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pulling the stalks through a series of iron teeth 18 boon. The brake, worked by manual labour, inches long, placed within a distance of half an consists of a frame, in the upper side of which are a inch of each other. These are fastened in a block number of grooves; a movable piece is hinged at of wood, which is placed at the end of a plank or one end, and provided with a similar grooved piece long stool on which the operator sits.

on its lower side, but so placed that the projecThe next process is to obtain the flaxen fibre or tions pass into the hollows of the lower. The tax, lint free from the woody core, or boon, of the stem. placed between these, and struck by bringing down This is effected by steeping the bundles in water the hinged part, is broken, but the fibre remains till the boon begins to rot, in which state it is uninjured. readily separated from the fibre. The operation is In the flax-breaking machine, the flax is passed called rotting or retting, and requires to be managed through a series of horizontal fluted rollers; the Hutan with great care, as by continuing it too long, decoin do not touch, thus preserving the fibre while breakposition might extend to the libre, and render it ing the boon. In continental countries, scutching useless; while by discontinuing it too soon, the is almost invariably performed by hand, the flax Beparation could not be effected with sufficient ease. being held in a groove made in an upright stand, The time is generally determined by the nature and struck by a flat blade. Machine-scutehing is and temperature of the water, and the ripeness of much more certain and expeditious than Land. the flax-decomposition taking place more rapidly scutching, and is, in consequence, fast superseding in soft stagnant water than in running streams, in it in this country: After passing through the which the retting is sometinies conducted. After breaking machine, the flax is subjected to the action being sufficiently steeped, the flax is spread out on of a series of knives, attached to the arms of a the grass, to rectify any defect in the retting, and vertical wheel; these knives strike the flax in the ultimately to dry it for the breaking. In some direction of its length. The process is gone through districts, it is the practice to conduct the retting three times before the flax is ready for the market. entirely on the grass--a process known as dew- Although machine-scutching is expeditious, it is retting, in contradistinction to water-retting. This not capable of that pliant adaptation to the varying is a safer and less offensive method, but it requires nature of the flax to be operated upon, which is much longer time, and in a country where land is obtained in hand-scutching. The effect of machine. valuable, would become very expensive. On the scutching is to produce fineness by reducing and whole, the mixed method of retting is preferable---impairing, rather than sustaining, the character that is, to steep till decomposition of the boon is of the fibre-namely, the length and tineness of its well advanced, and then to complete the process on staple'or fibre. To remedy these defects, scutching the grass. It has been attempted to separate the by means of revolving brushes has been introduced fibre by machinery, without subjecting the flax to This divides the fibre without tearing it. The subretting; but the article so produced has hitherto sequent manufacturing operations will be noticed been rejected as inferior in quality.

under LINEN AND LINEN MANUFACTURE. To avoid the delays and uncertainty dependent FLAXMAN, John, the greatest of English sculpapon the old processes of retting or watering, plans tors, was born at York, 6th July 1755. At the age have been recently introduced, bringing the opera of 15, he became a student in the Royal Academy, tion more under control, like the other processes of | but never worked in the studio of any master. In our manufactures. The methods which have been 1782, he married Miss Ann Denman, a lady of supe. adopted, and are now working with success, are rior gifts and graces, who soon began to exercise a known as Schenk's and Watt's. By the first of beneficial influence upon his studies. Accompanied these, the flax is placed in vats, in which it is by her, he went in 1787 to Italy, where, by degrees, kept down by means of strong framework. Water he attracted the attention of all lovers of art. This is allowed to pass into the vats, to become absorbed I was still more the case after his return to London by the tax; steam is next admitted, till the tem, in 1794. He was elected an Associate of the Royal perature of the water is raised to, and maintained Academy in 1797 ; Royal Academician in 1800; and, at, about 90°. Acetous fermentation ensues in a in 1810, was appointed Professor of Sculpture to that few hours; and after being maintained for about institution Aiter the death of his wife in 1820, he sixty hours, the decomposition of the gummy or withdrew from society, and died 7th December 1$26. resinous matter in the stalk is completed. The F.'s most celebrated works are his Outlines to mucilage water is next withdrawn from the vat, and Homer's Odyssey' (Rome, 1793), and The Iliad' the flax taken out, separated and dried either in (Lond. 1795), and his illustrations of Dante and the open air or in desiccating rooms, according to Aschylus. Many of his works display wonderful circumstances. In Watt's process, the flax is placed grandeur of composition, and a pure and noble in a chamber provided with a perforated false style.

He was

one of the first of those who, bottom; the top is double, and filled with water to act following the example of Winckelmann, strove to as a condenser. Steam being admitted to the case, penetrate to the true spirit of antique art, in oppothe first result is the freeing of the flax from certain sition to the false taste of the time. The study of volatile oils. The steam rising to the top of the vase-paintings, and of the Pompeian mural pictures, chamber is condensed by contact with it, and falls then just revived, led him to abandon the sickly in showers on the flax beneath-a decoction of the mannerism of his predecessors for the severa extracted matter is thus obtained. In 36 hours, simplicity of the antique, and he may with justice the process is completed; and the flax taken out, is be styled the author of modern rilievo (see altc. passed between rollers in the direction of its length, Rilievo). His works are not, however, all of equal which presses out the water and decomposed gum, value, and, in general, it may be said that his skill and splits and flattens the straw. By this process, in modelling was not equal to his inventive genius. all that the plant takes from the land is saved—the The poetry of his conceptions is of a high order. seeds being available as food for animals, and the F. contributed much towards bringing the outline cbaff and refuse water as manure.

style, now so popular, into general use. Of his Prepared by either of the plans, the flax is now sculptures, the best known in England are his basready to be freed completely of its woody particles. relief monument to the poet Collins at Chichester, This is effected by scutching. Previous to this, the monument to Lord Mansfield, and that to the however, the flax is passed through a brake or Baring family at Micheldean Church, in Hampshire. tevolving rollers, in order thoroughly tr crack the His model for the shield of Achilles, taken from


the 18th book of the Iliad, is particularly worthy wood-work with gaping joints, certain strongly of admiration. F.'s private collection is now in aromatic plants are employed, of which the odours University College, London, in the gallery known as appear to be detestable to them, as the different Flaxman Hall.

Compositæ known by the name of fleabane, and FLEA (Pulex), a Linnæan genus of apterous also wormwood, the merits of which last are thus insects, now commonly regarded by entomologists extolled by Tusser : as constituting a distinct order, Suctoria, Siphon. While worinwood hath seed, get a handfull or twaine, apteru, or A phaniptera. The species are not numer To save against March, to make flea to refraine ; ous, and little subdivision of the genus has been Where chamber is sweeped, and wormwood is strown, attempted. It has been suggested as probable, No flea for his life dare abide to be known.' that further investigation may lead to a recognition Other species of fleas infest particular animals, as of the fleas as belonging to some of the larger orders, the dog, fox, mole, &c.—The Chigoe (q. v.), or Jigger with parts modified to suit their parasitical life. of the West Indies, nearly allied to the true fleas, is All the species are very similar to the COMMON far more troublesome than any of them. FLEA (P. irritans), which is plentiful in all parts FLEA'BANE (Pulicaria), a genus of plants of

the natural order Compositæ, sub-order Corymbifere, having hemispherical imbricated involucres and yellow flowers; the whole plant emitting a peculiar aromatic smell, sometimes compared to that of soap which is said to be efficacious in driving away fleas



Common Flea (Pulex irritans), magnified. of the world, living by sucking the blood of man, and of some species of quadrupeds and birds. It abounds partirularly in the nests of poultry, pigeons, and swallows, and wherever sand and dust accumulate in the chinks of floors, &c; it is to be found also plentifully in beds, wherever cleanliness is neglected.

The abundance of fleas in some countries is an intolerable nuisance to travellers, and also to residents. Such is said to be particularly the case in many parts of Australia, where the general dryness and warmth encourage their growth to an extent against which the precautionary measures of housewives are almost entirely una. vailing. The female flea is rather larger than the male, but the sexes are otherwise very similar. The

Fleabane (Pulicaria dysenterica): head is small, very compressed, rounded above, and has on each side a small round eye. The mouth as writt ;top of stem with leaves and flowers; e acona

with pappus; d, pistil; e, a doret of the disc ; , a stamen has two lancet-liks, mandibles, the maxillæ being g, a floret of the ray. represented by two conical scales, the mandibles and maxillæ forming a suctorial beak, with a slender Two species are found in England, one of which bristle-like tongue, the whole enclosed between two (?: dysenterica), common in moist places, with three-jointed plates. The thorax consists of three oblong leaves, stem 12–15 inches high, cottony, segments, the second and third of which bear a and bearing panicled flowers, has a considerable scale on each side; the scales are regarded as reputation in diarrhoea and dysentery. The Russian rudimentary wings. There is no marked division soldiers, in the expedition to Persia under General between the thorax and the abdomen, which con- Keith, were much troubled with dysentery, which sists of nine segments, much larger than those of was cured by this plant.—Conyza squarrosa, also the thorax, but much compressed The whole

called fleabane, belongs to a nearly allied genius. body is covered with a tough integument. The

FLECHE, LA, a town of France, in the departactivity of the flea, its power of leaping, and ment of Sarthe, is agreeably situated on the right its extraordinary strength, are well known. Its bank of the Loir, 24 miles south-south-west of Lo strength has sometimes been applied to the draw. Mans. It is a well-built town, and has three prining of miniature carriages, cannon, &c., which cipal streets, which are wide and well paved. Ito the public have been invited to witness through principal building is the military school, with a 2 magnifying-glass, as an amusing spectacle. Fleas library of 15,000 volumes, destined for the education undergo a complete metamorphosis. The female of the sons of poor officers, or of soldiers who have lays about a dozen eggs of a white colour, and highly distinguished themselves. The building now slightly viscous. The larva is a lively little worm, occupied by the school was once a royal palace, and at first white, afterwards reddish, and destitute was built by Henry IV. It was subsequently given of feet. When about to change into a pupa, it by him to the Jesuits, and used by them. As a encloses itself in a little silk cocoon, from which Jesuit college. Here Prince Eugene, Descartes, and emerges the perfect flea Cleanliness and careful Picard the astronomer, were educated. F. has some attentiou are the principal means of keeping beds trade in corn, hay, and wine, also manufactures of and houses free of tleas; but where these are linen, hosiery, and gloves. Pop. (1876) 7468. found insufficient, as is apt to be the case in some FLECKNOE, RICEARD, the date of whose birth alimates, and in cottages where there is much I is unknown, is said to have been an Irish Roman


Catholic priest. He came to London, mingled in into a union with the most infamous characters; the wars of the wits, and wrote several plays, all and persons in shoals resorted to the parsons to be of which are now forgotten. He died in 1678. F. united in bonds which they had no intention should came under the lash of Dryden, whose satire, biud them, and which were speedily broken to be entitled Mac Flecnoe, is partly the model of Pope's contracted with some new favourite. The sailors Dunciad (9. v.), and will be remembered as long as from the neighbouring docks were steady patrons of the great satirist is remembered. From those who this mode: it was stated by the keeper of one of are acquainted with our extinct literature, we have the taverns, that often, when the fleet was in, two the assurance that F. has been hardly dealt with ; or three hundred marriages were contracted in a that though he did not rise to the rank of Dryden week. Persons of a more respectable character also as a poet, he was the author of several fugitive at times resorted to the Fleet. Thus the Hon. pieces, not without grace, fancy, and happy turns Henry Fox was here married to Georgina Caroline, of expression. Among his dramatic pieces are daughter of the second Duke of Richmond. Pennant Erming, or the Chaste Lady; Love's Dominion thus describes the neighbourhood of the Fleet in his (printed in 1654, and dedicated to Cromwell's time: 'In walking along the street in my youth, favourite daughter, Mrs Claypole); and The Mar. on the side next the prison, I have often been riage of Oceanus and Britannia. His Miscellanea, tempted by the question : “Sir, will you be pleased or Poems of all Sorts, appeared in 1653.

to walk in and be married ?" Along this most FLEET (that which floats), a collection of ships, male and female hand conjoined, with “marı iages

lawless space was hung up the frequent sign of a whether of war or commerce, for one object or for one performed within” written beneath. A dirty fellow destination. The diminutives of fleet are

invited and squadron. In the royal navy, a fleet is ordi- his shop, a squalid, dirty figure, clad in a tattered

you in. The parson was seen walking before narily the command of an admiral or vice-admiral.

plaid night-gown, with a fiery face, and ready to FLEET MARRIAGES. The practice of con- couple you for a dram of gin or a pipe of tobacco.' tracting clandestine marriages was very prevalent -London, p. 193. Registers of these marriages in England before the passing of the first mar were kept by the various parties who officiated. A riage act (see MARRIAGE). The chapels at the collection of these books, purchased by government Savoy and at May Fair, in London,' were long in 1821, and deposited in the Consistory Court of famous for the performance of these marriages ; | London, amounted to the incredible number vi but no other place was equal in notoriety for between two and three hundred large registers, and this infamous traffic to the Fleet Prison. It upwards of one thousand smaller books, called must be observed, that before the passing of the pocket-books. These registers were not received as 26 Geo. II. c. 33, there was no necessity in Eng- evidence in a court of law (Doe d Davies v. Gatacre, laud for any religious ceremonial in the perforin- 8 Carr, and P. 578), not because the inarriage was ance of marriage, which might be contracted by invalid, but because the parties engaged in the cere. mere verbal consent. Hence it was not in virtue mony were so worthless that they were deemed of any special privilege existing within the liberty undeserving of credit. Various attempts were made of the Fleet that marriages at that place became so to stop this practice by acts of parliament. By 6 common; but rather from the fact, that the persons and 7 Will

. III. c. 52, and again by 7 and 8 Will. by whom they were performed, having nothing to III. c. 35, penalties were imposed on clergymen cele. lose either in money or character, were able to set brating any marriage without banns ; Lut these at defiance the penalties enacted from time to time provisions were without effect upon men who had with a view to restrain this public nuisance. The nothing to lose. At length, the nuisance becarue period during which these marriages were in greatest intolerable, for, owing to the difficulty of proving repute was from 1674 to 1754. The first notice of these marriages, respectable parties, who in folly Fleet marriage is in 1613, in a letter from Alderman had entered into them, found it often impossible to Lowe to Lady Hickes, and the first entry in a register establish their marriage, and the greatest confusion is in 1674. Up to this time, it does not appear Geo. II. c. 33, was therefore passed, which struck at

was in consequence produced. The act of the 26th that the marriages contracted at the Fleet were clandestine ; but in the latter year, an order having the root of the matter by declaring that all mar. been issued by the ecclesiastical commissioners riages, except in Scotland, solemnised otherwise against the performance of clandestine marriages in than in a church or public chapel, where banns the Savoy and May Fair, the Fleet at once became have been published, unless by special licence, the favourite resort for those who desired to effect should be utterly void. This act met with strenuous a secret marriage. At first, the ceremony was opposition in the House of Commons, especially performed in the chapel in the Fleet; but the by Mr Fox, who had been himself married in the applications became so frequent, that a regular trade Fleet, but ultimately, it was passed into a law. Tha speedily sprung up. By 10 Anne, c. 19, s. 176, public, however, were unwilling to surrender their marriages in chapels without banns were prohibited privilege, and on the 26th March 1754, the day before under certain penalties, and from this time, rooms the act came into operation, there were no less than were fitted up in the taverns and the houses of 217 marriages entered in one register alone. See the Fleet parsons, for the purpose of performing Purn's History of Fleet Marriages, to which we are the ceremony. The persons who celebratel these indebted for many of the above particulars. marriages were clergymen of the Church of England, FLEET PRISON, a celebrated London jail, who had been consigned for debt to the prison of which stood on the east side of Farringdon Street, the Fleet. These men, having lost all sense of their on wbat was formerly called Fleet Market. The holy calling, employed touters to bring to them keeper of it was called the Warden of the Fleet. such persons as required their office. The sums It derived its name from the Fleet rivulet, so named paid for a marriage varied according to the rank of from its rapidity, which flowed into the Thames. the parties, from half-a-crown to a large fee where By the Act 5 and 6 Victoria, the Fleet Prison and the liberality and the purse combined to afford a the Marshalsea were abolislied, and their functions large reward. During the time that this iniquitous transferred to the Queen's Bench, under the new traffic was at its height, every species of enormity name of the Queen's Prison. The Fleet was the was practised. Young ladies were compelled to king's prison so far back as the 12th c., and a recepmarry against their will; young men were decoyed tacle for debtors since about the same period. The

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followers of Watt Tyler burned it in the reign of the 12th c., while the second part is attributed Richard II. In the 16th and 17th centuries, it to W. van Utenhove, and supposed to have been acquired a high historical" interest from its having written about 1250. The 14th c. was remarkable been the prison of the religious martyrs of the for the numbers and excellence of the Flemish reigns of Mary and Elizabeth, and of the political Sprekkers, Zeggers, and Vinders, or wandering victims of the Courts of the Star Chamber and High poets, some of whose works have been published Commission in that of Charles I. On the abolition by Blommaert; and for the origin of the Chambers of the Star Chamber in 1641, it became a place of of Rhetoric, which exerted a marked influence on confinement for debtors and persons committed for the progress of literature during succeeding ages, contempt from the Courts of Chancery, Exchequer, and became the arbiters of literary and dramatio and Common Pleas. During the 18th c., it was the fame through the Netherlands generally. In the scene of every kind of atrocity and brutality, from 16th c., the French element gained ascendency, the extortion of the keepers and the custom of the and the old Flemish lost much of its original warden underletting it. The Fleet was several terseness and purity. Numerous translations of times rebuilt; the last building was erected after the Scriptures appeared; among the most remark. the burning of the older one in the Gordon riots of able of which are the Psalms by Dathenus (1556), 9780, the predecessor of which had been destroyed and by Marnix (1580), the author of the Roomsche in the great fire of London in 1666. Latterly, it Bickorf (1569). The translation of the entire usually contained 250 prisoners, and kept ward of Bible was not effected till 1618, when the General about 60 outdoor detenus for debt, privileged to Synod of Dort decided to employ learned men live within the rules.

capable of giving a correct version from the Hebrew FLEETWOOD, or FLEETWOOD-ON-WYRE,

and Greek texts; and this great work was finally a small but thriving town, seaport, and military and two Dutchmen, Bogermann and Hommius.

completed by two Flemings, Baudaert and Walons station of England, in the county of Lancashire, is Strenuous efforts were also made, at this period, situated on a promontory at the mouth of the to give greater freedom to the Flemish language ; estuary of the Wyre, about 20 miles south-west and hence this original Flemish version of the Bible from Lancaster. It is a modern town, and owes has become a standard in regard to the construction its origin and importance to its facilities for railway and orthography of the language. Hooft, Vondel, laid out, has an excellent harbour, and is a favourite and Cats are the three men whose names stand resort for sea-bathing.

foremost among the Flemish writers of the 17th A government school of musketry, which promises to be for the north century. Hooft was a poet, but he is best known of England what Hythe and Aldershott are for by his History of the Netherlands, which is held the south, is now in full operation here. It has

in high esteem by his countrymen. Vondel, who a staff of instructors, and quarters for 300 men tragedies the vehicles of hurling the most cutting

was one of the leading men of his day, made his and 60 officers; besides a substantial hut-encampment, about a mile from the town, for 200 men and satire on every obnoxious measure of the govern. 14 officers, where there are quarters for married ment; and his works still maintain their ground. soldiers, hospital, lecture-rooms, &c., and a large He had great versatility of powers ; and in his latter tract of land for rifle practice. In 1872, 707 vessels, years, his talents were directed to the exaltation of mf 186,991 tons, entered, and 636, of 185,038 tons,

Catholicism, to which he had been converted. Cats cleared the port. Pop. (1871) 4428.

was essentially the poet of the people, and for 200

years, his works, popularly known as the. Household FLEMISH LANGUAGE AND LITERA: Bible, have been cherished alike among the poor and TURE. The Vlaemisch or Flemish is a form of wealthy. Although Cats was a skilful lawyer, an Low German still spoken in the Belgian provinces active statesman, and a profound scholar, he found of East and West Flanders, Limburg, Antwerp, time to compose a great number of works, as the North Brabant, and in some parts of Holland and Zorgvliet; Trouwring (the Wedding Ring); Houthe Walloon provinces of Belgium. So little change welyck (Marriage), which exhibit the most intimate has taken place in this dialect, that the form of acquaintance with the everyday-life of his country: speech in which the Council of Liptines drew up (in men. His Moral Emblems have recently (1859) 742) the creed, in which pagans were made to express been translated into English, and published by their renunciation of idolatry on being converted to Messrs Longman & Co. The 18th c. was barren of Christianity, requires only the alteration of a few poetic genius in the Low Countries, but it produced letters to make it intelligible to a modern Fleming: several good philologists, as Stevens, Huydecoper, Flemish has much affinity with the Frisian, and and Ten Kate, the latter of whom is the author of constitutes, together with modern Dutch (which was a work on the Flemish language, which has served originally identical with it, and now only differs as a fundamental authority for modern writers. from it in a few orthographical and otherwise The arbitrary measures of the French government, unessential particulars), the national tongue of the under Napoleon, against the official use of Flemish, whole of the Low Countries. The most ancient had the effect of crushing for a time the very spirit record of Flemish, is a fragment of a translation in of nationalism, while it completely annihilated prose of the Psalms a thousand years old. In the native literature; and it was not till after the 13th c., public deeds began to be drawn up in the revolution of 1830, that the Flemish language vernacular, which are perfectly intelligible in the regained its footing in the Belgian provinces. This present day (as the Ordinance of Henry I. of Brabant, revival of the national form of speech is mainly 1229, in the Brussels Book of Privileges). In due to the unremitting effurts of such writers as the same century, J. van Maerlant, the father of Willems, Bilderdijk, Cornelissen, Blommaert, Con. Flemish poets,' author of The Historical Mirror, science, Delecourt, Ledeganck, &c., whose works Wapen Ñ artin, Rymbilal, &c., and W. van Uten: have imparted fresh vigour, and greater gramınatical hove composed numerous poems, and translated precision to the Flemish. In 1841, on the occasion from the French and German, and very probably of a linguistic congress held at Ghent, the members from the Latin. Willems and other critics believe of the government for the first time publicly recog. that to the Flemish must be ascribed the honour nised the existence of the Flemish element in the of the original and entire poem of Reinært Vos, people, and addressed the meeting in the national tho first part of which they refer to the middle of dialect. The last thirty years have confirmed this


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wovenient; and while the best foreign works have from blood-vessels, etc., and may be regarded as fairly been rendered into Flemish, the writings of Blom- representing the composition of flesh generally: maert, Conscience (q. v.), and other native authors have been translated into many of the European tongues. See Sleecx on the History of the Flemish, Solid constituents

vary and its Relation to other Languages ; Willems (1819

-1824), Verhandl. ov. d. Nederduyt.; 0. Delepierre, The latter being made up of History of Flemish Literature (1860).


Gelatigenous substance FLEMMING, Paul, one of the best German Albumen poets of the 17th c., was born October 15, 1609, at

undetermined. Hartenstein, in the principality of Schönburg, where

do. his father was minister. He studied medicine at Leipsic, but was induced by the distractions of the Lactic acid (CeHsOS, HO) Thirty Years' War to retire to Holstein in 1633.

Phosphoric acid

Potash In the same year he accompanied the embassy Soda sent by the Duke of Holstein to Russia, and in Chloride of sodlum 1635, was attached to the more splendid embassy

Lime sent out to Persia. He returned in 1639, married,

Magneria and resolved to settle as a physician in Hamburg, Long as the above list of substances is, it does but died there 2d April 1640. F. stands at the not include all the ingredients of flesh. In the head of the German lyric poets of the 17th c. His freshly expressed muscular juice, which exhibits Geistliche und weltliche Poemata (Jena, 1642) contain a strong acid reaction (from free lactic acid, and many exquisite love songs, which, for more than a from acid phosphates of the alkalies), we also find century, remained unequalled in finish and sweetness. small quantities of Sarcine or Hypoxanthive (q. v.), Others are distinguished for enthusiasm of feeling, and of formic, butyric, and acetic acids—which may, ardent patriotism, and manly vigour, while his sonnets however, be mere products of decomposition; very are marked by strength and thorough originality. minute quantities of uric acid, and sometimes a F.'s longer poems describe the adventures of his trace of urea, which, however, occurs in very apprejourney, occasionally at least with great spirit, ciable quantity in the muscles of persons who have though they are not free from the weaknesses of his died of cholera, and in very considerable quantity time. His beautiful hymnn, In allen meinen Thaten, in the flesh of the plagiostomous fishes, while in composed before his journey to Persia, proves his other fishes not a trace of it can be detected-an genius a writer of sacred songs. His life, with his apparent anomaly to which at present we see no select poems, was published by Schwab (Stuttgard, clue; and in the juice of the heart of mammals, and 1820). ^ Compare Knapp, Evangelischer Liederschatz in smaller quantity in their other muscles, a kind (Stuttg. 1837), and Müller in the Bibliothek Deutscher of sugar termed Inosite (q. v.). Bernard has recently Dichter des 17 Jahrhundert (3 vols., Leipsic, 1822) ; discovered Glycogen (q. v.) in the muscles of the and Varnhagen von Ense, in the 4th vol. of the embryos of various animals. Biographische Denkmale.

In regard to the inorganic constituents of the FLE'NSBORU, the most populous and consider juice of flesh, Liebig directs especial attention to able town in the duchy of Slesvig, at the extremity the fact, that this fluid in all animals is particuof the Flensborg Fjord, an inlet of the Baltic, and 19 larly rich in potash, and that it also contains miles north of the town of Slesvig. Pop. 21,325. It chloride of potassium, with only traces of chloride is the capital of a bailiwick of the same name, which of sodium; while in the blood only proportionally included the north part of the district supposed to small quantities of the salts of potash and preponhave been the country of the Angels, or Angli. F. derating quantities of the salts of soda and of is said to have been founded in the 12th c., and common salt, are present.' He further notices the named from its founder, the Knight Flenes. In constant excess of the phosphates over the chlorides, 1284 it received municipal rights from King Val- and of the phosphate of lime over that of magnesia demar. F. is pleasantly situated, and has a good in the former Huid, as points of physiological imbarbour. It has sugar refineries and distilleries, portance. . The value of these investigations will and manufactures of cloth, paper, soap, and tiles of be shewn in the article METAMORPHOSIS op Tissus superior quality. The trade is considerable. F. (q. v.). owns between 200 and 300 ships, many of which are It is worthy of notice, in connection both with built in its own yards. A railway, 43 miles long, physiology and dietetics, that the dried flesh of connects F. with Tonningen on the Eyder.

the ox is identical in its ultimate composition with FLERS, a town of France, in the department of which were made by Professor J.yon Playfair :

dried blood, as is shewn by the following analysoul, Orne, north of France, 35 miles west-north-west of Alençon. It has an old castle, which was burned

Carbon, down in the Chouan war, but which has been recently restored. F. has considerable manufactures of linen,

Nitrogen, fustian, and especially of ticking. Pop. (1872) 7983.


Ashes, FLESH is the ordinary term for muscular tissue. This analysis singularly confirms the statem in After the removal of the blood vessels, nerves, con: nective (or cellular) tissue, &c., the Hesh is found made previously by an eminent French physiololo consist of various textural elements, which are

gist, that in so far as ultimate organic composition described in the article Muscle (q. v.). Numerous information on the subject, we may refer to Liebig's

is concerned, “the blood is liquid flesh.'— For further analyses have been made of the muscular substance of various animals. In Dr Day's translation Researches on the Chemistry of Food, translated by of Simon's Animal Chemistry, published by the Gregory, and Lehmann's Physiological Chemistry.

vol. iii. Sydenham Society, there are analyses of the flesh of man, the ox, calf, pig, roe, pigeon, fowl, carp, and FLESH-FLY, or BLUE-BOTTLE-FLY (Musca trout. The following table gives the determinations vomitoria), an insect of the same genus with the of the individual constituents of the flesh of oxen, or, common HOUSE-FLY (9. v.), which it much exceeds in ordinazy language, of beef freed, as far as possible, in size, although it is not equal in size to the

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