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FLETA-FLETCHER.

Blow-fly (q. v.). The forehead is rust-coloured, the within the narrowest limits, if not to abolislı it thorax grayish, the abdomen blue with three black altogether, he was so far from being an advocate for bands. The expanse of wings is nearly one inch. It is a universal participation in political rights, that one abundant throughout Britain and Europe generally, of his favourite schemes for the reformation of the and deposits its eggs on flesh, for which purpose it hosts of vagrants and paupers by whom Scotland often enters houses, having a remarkably delicate was infested in his day, consisted in the estabsense of smelling. The maggots are of very frequent lishment of slavery in the form in which it had occurrence on meat in summer, notwithstanding all existed in the classical nations of antiquity. On care that can be taken.-A nearly allied species the discovery of the Rye House plot, F. returned (M. Cæsar), is distinguished by its golden green to Holland. His next visit to England was as a colour, and is also common in Britain. It is found volunteer under the unfortunate Duke of Monmouth in houses from the beginning of spring to the end of in 1685; but he was compelled to leave the autumn. Another (M. lardaria), with silky tawny insurgent army, at the beginning of the enterprise, face, a black stripe on the crown, thorax glittering in consequence of his having shot the mayor of white with four black stripes, and abdomen bluish Lynn, with whom he had had a personal quam gray, tesselated with black, is most common in the about a horse. The next hiding-place which F. end of autumn, frequenting bushes of ivy and late selected was Spain ; but he had no sooner arrived, flowers, and is also a pest of the larder.

than he was thrown into prison at the instance FLETA, the title of a valuable treatise on the transmitted to England, to share the fate of his

of the English ambassador, and would have been law of England. It is not known by whom this fellow-patriots, had he not been mysteriously delitreatise, which is one of the earliest authorities on vered from prison by an unknown friend. From English law, was written, and it derives its title Spain he proceeded to Hungary, where he entered from the circumstance that it was written in the the army as a volunteer, and greatly distinguished Fleet prison. Lord Campbell remarks-Lives of the himself. He returned to England at the Revolution Chancellors, i. 166 and note: 'I shall rejoice if I A few years later, he met in London, accidentally, do tardy justice to the memory of Robert Burnel, it should seem, the famous William Paterson, the decidedly the first in this class, and if I attract founder of the Bank of England, and the projector notice to his successors, who walked in his footsteps of the Darien Expedition in London ; and it was at To them, too, we are probably indebted for the F.'s solicitation that Paterson came to Scotland, treatises entitled Fleta and Britton, which are said and offered, to the acceptance of his country; to have been written at the request of the king, and which, though in ferior in style and arrangement to should be carried out by the far greater resources

men, a project which he had originally intended Bracton, are wonderful performances for such an ager either of the trading communities of the Hanse Fleta must have been written after the 13th year of towns, or of the princes of the German empire. the king (Edward I.), and not much later; for it fre. The bitterness caused by the treatment which the quently quotes the statute of Westminster the second, Darien colonists received at the hands of King without referring to the later statutes of the reign.

William's government, tended to contirm F. and FLETCHER, ANDREW, of Salton, a celebrated his friends in their opposition to the Union with Ccottish patriot and politician, was the son of Sir England, and led to his delivering in parliament Robert Fletcher and Catherine Bruce, daughter of those spirited harangues in favour of an exclusive Sir Henry Bruce of Clackmannan. He was born in Scottish nationality, which still stir the blood of 1653. Notwithstanding the strong anti-English his countrymen. After the Union, he retired in feelings which characterised him through life, F. disgust from public life, and died in London in was of English descent by the father's side; his 1716. F.'s writings originally appeared in the father being the fifth in the direct line from Sir form of tracts, and anonymously; they were, how. Bernard Fletcher of the county of York. But his ever, collected and reprinted at London in 1737, mother was of the royal House of Scotland, the under the title of The Political Works of Andrero first of the Clackmannan family having been the Fletcher, Esquire. third son of the Lord of Annandale, Robert de FLETCHER, GILES and PHINEAS, were the sons Bruce, who was the grandfather of the great King of Dr Giles Fletcher, Queen Elizabeth's ambassador Robert. F.'s father who died in his childhood, to the court of Russia, and cousins to Fletcher the consigned him to the care of Gilbert Burnet, then dramatist. minister of Salton, afterwards the well-known GILES, the elder, was born about 1580; he was Bishop of Salisbury; by whom he was instructed educated at Cambridge, and died at his living at not only in literature and religion, but in those Alderton in 1623. His chief poetical work is a principles of free government of which he afterwards sacred poem, entitled Christ's Victory and Triumph, when he sat in parliament for the first time as com- although once admired, is now unknown to general missioner for East Lothian, F. offered so determined readers, and is chiefly remarkable for having, to an opposition to the measures of the Duke of York some extent, moulded the majestic muse of Milton. (afterwards James II.), then acting as the Royal Phineas, the younger brother of Giles, was born Commissioner in Scotland, that he found it neces- about 1584, educated at Eton and Cambridge, and sary to retire, first into England, and then into became rector of Hilgay, in Norfolk, in 1621, and Holand. He there entered into close alliance with died there in 1660. His most important poem, the the English refugees, who had assembled in consi- Purple Island, or the Isle of Man, was published in derable numbers; and on his return to England in 1633. It contains an elaborate description of the 1683, he shared the counsels of the party of which human body and mind—the former being given with Russell, Essex, Howard, Algernon Sydney, and great anatomical minuteness. The mind is repre. John Hampden (the grandson of the still more sented as being beleaguered with the vices, and famous patriot of the same name) were the leaders. likely to be subdued, when an angel comes to the Thongh usually regarded as a republican, F.'s poli. rescue--the angel being James L. Although to a tical creed, like that of Algernon Sydney, approached large extent formal and pedantic, the Purple Island far nearer to aristocracy than to democracy in abounds in fine passages, in which the luscioustiese the inollern sense; for though he was disposed to of Spenser and the gravity of Milton are curiously restrict the monarchical element of the constitution 'mingled.

FLETCHER-FLEXURE

was

FLETCHER, JOHN. See BEAUMONT AND Perhaps, the most celebrated instance of this bear FLETCHER

ing, is in the case of the double prepuce flowery FLEUR-DE-LIS. Authorities are divided as to and counter-flowery gules which surrounds the red waether this celebrated emblem is derived from the lion in the royal arms of Scotland, and which white lily of the garden, or from the flag or iris, Charlemagne is said to have conferred on Achaius,

which, as generally represented, it king of Scotland, for assistance in his wars. The more resembles both in form and object, according to Nisbet (ii. 101), was to shew colour. ‘Ancient heralds," says Newton that, as the lion had defended the lilies of France, (Display, p. 145), tell us that the these 'hereafter shall continue a defence for the Franks of old had a custom, at the Scots lion, and as a badge of friendship, which proclamation of their king, to elevate has still continued.' That the lilies were assumed

bim upon a shield or target, and place in consequence of the intimate relation which preFleur-de-Lis. in his hand a reed or flag in blossom, vailed between France and Scotland for so many

instead of a sceptre ; and from thence generations, will not be doubted; but the special the kings of the first and second race in Frauce occasion of the assumption may not be admitted are represented with sceptres in their hands like in our day to be quite beyond the reach of scepthe flag with its flower, and which tlowers became ticism, notwithstanding Nisbet's assertion that it is the armorial figures of France. However this so fully instructed by ancient and modern writers may be, or whatever may be the value of the that he need not trouble his readers with a long other legendary tales, such as that a blue banner, catalogue of them. embroidered with golden fleurs-de-lis, came down FLEURY, CLAUDE, a French church historian, from heaven; that an angel gave it to King was born at Paris, 6th December 1640, and was Clovis at his baptism, and the like; there can educated at first for the law, but preferring an be little doubt that, from Clovis downwards, the ecclesiastical career, subsequently took priest's orders. kings of France bore as their arms first an inde- In 1672, he became tutor to the young Prince do finite number, and latterly three golden lilies on a Conti, who was brought up along with the dauphin, blue field, or, as heralds would say, azure, three and at a later period, to the Comte de Vermandois, feurs-de-lis, Or-It was Charles VI. who reduced natural son of Louis XIV. After the death of the what had hitherto been the indefinite number of Comte in 1683, the French monarch appointed him, fieurs-de-lis to three, disposed two and one; 'some under Fenelon, tutor to the Princes of Burgundy, conjecture upon account of the Trinity, others Anjou and Berri, and also abbot of the Cistercian say, to represent the three different races of the monastery of Loc-Dieu. When the princes had kings of France.' – Nisbet, i. 383. Many English completed their education, F. was rewarded with end Scotch families bear the fleur-de-lis in some the priorate of Argenteuil. The Duke of Orleans portion of their shield, and generally with some selected him for confessor to the young king, Louis reference to France.

XV., giving as his reason for so doing, that F. FLEURUS, a small town of Belgium, in the pro- neither Jansenist, nor Molinist, nor Ultramontanist, vince of Hainault, is situated north of the left bank but Catholic. F. held this office till 1722, when of the Sambre, and 15 miles west of Namur : pop the infirmities of age compelled him to resign it. about 2200. It has been the scene of several con He died 14th July 1723. F. was as learned as tests, the last and most important, however, being he was modest, and as mild and kind-hearted the battle of F., fought here 26th June 1794, between as he was simple in his manners, and upright in the army of the French Republic, consisting of his conduct. Among his numerous works may be 89,000 troops, under Jourdan, and the allies, who mentioned, Mours des Israélites (Paris, 1681): were inferior in numerical strength, under the Mours des Chrétiens (Paris, 1662); Truité du Choix Prince of Saxe-Coburg. The latter leader gave

et de la Methode des Etudes (Paris, 1686); Institution orders for a retreat at the very moment when a au Droit Ecclesiastique (1687); and, above all, the resolute advance might have decided the victory Histoire Ecclesiastique (20 vols., Paris, 1691-1720). in his favour, and the result was, that Jourdan On this work, F. laboured thirty years. It is marked was enabled to unite his army with those of the by great learning, and, on the whole, by a judiciously Moselle, the Ardennes, and the North, and that the critical spirit. What may be called his professional allied forces were compelled for a time to evacuate sympathies, are held in check by a noble desire to Flanders.

be impartial, which might well put to the blush FLEURY, FLORY, FLOWRY, FLEURETTE, writers. Semler (q. v.), an eminent Gerinan theo

the unveracious partisanship of many Protestant &c., in heraldry, signifies that the object is adorned logical professor, avowed that his lectures were at with fleurs-de-lis; a cross-fleury, for example, is a first mainly extracts from the Histoire Ecclesiastique, cross, the ends of which are in the form of fleurs. Even Voltaire praised it. • The history of F.,' de-lis. There are several varieties in the modes of representing these crosses, which has led to says he, 'is the best that has ever been executed

D'Alembert, and many others, recommend F.'s distinctions being made between them by heralds style as a model of elegant simplicity. The 80too trivial to be mentioned: but they are all dis- called Abrégé de Thistoire Ecclesiastique de Fleury, tinguishable from the cross-potance, or potancée, published at Berne in 1776, is ascribed to Frederio incorrectly, spelled patonce by English heralds. the Great. Mackenzie's Science of Heraldry, P: 44). In the Discours sur les libertés de l'Eglise Gallicane, bas

A posthumous work of F.'s, entitled latter, the limbs are in the form of the segments of always been very popular. & circle, and the foliation is a mere bud; whereas the cross-fleury has the limbs straight and the termin FLE’XURE, or FLEXION, is the bending or ations distinctly tloriated. Thus

curving of a line or figure (see CURVATURE). A curve is said to have a point of contrary flexure at the point where it changes its character of concavity or convexity towards a given line. In the art of building, flexure denotes the bending of loaded beams. If a beam, supported at its two ends, be

loaded, it bends, its lower surface becoming convex, Ororo-potance. Cross-fleury.

and its upper concave. In this bending the particlog

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FLIES-FLINT.

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in the lower surface are drawn away from each other, rolled F. nodules are also often founil in coma.
and those in the upper are more closely packed pound rocks, and in alluvial soils; vast alluvial
together, while between the surfaces there is a line tracts being sometimes full of them. F. geodes
called the line of no disturbance, wherein the par- often contain crystals of quartz. F. nodules are
ticles are neither drawn asunder nor compressed, and usually moist in the interior if broken when newly
from which the mathematical theory of the flexure taken from their beds.
of beams starts. Experiments show that the flexure F. is sometimes harder than quartz, sufficiently so
of solid beams, supported at their ends, and loaded, to scratch it. The readiness with which it strikes
varies—(1) directly as the load; (2) inversely as the fire with steel is well known, and it would seem
product of their breadths, and the cube of their that the sparks are not all merely incandescent
depths; and (3) directly as the cube of the distance particles, heated by the friction, but that in soms
between the supports, while the flexure, if the load of them a chemical combination of silica and iron
be uniformly distributed over the beam, is five-eighths takes place, causing great increase of heat. The
cf the amount produced by the loud placed on its cen use of the F. and steel for igniting tinder, once so
tre. See STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. .

common, has been almost superseded by that of FLIES, SPANISH or BLISTERING. See CANTHARIS. lucifer-matches, and gun-flints have given place FLINDERS, Matthew, an adventurous English the first who struck fire with flint; or more pro.

to percussion-caps. According to Pliny, Clias was navigator, to whom we are indebted for a correct bably, he was the first to shew its application to knowledge of a great portion of the Australian useful purposes ; and he therefore received the name coasts, was born at Donington, in Lincolnshire, Pyrodes. The most ancient use of F. was probably 1760. He entered the merchant service at an carly for sharp weapons and cutting instruments; and F. age, and subsequently the royal navy. In 1795, knives, axes, arrow-heads, &c., are among the most the vessel in which he was midshipman conveyed interesting relics of rude antiquity. the governor of New Holland to Botany Bay; and

At present, a principal use of F. is in the while there, F. determined to investigate the coast manufacture of fine earthenware, into the comsouth of Port Jackson, about 250 leagues of which position of which it enters, being for this purpose were laid down in the charts as “unknown.' With first calcined, then thrown into cold water, and an equally daring and ambitious young surgeon in afterwards powdered. his ship, called Bass, he departed on the enterprise The origin of F. is a subject of considerable in a small decked vessel, with a crew of only six difficulty. "Silicious deposits are sometimes a purely men. Their chief discovery was the straits between chemical operation, as in the case of the silicious Van Diemen's Land (now Tasmania) and the main sinter formed round the geysers of Iceland, from land of Australia, which were named after Bass. the evaporation of water largely charged with silex. In 1801, F. obtained from the British government But at the bottom of the sea, as no evaporation the command of a scientific expedition for the could take place, some other agent than springs of investigation of the Australian coasts and their water saturated with silex must have supplied the products. Commencing his examination at Cape materials. It is a fact of considerable importance Leuwin, F., in the course of two years, gradually in this inquiry, that almost all large masses of explored the coast to Bass's Straits, thence north limestone have thin silicious concretions, or flints. wards—laying down carefully the Great Barrier Thus, chert is found in carboniferous and other Reefs to the Gulf of Carpentaria, which he limestones, and menilite in the tertiary limestones horoughly surveyed across to Timur, then back to of the Paris basin. The conditions necessary for Cape Leuwin, and round the south coast to Port the deposition of calcareous strata seem to be those Jackson. In 1810 he was liberated from a six years' required for the formation of silicious concretions imprisonment by the French in the Isle of France. The materials of both exist in solution in sea-water, returned to England, and gave the world the result and as it needed the foraminifer, the coral, and the of his researches in a work, entitled A Voyage to mollusc to fix the carbonate of lime which formed Terra Australia. He died in July 1814, the day the chalk deposits, so the silex was secreted by on which his book was published.

innumerable diatoms and sponges, and their remains FLINDERS LAND, now South Australia (q.v.). most probably supplied the material of the flint.

FLINDE'RSIA, a genus of trees of the natural The discovery by Dr Bowerbank and other microorder Cedrelaceæ, one species of which, F. australis, scopists of the spicules of sponges and the frustules yields timber little inferior to mahogany. It is much of diatoms in almost every specimen of F., has used in Australia, and is there called CALLCEDRA clearly shewn that F. to a large extent, if not WOOD.

entirely, owes its origin to these minute organisms. FLINT, a mineral which may be regarded as It is, however, difficult to account for the changes a variety of qnartz, or as intermediate between that have taken place in these materials subsequent quartz and opal, consisting almost entirely of silica, to their deposition. with a very little lime, oxide of iron, water, car FLINT, a parliamentary borough and seaport bon, and sometimes even traces of organic matter. in the cast of Flintshire, North Wales, formerly the It has a flat shell-like fracture, is translucent or capital of the county, on the left side of the estuary semi-transparent, and varies in colour from a very of the Dee, 191 miles north-west of London by rail, dark brown, or almost black, to light brown, red, and 12 miles north-west of Chester. It forms yellow, and grayish white, and is sometimes veined, a rectangle like a Roman camp, and is surrounded clouded, marbled, or spotted. Dark-coloured flints by now nearly obliterated ramparts and intrench are most common in the chalk, in which prin. ments. The Dee estuary is some miles wide here, cipally F. occurs imbedded, forming nodules of but is shallow and narrow at low water. Vessels various sizes, sometimes large nodular masses, of of 300 tons reach the town. The principal exports irregular and often grotesque shape; but gravel are coal and lead from mines in the vicinity, formed of light-coloured flints is very common, and which afford the chief employment. Pop. (1871) it is disputed whether or not a change of colour has 4269. It unites with seven other places in sending taken place by exposure to atmospheric and other one member to parliament. Roman relius ard traces chemical agencies." F. is sometimes found in beds of Roman lend smelting works have been found or veins. It is very abundant wherever the chalk here. On a low freestone rock in a tidal marsh are formation extends, in England and other countries; the remains of a castle, built by Hemy II., und

1

FLINT_FLINT IMPLEMENTS AND WEAPON3.

dismantled in 1647. The double tower or keep is 40 or labour expended in their munufacture. In sono feet in diameter, and includes two concentric walls, instances, the fint has been roughly fashioned into each 6 feet thick, with an intervening gallery 8 feet something like the required form by two or three broad; within, is a circle 20 feet in diameter, with blows; in others, it has been laboriously chipped four entrances. Deterioration of the channel of the into the wished-for shape, which is often one of Dee has made F. in a great degree a port of Chester, no little elegance. In yet another class of cases, and here larger vessels, especially with timber, are the flint, after being duly shaped, has been ground discharged, and the cargoes floated up the Dee in smooth, or has even received as high a polish as smaller vessels, the timber in rafts.

could be given by a modern lapidary. Examples FLINT, a river of Georgia, one of the United of all the varieties of flint weapons and implements States of America, unites on its right with the will be found in the British Museum, in the Museum Chattahoochee, at the south-west angle of the state of the Royal Irish Academy at Dublin, in the to form the Appalachicola, which, after a course Museum of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland of 100 miles, enters the Gulf of Mexico. The at Edinburgh, and above all, in the Museum of the F. itself is about 300 miles long, being practicable Royal Society of Antiquaries at Copenhagen, whicb for steam-boats up to Albany, about 250 miles is especially rich in this class of remains. Repre. distant from the sea.

sentations of interesting, or characteristic types FLINT, TIMOTHY, Rev., an American clergyman Museum at Edinburgh in 1856 (Edin. 1859); in Mı

may be seen in the Catalogue of the Archæological and author, was born, in 1780, at Reading, Massa: Wilde's Catalogue of the Antiquities in the Museum chusetts, and graduated at Harvard College. In 1802 of the Royal Irish Academy (Dubl. 1857-1861); he became minister of the Congregational Church in Worsaae's Nordiske Oldsager i det Kongelige in Lunenburg, county of Worcester in that state, Museum i Kjobenhavn Copen. 1859); and in M. where he remained till 1814. In the following year, Frederic Troyon's Habit itions Lacustres (Lausanne, he became a missionary for the valley of the Missis

1860). sippi, where he was engaged in itinerant preach

Geological discoveries have recently invested flint ing and teaching a school. In 1825, he returned implements with a new interest. At Abbeville, at to the northern states; and in 1826, published his Amiens, at Paris, and elsewhere on the continent, Recollections of Ten Years passed in the Valley of the flint weapons, fashioned by the hand of man, have Mississippi (Boston, &vo). The same year appeared been found along with remains of extinct species from his pen a novel, entitled Francis Berrian, or of the elephant, the rhinoceros, and other mam. the Mexican Patriot, purporting to be the autobio mals, in undisturbed beds of those deposits of sand, graphy of a New England adventurer who acted a gravel, and clay to which geologists have given conspicuous part in the first Mexican revolution, the name of the drift.' They so far resemble the and in the overthrow of Iturbide. In 1828, he flint implements and weapons found on the surface issued two works: A Condensed Geography and of the earth, but are generally of a larger size, History of the Western States in the Mississippi of ruder workmanship, and less varied in shape. Valley (Cincinnati, 2 vols. 8vo); and Arthur Clen. They have been divided into three classes-round. ning, a novel (Philadelphia, 2 vols. 8vo). Another novel, George Mason, or The Backwoodsman, and a both being chipped to a sharp edge, so as to cut or

pointed, as in fig. 1; and sharp-pointed, as in fig. 2 romance in 2 vols., The Shoshonee Valley, appeared at Cincinnati in 1830. In 1833, he edited several pierce only at the pointed end; and oval-shaped, ag numbers of the Knickerbocker Magazine, and was and second classes vary in length from about four

in tig. 3, with a cutting edge all round. The first subsequently editor for three years of The Western inches to eight or nine inches; the third class is Monthly Magazine, His other works are: Indian generally about four or five inches long, but examples Wars in the IV est (1833, 12mo); Lectures on Natural have been found of no more than two inches, and of History, Geology, Chemistry, and the Arts (Boston, as much as eight or nine inches. In no instance has 1833, 12mo); translation of Droy's L'Art d'étre any flint implement discovered in the drift been Heureuse, with additions by translator ; and Bio. found either polished or ground. The French anti. graphical Memoir of Daniel Boone, the first Settler of Kentucky (Cincinnati, 1834, 18mo). În 1835, he quary, M. Boucher de Perthes, was the first to

call attention to these very interesting remains, contributed to the London Atheneum a series of in his Antiquités Celtiques et Antédiluviennes (Paris, Sketches of the Literature of the United States.

1847–1857). But it has since been remembered He died at Salem, August 16, 1840.-His son, that implements of the same kind were found in a Micau P. Flint, published a volume of poetry, similar position at Hoxne, in Suffolk, along with entitled The Hunter and other Poems.

remains of some gigantic animal, in 1797, and at FLINT GLASS. See Glass.

Gray's Inn Lane, in London, along with remains of FLINT IMPLEMENTS AND WEAPONS, an elephant, in 1715. Both these English examples believed to have been used by the primitive inhabit are still preserved--the first in the Museum of the ants, have from time to time, in more or less number, Society of Antiquaries at London, the second in the been turned up by the plough and the spade, dug British Museum, and they are precisely similar in out from ancient graves, fortifications, and dwelling every respect to the examples more recently found places, or fished up from the beds of lakes and in France. iivers, in almost every country of Europe. They To what age these remains should be assigned, do not differ, in any material respect, from the flint is a question on which geology seems scarcely implements and weapons still in use among uncivil. yet prepared to speak with authority. But, in ised tribes in Asia, Africa, America, and the islands the words of Mr John Evans, in his essay on · Flint of the Pacific Ocean. The weapons of most fre- Implements in the Drift,' in the Archæologia, quent occurrence are arrow-heads (see ELF-ARROWS), vol. xxxviii. (Lond. 1860), thus much appears to spear-points, dagger-blades, and axe-heads or Celts be established beyond a doubt, that in a period

9. v.). The more common implements are knives, of antiquity remote beyond any of which we have chisels, rasps, wedges, and thin curved or semi- hitherto found traces, this portion of the globe circular plates, to which the name of 'scrapers' has was peopled by man; and that mankind has here been given. There is great variety, as well in the witnessed some of those geological changes by size as in the shape, even of articles of the same which the so-called diluvial beds were deposited. kind. There is equal variety in the amount of skill Whether these were the result of some violent ruab

FLINTSHIRE-FLOATING BATTERY.

of waters, such as may have taken place when the course of our brooks, streams, and rivers, may "the fountains of the great deep were broken be matter of dispute. Under any circumstances, up', and the windows of heaven were opened,” this great fact remains indisputable, that at Amiens, or whether of a more gradual action, similar in land which is now 160 feet above the sea, and 90 1. naracter to some of those now in operation along feet above the Somme, has, since the existence of

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watn, been submerged under fresh water, and an vales, and the staple produce is wheat, oats, barley, mejnieous deposit from 20 to 30 feet in thickness, a potatoes, cattle, cheese, and butter. Cotton is the portion of which, at all events, must have subsided main manufacture. The London, Chester, and Holy. from tranquil water, has been formed upon it; and head Railway skirts the east and north shores. F. this, too, has taken place in a country the level of contains 5 hundreds and 32 parishes. Pop. (1871) which is now stationary, and the face of which has 76,245. About 215 places of worship (110 Methodist, been little altered since the days when the Gauls 41 Episcopal). F. sends two members to parliament. and the Romans constructed their sepulchres in the The chief towns are Flint, formerly the county soil overlying the drift which contains these relics town; Mold, St Asaph, Holywell, Rhyddlan, and of a far earlier race of men.'

Hawarden. F. has traces of Roman lead-mines, is FLI'NTSHIRE, a maritime county of North traversed by Wat and Offa's Dykes, and has some Wales, bounded on the E. by Cheshire and the river ancient castle and ecclesiastical ruins. In F., in the Dee, on the S. and W. by Denbighshire, and on the 7th c., Saxon invaders massacred 1200 Christian N. by the Irish Sea. The main portion of the county monks of the monastery of Bangor. In 796, the is 25 miles long by 10 broad, and the larger of Saxons defeated the Welsh here with dreadful the two outlying portions, which lies toward the slaughter, which event gave rise to the still popular south-east of the main part, is 10 miles by 5. F. is plaintive air of Morfa Řhyddlan. the smallest of the Welsh counties, its area being

FLINTY SLATE, of which there are beds in only 184,905 acres, of which this arable. The coast, 20 miles long, is low and sandy, but on the is an impure qnartz, assuming a slaty structure. It

some parts of Scotland, and in many other countries, Dee estuary fertile. A hill-range, parallel to the contains about 75 per cent. of silica, the remainder Dee, runs through the length of the county, and rises being lime, magnesia, oxide of iron, &c. Its fracin Garreg to 825 feet. Another range along the south- ture is rather splintery than shell-like. It is more west border of the county rises in Moel Famma, 1845 feet. The chief rivers are the Dee, Alyn, and tions into clay-slate, with which

it is often in most

or less translucent. It passes by insensible grailaClwyd. The chief strata are Permian, Carboniferous, intimate geological connection. Lydian Stone (q. v.) and Devonian. Coal, and ores of iron, lead, silver, is a variety of Hinty slate. ropper, and zinc are the chief mineral products and exports. F. supplies a fourth of the lead produced FLOATING BATTERY is a hulk, heavily in Britain. Tho soil is fertile in the plains and armed, and made as invulnerable as possible, used

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