, which is of small 'wineasurably small, the pores must be extremely height. The top of this is formed by a piece of minute.

porous filtering-stone, through which alone the One of the simplest forms of filter is that com- water can pass into the monly used in chemical laboratories for separating third compartment, which precipitates, &c. A square or circular piece of is filled with charcoal, and blotting-raper is folded in four, the corner where covered with another plate the four folds meet is placed downwards in a funnel, of porous stone. The fourth and one side is partly opened, so that the paper forms compartment, immediately a lining to the funnel. The liquid passes through above the third, receives the pores of the paper, and the solid matter rests the filtered water, which upon it. The chief advantages of this filter are its has been forced through simplicity, and the ease with which the solid matter the lower stone, the char. may be removed and examined.

coal, and the upper stone. A simple water-filter for domestic purposes is A tap is affixed to this, to sometimes made by stuffing a piece of sponge in draw off the filtered water, the bottom of a funnel or the hole of a flower-pot, and a plug to the second and then placing above this a layer of pebbles, then or lower compartment, to Leloge's Filter: a layer of coarse sand, and above this a layer of remove the sediment. 1, 2, 3, 4, the four compartpounded charcoal three or four inches in depth. In the diagram shewing ments; ab, the first porous

stone of third or filtering Another layer of pebbles should be placed above this filter in section, the

compartment ; cd, the the charcoal, to prevent it from being stirred up figures 1, 2, 3, and 4 indi

exit filtering stone of d; when the water is poured in. It is obvious that cate the corresponding com e, the plug to remove such a filter will require occasional cleaning, as partments. At f, the top for cleaning out second the suspended impurities are left behind on the of the tube by which compartment; f, a loose

sponge at charcoal, &c. This is best done by renewing the the first and second com

communicating tube. charcoal,

&c., and taking out the sponge and wash- partments communicate, a ing it. By a small addition to this, a cottage-filter sponge may be placed to stop some of the grosser may be made, which, for practical use, is quite impurities. equal to the most expensive filters of corresponding

Since 1831, when this filter was contrived, a size. It consists of two flower-pots, one above the number of ascending filters have been patented, other; the lower one is fitted with the sponge many of them being merely trifling modifications of and filtering layers above described, and the upper this. Bird's Syphon Filter is a cylindrical pewter one with a sponge only. The upper pot should vessel containing the filtering media, and to it is be the largest, and if the lower one is strong, attached a long coil of flexible pewter pipe. When the upper one may stand in it, or a piece of wood used, the cylinder is immersed in the water butt or with a hole to receive the upper pot may rest cistern, and the pipe uncoiled and bent over the upon the rim of the lower one. The two pots thus edge of the cistern, and brought down considerably arranged are placed upon a three-legged stool with below the level of the water. It is then started by a hole in it, through which the projecting part of the applying the mouth to the lower end, and sucking lower sponge passes, and the water drops into a jug it till the water begins to flow, after which it con. placed below. The upper pot serves as a reservoir, tinues to do so, and keeps up a large suprly of clear and its sponge stops the coarser impurities, and water. This, of course, is an ascending filter, and thus the filtering layers of the lower one may be the upward ressure is proportionate to the differ. ased for two or three years without being renewed, ence between the height of the water in the cistern if the upper sponge be occasionally cleaned. Care and that of the lower end of the exit tube. See must be taken to wedge the upper sponge tightly Syphon. Sterling's filtering tanks are slate cisterns enough, to prevent the water passing from the upper

divided into compartments, the water entering the pot more rapidly than it can filter through the first, then passing through a coarse filter to a luwer one.

second, and from there through a firer filter to the A great variety of filters are made on a similar main receptacle, where the filtered water is stored principle to the above, but constructed of orna- and drawn off for use. mental earthenware or porcelain vessels of suitable A common water-butt or cistern may be made to shape. It would occupy too much space to enter filter the water it receives by the following means : upon the merits of the filters of different makers, Divide the cistern or butt into two compartments, especially as there is really very little difference an upper and a lower, by means of a water-tight botwcer: them in point of etlicieucy, and nearly all partition or false bottom; then take a wooden box

entrance of

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