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FOOD AND DRINK.
capsicum (Cayenne pepper), pepper, the various to vegetables. Both in roasting and broiling maat, spices, &c., owe their action to the presence of a the first application of heat should be considerable volatile oil. Sauces are usually fluid mixtures of and rapid, so as to form an outer coating of coaguthese condiments with alimentary substances. In lated albumen (just as in boiling), which retains a healthy state, condiments and sauces afford little the nutritive matters within the cooked meat. Ju or no nutrition; and although for a time they may roasted meat, nothing is removed but some of the stimulate a debilitated stomach to increased action, superficial fat and the gravy, which is itself an their continual use never fails to induce a subse- article of food. The effect of roasting on sub quent increased weakness of that organ. Salt and vegetables as apples and potatoes is to render them vinegar are the only exceptions. When used in more nutritive and digestible than they would be moderation, they assist in digestion; vinegar, by in the raw state, by splitting their starch grains, rendering muscular fibre more fluid; and both and rendering them more soluble. together, by producing, as Dr Beaumont believes, Baking (q. v.) acts in the same manner as roasta tuid having some analogy to the gastric juice ing, but meat thus cooked is less wholesome, ip (Experiments and Observations on the Gastric Juice consequence of its being more impregnated with and the Physiology of Digestion, p. 40, Edin. 1838). empyreumatic oil.
The cookery of foods, although partially noticed Frying is the most objectionable of all kinds of in the articles BOILING, BROILING, COOKERY, DIET, cookery. In this operation, heat is usually applied &c., requires some general consideration in the by the intermedium of boiling fat or oil. Viarious present place.
products of the decomposition of the fat are set All foods possessing an organised structure, as free, which are very obnoxious to the stomachs of animal flesh and amylaceous substances, require to invalids. be cooked before being eaten, the only exceptions Liebig has shewn that salted meat is, in so far as being the oyster and some ripe fruits. The processes nutrition is concerned, in much the same state as of salting, pickling, and smoking harden the animal meat from which good soup has been male. After textures, and, as we shall presently see (at all events flesh has been rubbed and sprinkled with dry salt, in the case of salting), induce chemical changes a brine is formed amounting in bulk to one-third of which render the meat less nutritious.
the fluid contained in the raw flesh. This brine is The ordinary operations of cookery are boiling, found to contain a large quantity of albumen, roasting, broiling, baking, and frying.
soluble phosphates, lactic acid, potash, creatine, and In the case of vegetables, boiling effects the creatinine-substances which are essential to the solution of gummy and saccharine matters, the constitution of the flesh, which therefore loses in rupture and partial solution of starch graivs, the nutritive value in proportion to their abstraction. coagulation of albuminous liquids, and the more or The preservation of food requires some notice. less complete expulsion of volatile oil. In the boiling Three methods-viz., preservation by cold, preser. of tesh, there takes place a more or less perfect vation by the exclusion of air, and preservation by separation of the soluble from the insoluble con- salting-are noticed in the article ANTISEPTICS. The stituents, according to the duration of the boiling, first is only of comparatively limited application : the amount of water employed, and its temperature the second, known as Appert's method, has been at the commencement of the operation. If we successfully used in the English navy for many wish the boiled meat to contain the largest amount years; the chief objection to it is its expense : the of nourishing matter, and disregard the soup or third method injures, as we have alrearly seen, the broth that is simultaneously formed, we introduce character of the meat, and renders it both deficient it into the boiler when the water is in a state of in nutritive materials, and actually injurious if it brisk ebullition. We keep up this boiling for a few forms a principal and continuous article of diet. minutes, in order to coagulate the albumen near the To these methods we must add preservation by surface, and thus to convert it into a crust or shell, smoking, preservation with sugar, and with vinegar, wluich equally prevents the entrance of water into and preservation by drying. It is well known the interior, and the escape of the juice and soluble that meat suspended in smoke loses its tendency constituents of the flesh into the water. If cold to putrefy, the substance from which the smoke water is then added, so as to reduce the tempera- derives its antiseptic property being creasute, or ture to about 160°, and this temperature is kept up some allied body. "Smoked meat acquires a peculiar for the necessary time— for which, in reference to taste, a dark colour, and a somewhat hard consiste the weight of the meat, sce the article BOILING- ence; but it retains all its nutritive coustituents, all the conditions are, according to Liebig, united and is thus preferable to salted meat. Sugar and which give to the flesh the quality best adapted to vinegar are chiefly employed in the preservation of its use as food.
vegetable products. The most important mode of lf, on the other hand, we wish to obtain good preserving articles of food, whether animal or vegeBoup from meat, we should place it in cold water, table, is by direct drying. Meat is cut up into and bring this very gradually to the boiling-point. small slices about a quarter of an inch thick, and The interchange between the juices of the flesh and vegetables into smaller pieces; they are steamed the external water, which was prevented by the at a high temperature, so as to coagulate the forını:r porocess, here takes place without hindrance. albumen; and they are then completely desiccated • The soluble and sapid constituents of the flesh are by exposure to a current of very hot dry air. At dissolved in the water, and the water penetrates the conclusion of the process, the slices of meat are into the interior of the mass, which it extracts more quite hard, and present a shrivelled appearance. or less completely. The flesh loses, while the soup Dr Marcet (On the Composition of Food, 1856, grins, in sapid matters; and by the separation of p. 174) speaks in high terms of this method, which álbumen, which is commonly removed by skimming, he has himself seen in operation in Paris. Food Is it rises to the surface of the water, when thus preserved,' he says, whether it be animal coagulater, the meat loses its tenderness, and or vegetable, has the advantage (1) of remaining becomes tough and hard; and if eaten without in a fresh condition, though freely exposed to the the soup, it not only loses much of its nutritive atmosphere for a great number of years, and (2) properties, but also of its digestibility.'—Liebig's of being reduced to one-fifth of its original bulk Resparches on the Chemistry of Food, p. 128.
from its having lost all its water.' He alus, that Roasting is applied much more to meat than the preserved vegetables resume their bulk when
FOOL-FOOLS, FEAST OF.
2oiled in water, and that they so completely retain potato-starch, sugar, clarified mutton-suet, and their aroma, that it is often difficult to distinguish be- various mineral substances, such as chalk, plaster of tween soups made with them, and others prepared Paris, red earth, red ochre, and Venetial earth, with fresh vegetables.
the last three being used as colouring matters. The adulteration of food of almost every kind is The adulterations of beer, wine, and spirits are unfortunately so common a custom that our limited noticed in the articles devoted to those subjects. space will merely allow of our noticing a few of the Vinegar is adulterated with water sulphuric acid, leading points in regard to it.
hnrnt sugar, and sometimes with chillies, grains of Wheul-flour is not unfrequently adulterated with paradise, and pyroligneous acid. The English law one or more of the following substances-Hlour of allows one part of sulphuric acid to 1000 of vinegar, beans, Indian corn, rye, or rice, potato-starch, alum, with the view of preserving it from decomposition, chalk, carbonate of magnesia, bone-dust, plaster of but Dr. Hassall found that in many cases three or Paris, sand, clay, &c. The organic matters--the four times the legal amount was present. It appears, inferior flours and starch --do little or no serious from evidence taken before the parliamentary combarı; most of the inorganic matters are positively mittee on adulterations, that arsenic and corrosive injurious, and of these, alum (one of the communest sublimate are no uncoinnon ingroalients in vinegar adulterations) is the worst. The beneficial action of In connection with vinegar we may place Pickies wheat-tlour on the system is in part due to the large Dr Hassall analysed 16 ditferent pickles for copper, quantity of soluble phosphates which it contains and discovered that poisonous metal more or less When alum is added, these phosphates are decom- abundantly in all of them; 'iu three, in a very posed in the process of making bread, the phosphoric considerable quantity; in one, in highly deleterious acid of the phosphates uniting with the alumina of amount; and in two, in poisonous amount.' Prethe alum, and forming an insoluble compound; the served fruits and vegetables (especially gooseberries, beneficial effect of the soluble phosphates is thus rhubarb, greengages, and olives) are often also conlost.
taminated largely with copper. In these cases, the Arrow-root is adulterated with potato-flour, sago, copper, if in considerable quantity, may be easily starch, &c. Out of 50 samples examined by Dr detected by placing a piece of polished iron or steel Hassall, 22 were adulterated, and in 10 of the in the suspected liquid for 24 hours, to which we samples there was s-arcely a particle of the genuine previously add a few drops of nitric acid. The article.
copper will be deposited on the iron. Or ammonia Sugar of the inferior kinds is occasionally adulter- may be added to the fluid in which the pickles or ated with flour, gum, starch-sugar, &c. It is oftener, fruit were lying, when, if copper is present, a blue however, impure than intentionally adulterated. tint is developed. We should be suspicious of all
Pepper is adulterated with linseed, mustard-seed, pickles, olives, preserved gooseberries, &r, with a wheat-Hour, &c.
particularly bright green tint. Cayenne Pepper is adulterated with red lead, Milk is usually believed to be liable to numer. vermilion, red ochre, brick-dust, common salt, ous adulterations, such as flour, chalk, mashed turmeric, &c.
brains, &c. It appears, however, from Dr Hassall's Mustard is largely adulterated with ordinary and researches on London milk, that, as a general rule, pea Hour, linseed meal, and turmeric; and a little water is the only adulteration. The results of the chromate of lead is sometimes added to improve examinations of 26 samples were, that 12 were the colour. Dr Hassall submitted 42 specimens genuine, and that 14 were adulterated, the adul. of mustard to examination ; the whole of them teration consisting principally in the addition of contained wheat-flour and turmeric.
water, the percentages of which varie 1 from 10 to 50 Ginger is frequently adulterated. Ont of 21 per cent., or one-half water. In the article MILK samples, Dr Hassall found that 15 contained various we shall describe the means of testing the purity of kinds of florr, ground rice, Cayenne pepper, mustard this fluid. busks, and turmeric, which in most cases formed If space permitted, we might extend the list of most of the so-called ginger.
alimentary substances liable to adulteration to a Out of 26 samples of miced spices, 16 were found much greater length. In conclusion, we may by Dr Hassall to contain sago-meal, ground rice, remark, that, as a general rule, adulterations of wheat flour, &c.
an organic nature, such as flours and starches of Curry powder (q. v.) was found by Dr Hassall to various kinds, are best detected by the microscope; be very commonly adulteratod, only 7 specimens while chemical analysis is usually necessary for the out of 26 being genuine. In 8 of the samples detection of mineral adulterations. Dr Hass:ill's red lead was detected. The frequent use of curries Adulterations Detected is a perfect cyclopedia on may thus often give rise to the disease known as this subject. lead-palsy.
FOOL. See COURT-FOOL The adulterations of tea, both by the Chinese and in this country, are too numerous for us to FOOLS, FEAST OF. The Romans kept tho mention. See Hassall's Adulterations Detected, pp. festival of Saturn, in December, as a time of general 65-104
licence and revelry. During the brief season of the Coffie, in its powdered form, is not merely largely Saturnalia (q. v.), the slave reclined on his master's adulterated with chicory, but additionally with seat at table, the master waited upon his slave, and roasted grain, roots, acorns, saw-dust, exhausted tan society, for the moment, seemed to be turned upside (termed croats), coffina (the seeds of a Turkish down. The grotesque masquerade survived the plant), burnt sugar, and (worst of all) baked horses' pagan creed which gave it birth, and not only kept and bullocks' liver. In the Quarterly Journal of its place among the Christians. but, in the face of the Chemical Society for April 1856, there is an solemn anathemas of fathers and councils, found its excellent Report by Messrs Graham, Stenhouse, way into the ceremonial of the Christian Church and Campbell on the mode of det:cting vegetable It was called, at ditferent times and places, by sabstances mixed with coffee. Eveu whole roasted many different names, but has latterly come to be coffee is not safe from adulteration, a patent having best known as the Feast of Fools (Festum Fatuorum, teen retually taken out to mould chicory into the Festum Stallorum). krin of coffee-berries.
The circumstances of the observance were almost Cocoa and Chocolate are adulterated with four, I infinitely varied, but it was everywhere marked by
FOOL'S PARSLEY-FOOT. the same spirit of broad, boisterous drollery, and in flower it is readily known from every other plant coarse but not ill-natured caricature. The donkey in British gardens by its umbels wanting general played such a frequent part in the pageant that it was often called the Feast of Asses (Festum A sinorum). In some places, the ass of Balaam was figured; in others, the ass which stood beside the manger in which the infant Saviour was laid ; elsewhere, the ass on which the Virgin and Child fled to Egypt, or the ass on which Jesus rode into Jerusalem. In every instance, there was more or legs attempt at dramatic representation, the theatre being generally the chief church of the place, and the words and action of the drama being often ordered by its book of ceremonies. Several rituals of this sort are still preserved. That which was in use at Beauvais, in France, has a rubric ordering the priest when he dismisses the congregation to bray three times, and ordering the people to bray three times in answer. As the ass was led towards the altar, he was greeted with a hymn of nine stanzas, of which the first runs thus:
Hé, sire Ane, hé!
1, Fool's Parsley, general umbel; 2, Comioon Paralog, Blessings on the bonny beast !
leaf and general umbel: Came the Donkey, stout and strong, a, partial umbel of fool's parsley; 6, fruit of common parsley; With our packs to pace along.
c, flower of common parsley. Bray, Sir Donkey, Bray /] Where the ass did not come upon the stage, the slender leaves hanging down on one side.
involucres, and having partial involucres of three chief point of the farce lay in the election of a mock popie, patriarch, cardinal, archbishop, bishop, or
FOOT is the most common unit of lineal measure abbot. These mimic dignitaries took such titles as all over the world. It has been evidently taken • Pope of Fools,' 'Archbishop of Dolts,' Cardinal originally from the length of the human foot, and as of Numskulls,''Boy Bishop' Patriarch of Sots," that varies in length, so does the measure; each . Abbot of Unreason, and the like. On the day of country, and at one time each town, having a foot of their election, they often took possession of the its own. The three foot-measures that occur most churches, and even occasionally travestied the per frequently are the Paris foot, or pied de roi, the formance of the church's highest office, the mass, (German) Rhenish foot, and the English._Compared in the church's holiest place, the altar. In some with the French mètre (= 3.28090 feet Eng.), they convents, the nuns disguised themselves in men's stand thus : clothes, chanted mock services, and elected a little
Inches English abbess,' wb.o for that day took the place of the real
The Feast of Fools maintained itself in many places till the Reformation in the 16th century. At In round numbers, 46 French feet
49 English Antibes, in the south of France, it survived till the feet, 34 Rhen. or Germ. feet 35 English, and 57 year 1644, when we have it described by an eye
French feet 59 Rhen The Russian foot is equal witness in a letter to the philosopher Gassendi. to the English. Almost every German state has a The scene was, as usual, a church ; and the actors, different foot. The Rhenish foot is that used in dressing themselves in priests' robes turned inside Prussia. One English foot is equal to 0.99994197 out, read prayers from books turned upside down, American foot. See Comparison of Measures in through spectacles of orange-peel, using coal or Smithsonian Tables. The foot has almost uniformly flour for incense, amid a babblement of confused been divided into 12 inches; the inch into 12 lines, cries, and the mimic bellowings of cattle, and often into tenths. The French pied usuel is the third grunting of pigs.
part of the metre. See YARD, METRE. The history of the Feast of Fools has been treated
FOOT, in Verge. See METRE, VERSE in several works ; the best is the Mémoire pour
FOOT, STRUCTURE OF THE In describing the servir à l'Histoire de la Fête des Fous, by Du Tilliot, published at Lausanne in 1741; reprinted at Paris iv structure of the foot, it is expedient to com 1751, and again in the Recueil des Ceremonies et Cou mence with a brief notice of the bones which tumes Religieuses de Tous les Peuples, tome viii. (edit. and are arranged in three natural groups -- viz.,
occur in it. In man, these are 26 in number, Prudhomme, 1809).
the tarsal bones, which are the hindermost; the FOOL'S PARSLEY (Aethusa Cynapium), an metatarsal bones, which occupy the middle portion ; umbelliferous plant, very common a weed in and the phalanges of the toes anteriorly. The gardens and fields in Britain, and in most parts of tarsal bones, seven in number, are slurt and thick, Earope, somewhat resembling parsley in its foliage and form the heel and the hinder part of the and general appearance, so that serious accidents instep. The uppermost (see fig. 1) is called the have occurred from its being mistaken for that herb, astragalus, from its supposed resemblance to the it being a poisonous plant, somewhat resembling dice used by the Romans. Above, it is articulated benilock in its properties. With the curled variety or is jointed with the two bones of the leg, the of parsley it cannot easily be confounded, which is tibia and fibula, and through these bones the whole even ou other accounts to be preferred; and when : weight of the body is thrown upon the two
19 78912 12:35652
astragali. Behind, it is connected with and rests The bones, where they articulate with one another, upon the os calcis, or heel-bone, which is the largest are covered with a tolerably thick layer of highly bone of the foot. Immediately in front of it, and elastic cartilage, and by this means, together with supporting it this direction, is the scaphoid or the very slight movements of whicb each bone is boat-like bone. In front of the scaphoid bone are the three cuneiform or wedge bones ; and on the outer side of the cuneiform bones, and in front of the os calcis, is the cuboid bone. We see from the figure that the front row of tarsal bones is com. posed of the three cuneiform bones on the inner side
tibia, and through the ustragalus D, the heel-bone F, the
cartilage. capable, a degree of elasticity is given to the foot, and consequently to the step, which would be altogether wanting if the plantar arch were composed
of one single mass of bone. This elasticity is far 13
greater in the anterior pillar of the arch, which is
composed of five comparatively long bones sloping 14
gradually to the ground, than in the posterior pillar, Fig. 1.
which is short, narrow, and composed of a single The dorsal surface of the left foot.
bune, which descends almost vertically from the 1, the astragalas, Its upper articular surface; 2, its anterior ankle to the ground. Hence, in jumping from a
extremity, which articulates with (4) the scaphoid bone; height, we always endeavour to alight upon the balls 3, the os calcis, or heel-bone ; 4, the scaphoid bone; 5, the of the toes, and thus break the shock which we 7, the exterr.al cuneiform bone;
8, the cuboid bone; 9, the should feel if, by accident, we descended upon the metatarsal bones of the first and second toes ; 10, 11, the heels. first and second phalanges of the great toe; 12, 13, 14, the A reference to any standard work on anatomy first, second, and third phalanges of the second toe,
(see, for example, Gray's Anatomy, pp. 178—184) of the foot, and of the cuboid bone externally. There Bones to one another, and by which the movements
will shew that the ligaments which unite these are five metatarsal bones passing forward, one for of each bone upon the others are limited, are very each toe. Each cuneiform bone is connected with one, and the cuboid bone with two, of these meta
We shall merely notice two of these tarsal bones
. Behind, they are close together, but ligaments, selecting those whose action is especially as they run forwards, they diverge slightly from obvious in maintaining the shape of the plantar one another, and their anterior ends rest upon the arch. One, the plantar ligament (A, fig. 2), of great ground, and form the balls of the toes. They con
strength, passes from the under surface of the stitute the forepart of the instep. The remaining of the metatarsal bones, according to Dr Humphry
heel-bone, near its extremity, forwards to the ends bones are those of the toes, and are named the (The Human Fool and the Human Hand, 1861, p. phalanges, each toe having three of these bones, excepting the great toe, which has only two. (A | 25). Most anatomists do not trace it quite so far similar law holds for the bones of the hand, each
forwards. In other words' (we quote from Dr finger having three phalanges, but the thumb only Humphry's volume), 'it extends between the lowest two).
points of the two pillars of the arch, girding or The instep is composed of the seven tarsal and holding them in their places, and preventing their the five metatarsal bones, which are so arranged and the key-bone (D), just as the “ tie-beam” of a roof
being thrust asunder when pressure is made upon connected (see tig: 2) as to form an arch from the resists the tendency to outward yielding of the extremity of the heel-bone to the balls of the toes. sides when weight is laid upon the summit
. The This is called the plantar arch, from planta, the ligament, however, has an advantage which no tiesole of the foot. summit or keystone of this arch, and transmits the beam can ever possess
, inasmuch as a quantity of weight which it receives posteriorly to the heel, of its upper surface. These instantly respond to any
muscular fibres are attached alɔng the hinder part and anteriorly to the balls of the toes. This figure demand that is made upon them, being thrown into exhibits the arrangement of the fibres and laminæ in the interior of the bones, and shews that the contraction directly the foot touches the ground; greater number of them, in each bone, fuliow the and the force of their contraction is proportionata directions of the two pillars of the arch, and thus
* This, and several of the following diagraras, bave give the greatest strength to the bones in the been copied, with Dr. Humphry's permission, from the directions in which it is most required.
Human Foot and the Human Hand.
to the degree of pressure which is made upon the of the heel (by the first joint) is accompanied by a foot. In addition to its office of binding the bones in rolling of the foot inwards (by the second joint), their places, the ligament serves the further purpose and by an increased flexure of the plantar arch of protecting from pressure the tender structures (by the third joint); and the raising of the ines is -the blood-vessels, nerves, and muscles--that lie accompanied by a rolling of the foot ontwards and above it in the hollow of the foot Another very a straightening of the sole. See Humphry, op. cit., strong ligament (B, in the figure) passes from the p. 42. under and fore part of the heel-bone (F) to the The joints, however, merely allow of movements, under parts of the scaphoid bone (E). It underlies they do not effect them--this is the special function and supports the round head of the astragalus, and of the muscles ; and each of the three movements has to bear a great deal of the weight which is transmitted to that bone from the leg. It possesses & quality which the ligament just described, and most ligaments have not-viz., elasticity. This is
A very important, for it allows the head of the key. bono (D) to descend a little, when pressure is made upon it, and forces it up again when the pressure is removed, and so gives very material assistance to the other provisions for preventing jars, and for giving ease and elasticity to the step.'-Humphry, op. cit., pp. 25, 26.
The spot over which the ligament B extends is the weakest in the foot, the astragalus being there unsupported by any bones ; additional support is, however, afforded when it is most required by the tendon of a strong muscle, the posterior tibial (lig. 3, B), which passes from the back of the tibia (the
Fig. 3. chief bone of the leg) round the inner ankle, to be This figure represents some of the muscles and tendons seen on inserted into the lower part of the inner surface of
the inner side of the leg and foot. the scaphoid bone. It not unfrequently happens A, the gastrocnemins and roleus muscles, forming the muscles that the astragalus, being either insufficiently sup
of the call; a, the Tendo Achillis: R, the posterior tibial
muscle; b, its tendon : D, the inner ankle: F, the anterior ported, or from its being overweighted, descends
tibial muscle, attached above to the front of the tibia, below slightly below its proper level, causing a lowering to the internal cuneiform bone; k, the flexor tendon of the of the arch, and a flattening of the sole of the foot. The defect, when slight, is known as “weak ankle;' when more decided, it is termed flat we have indicated is effected by special groups of foot;' and in extreme cases, the bone may descend muscles. The first series of movements is mainly to such an extent as even to render the inner side effected by three muscles : viz., (1) the muscles of the of the foot convex, when it naturally should be calf (fig. 3, A), attached above to the bones of the concave.
thigh and leg, and below by the Tendo Achillis to The deformity of which we are speaking is of such the heel-bone; (2) the posterior tibial (fig. 3, B), great practical importance, that we shall add a few attached above to the tibia, and below by its words about its most common causes.
tendon to the scaphoid bons, and (3) the short There are two periods of life at which fat-foot is especially liable to occur : 1st, in infancy, if the child be put upon its feet before the bones and ligaments-especially the latter-are strong enough to bear its weight; and 2lly, about the age of fourteen-a period at which growth is very quick, and the body consequently attains a considerable and rapid augmentation of weight. persons of this age are obliged to be a great deal on their feet, and perhaps additionally to carry weights (as, for example, butchers' and bakers' boys, und young nursemaids), the chances that flat-foot will occur are increased.
We now come to the movements of the foot upon the leg. We see here a striking combination of variety of movement with general security. This combination is effected by the harmonious action of three joints, each of which acts in a direction
Fig. 4. different from the others.
This figure represents some of the muscles and tendons on mo
outer side of the leg and foot. The first of these joints is the ankle-joint, which is formed by the bones of the leg--the tibia and Enwer end of fibula, forming the outer ankle; C, the short
fibular muscle, attached abore to the fibula, and below by fibula-above, and the astragalus below. By this its tendon (c) to the outer metatarsal bone; I, the long joint, the foot is bent or straightened on the leg.
fibular muscle, its tendon (i) running behind the outer ankle
and under the instep to the metatarsal bone of the great The second joint is between the astragalus and the
toe; G, the anterior or third fibular murcle, attached above heel-bone, and it permits the foot to be rolled to the fibula and below by its tendon (9) to the outer in wards or outwards ; while the tbird joint is metatarsal bone; h, the extensor tendons of the toes. between the first and second row of tarsal bones --namely, between the astragalus and heel-bone fibular (fig. 4, C), attached above to the fibula, and behind, and the scaphoid and cuboid bones in front, below by its tendon to the outer metatarsal bone. and allows the degree of curvature of the plantar The calf-muscles, whose tendon is inserted into arch to be increased or diminished within certain the heel-bone, are large and very powerful, for in limits. The following is the order in which the raising the heel, they have to raise the weight of movements of these threo joints occur : the raising the body. The other two muscles, the posterior