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Prince's Wife, though of inferior rank, like a Punishment of the samin.' This act, which was Princess by birth.

passed in the same parliament by which incest and Privy Councillor_The Right Honourable John adultery are punished with death, provides that the

offender, whether male or female, shall pay for the Priry Councillor's Wife and Children have no first offence a fine of £40 Scots, and shall stand title.

bareheaded, and fastened at the market-place, for QUEEN—The Queen's Most Excellent Majesty.' the space of two hours ; for the second, shall pay Madain,' and Your Majesty ;'or, The Lord John a tine of 100 merks, have the head shaven, auu shall R presents his duty to your Majesty.'

be exposed in the same public manner; and for the Viscount— The Right Honourable Lord Viscount third, pay a fine of £100, be thrice ducked in the

or less formally, Tho Lord Viscount.' 'My foulest pool of the parish, and be banished the town Lord,' and • Your Lordship.'

or parish for ever. There is but one instance of thin l'iscountess— The Right Honourable the Vis-' statute having been enforced by the Court of Justi. countess,' or less formally, The Viscountess.' ciary, which occurs, as might be supposed, during Dladam,' and • Your Lailyship.'

the government of the Protector in Scotland. The Viscount's Daughter, like Baron's Danghter (q. v.). offence of keeping a house of notorious ill-fame and l'iscounts Son, like Baron's Son (q. v.).

scandalising the neighbourhood, is punishable in V'iscount's Son's Wife, like Baron's Son's Wife Scotland as a police offence. See NUISANCE and (q. v.).

PROSTITUTION. The forniality of these modes of address experiences considerable modifications when employed

FORRES, a royal burgh in the county of Elgin by persons of equal rank. Between friends and or Moray, situated on a well-marked old sea-terrace relatives, they are either entirely dispensed with and promontory, distant about two miles froin the (except, of course, in addressing letters), or adapted mouth of the river Findhorn (q. v.). Pop. (1871) to the feelings and caprices of the writers. In this, David 1. (1124_1153), and was subsequently the

It was a royal burgh in the reign of King es in many other respects, we of the present gener. ation are far less ceremonious than our fathers, and seat of the Archdeacon of Moray, who had as his still inore than our grandfathers were.

In most old prebend the church of Forres, dedicated to St Lau. letters, it will be found that the titles of the writers rence the martyr, and the church of Logynfythenuch are preserved even where there is the freest and (now Edinkillie), dedicated to St John

the Baptist. most familiar interchange of thought and feeling.

A painting of St Laurence holding in his hand Wives address their husbands, and busbands their the gridiron on which he is said to have been wives, children their parents, and occasionally even The antiquities of the place are the remains of

roasted, is preserved at Brodie House near Forres. Lord,' or · Your Royal Highness,' as the case may be. its castle, at the west end of the town, now sur

mounted by a monument, erected to the memory of FORMS OF PROCEDURE. See PROCESS. Dr Thomson (a native of Cromarty, distinguished FORNICATION (fornicatio, from fornis, an war), and the remarkable sculptured pillar– 25 feet

by his eminent medical services in the Crimean arch-vault, and by metonymy, a brothel, because high-sometimes called Sueno's Stone, but more brothels at Rome were in cellars and vaults under fround). In most countries, this crime has been commonly the Stan’in' Stane,' which stands about

a mile to the eastward. brought within the pale of positive law at some

A monastery of black period of their history, and prohibited by the impo. friars is said to have ctood formerly on the site now sition of penalties more or less severe ; but it has occupied by Anderson's or the Förres Academical always been found ultimately to be more expedient Institution. F. lies at the foot of a curiously formed to trust to the restraints which public opinion group of four gravelly bills, named the Cluny or impose on it in every community which is guided by of which, the site of an old encampment, an octagonal the principles of morality and religion. lu England, tower 66 feet high, was erected to the memory of in 1650), during the ascendency of the Puritan party, Nelson in 1806. the repeated act of keeping a brothel or committing fornication was maule felony without benefit of FORSTER, John, an English political and clergy ou a second conviction. At the Restoration, historical writer, was born at Newcastle in 1812. when the crime of hypocrisy seenied for a time to be He was educated for the bar, but early, like the only one which, under the intluences of a very so many other law-students, devoted himself to natural reaction, men were willing to recognise, this periodical writing. In this sphere of literature he enactment was not renewed ; and though notvrious displayed more than usual ability; and his political and open lewdness, when carried to the extent of articles in the London Eraminer, for which he exciting public scandal, continued, as it had been commenced writing in 1834, attracted more atten. before, an indictable offence at common law, the tion than is usually bestowed on newspaper leaders. mere act of fornication itself was abandoned to the There was a vigour and point about thein, coupled feeble coercion of the spiritual court, according with a truth, consistency, and outspoken honesty to the rules of the canou law, a law which has (the three latter qualities being more rare in newstreat the offence of incontinence with a great deal paper writers a quarter of a century ago than they of tenılerness and lenity, owing perhaps to the cou are now), which obtained a wide renown for thio strained celibacy of its first compilers.'—Blackstone. paper. F. became editor of the Eraminer in 1846, an

The proceedings of the spiritual court were regu- office which he held for ten years. He was the nulated by 27 Geo. III. c. 44, which enacts that the thor of many admirable biographical and historical suit must be ivstituted within eight months, and essays, and we are indebted to him for much that it cannot be maintained at all after the mar. new and valuable information tending to elucidute riage of the parties offending. But proceedings in obscure points, and correct erroneous notions about the ecel siastical courts for this offence have now the times and statesmen of the English Commonfalleu entire desuetude (Stephen's Com. iv. wenlth. It is to this period of history that F. 347). 11. Scotland, shortly after the Reformation, chiefly directed his studies, and no person desirons forpicntion was prohibited by what Baron Hume of properly understanding it, should neglect his calls an anxious statute of James VI' (1567 c. 13), llistory of the Grand Remonstrance, Arrest of the patitled 'Anent the Filthie Vice of Fornication, and Five Members, and Lives of the Slatesmen of the


Commonwealth. His literary memoirs are also excel- Mayence. After Mayence was taken by the French lent: the chief are, The Life and Times of Oliver in 1792, F., who had become an ardent reprobolican, Goldsmith ; Historical and Biographical Essays was sent as a deputy to Paris, to request the incor. (1858); Life of Sir John Eliol (1864); Wolter Savage poration of Mayence with the French republic Laudor, a Biography (1869); Life of Charles Dickens While he was in Paris on this mission, the Priissians (completed in 1874); and Life of Jonathan Swifi retook Mayence, and F lost all his property, (vol. i. 1875). He died Feb. 1, 1876.

including his books and manuscripts. lle then FORSTER, JOHANN Reinhold, a German

writes to a friend: 'If I could only scrape together traveller and naturalist, was born in Dirschau, in £400, I would learn Persian and Arabic, and go Prissid, in 17:29, and died at Halle in 1798. He about this time he seems to have been suffering

overland to India to gather new experience; 'bit was educated at Halle and Danzig for the clerical from rheumatic gout, which graulually increased in profession, and in 1753 became pastor at Nassen; severity, and which terminated his life on the 12th bu ven, near Danzig; but he seems to have devoted of January 1794. m st of his time to the study of mathematics, and the account of Captain Cook's voyage, his

Besides numerous translations, natural philosophy, natural history, and geography: most important works are Kleine Schriflon, ein In 1765, he accepted an offer marle to him by the Beitrag zur Ländes- und l'ölkerkunde, Vaturge Russian government, to inspect and report upon the schichte und Philosophie des Leben (6 vels., Berlin, new colonies founded on the banks of the Volga; 1789-1797), and Ansichten vom Niederrhrin, voin and the matter of his report is said to have been Brabant, Flamulern, Holland, England, und Frank 80 gooil as to have given to the Empress Catharine reich (3 vols., Berlin, 1791–1794). His widow, the suggestions for her great codle of laws. His irritable daughter of Heine, but perhaps more widely known temper soon involved him in difficulties with the as Therese Huber, published a collection of his Russian goverument; and in the following year he Letters, in 2 vols., in 18:28–1829; and a complete repaired to England, where the exertions of some edition of his works, in 9 vols., was publishul by of his scientitic friends in London soou procured his daughter and Gervinus, in 1843. for him the office of teacher of natural history, and of the French and German languages, at an

FORSTER, THOMAS lasatics Maria, an English educational institution for dissenting clergymen at meteorologist and physicist, born in London in Warrington, in Lancashire. He retained this post 1789, and died in 1870. In 1812, he entered the until 1772, when he received, through the intluence university of Cambridge; in the following year, he of Mr Banks, the offer of naturalist to Captain produced an annotated edition of Aratris, a:d in Cook's second expeclition to the South Seas. In the 1816 he edited an edition of Catullus. In 1817, he course of the voyage, his tamper seems to have published Observations on the Influence of Particular frequently brought him into unpleasant collision States of the Atmosphere on Iluman 11eu!th and with the other otficers; and after the return of Diseasex; in 1824, The Perennial Culendar; in 18:27, Captain Cook's vessels in July 1774, a controversy The Pocket Encyclopedia of Natural Thononena, arose between F. and Lord Sandwich on the a work which has eliciteil the commeviation of question as to who should write the narrative of Quetelet and Humboldt; in 1836, Observations sur the voyage. It was finally settled that F. shonlei Injluence dlex C'omètes; and in 1850, Annales d'un write the philosophical, and Cook the nautical parts physicien l'oyageur... A work entitled Epirolarinin of the work; but further ditficulties aruse,' and Forsterionum, consisting of a collection of original Cook's journal appeared alone. In 1776, in associa- letters froin eminent men, preserved in the Forster tion with his son, he published a work (in Latin) family, was published after his death, at Brussels, on the botany of the expedition ; anıl in 1778 his

in 1852. Observations faites dans un l'oyagje autour lu Joule FORT, a term of peculiar meaning in British sur la Géographie Physique, l' IT'istoire Naturelle, et North America, applied to a trailing.just in the la Philosophie Morale appeared. In the latter year, wilderness with reference to its indispensable he returned to Germany, and was soon afterwarıls defences, however slight, against the surronning made Professor of Natural History and Mineralogy barbarisni.

It has thus been often employed to at Halle, where he remained until his death. In designate merely a palisiuled log-but, the central addition to the works mentioned, he published oasis of civilisation in a desert laryer, it may be, De Byaso Antiquorum, 1775; Zoologici Inilica, than Scotlanıl.. 9781; Geschichte der Entoleckungen und Schirfurten FORT, FORTRESS (from Lat. fortis, strong), a im Norden, 1784 (translated into English and strongholi, maule secure by walls, and generally French), &c.

further protected by a ditch and parapret. For the FORSTER, Jonaxx GEORG ADAM, commonly

construction of forts, see FortiFICATION. known as George F., ellest sou of Johann Reinhold FORT ADJUTANT, an officer holding an Forster (q. v.), a German traveller and naturalist, appointment in a fortress- where the yarrison is was born at Nassenhuben, near Danzig, in 1754, often composed of drafts from different corps anc died at Paris ii. 1794. When only 17 years analogous to that of aljutant in a regiment. He is of age, he accompanied his father in Captain Cook's responsible to the commandant for the internal bond voyage; and shortly after his return, he discipline, and the appropriation of the necessary jallished, with the assistance of his father, an duties to particulir corpos. . Fort adjutants, of whinig account of the expedition. His book, which does there are at present (1862) ten, are staff-otticers, and aut differ materially in its facts from Cook's receive 48. 9d. a day in audition to their regimental narrative, was well received by the public, and pay. was translated into French, German, Swedish, and FORT AUGUSTUS, a village at the south end other languages. Humboldt speaks of this work of Loch Ness, 29 miles south-west of Inverness. A and of its author, my celebrated teacher and fort, intended to overawe the Highlands, was built friend, George Forster,' in the highest terms in the here soon after the rebellion of 1715, on a small Cosmos (see vol. ii. p. 437, Bolin's ed.). F. having eminence on the loch. It can accommovlite 300 returned to the continent, was made Professor of men, but is commanded by neighboring liei hid. Natural History at Cassel. and afterwards at Wilna. It was taken by the rebels in 1745, and lineame Having there no access to books, in 1788 he gladly the henti-quarters of the Duke of Cumberland after accepted the office of librarian to the Elector of the buttle of Culloden. It is a quadrangle, with


bastion at each of the four corners. The twelve If Sir John Fortescue ever was de facto chancellor, six-pounders formerly mounted here have been and in the exercise of the duties of the otiice, it must removed, but a few soldiers are generally stationed have been now, after the second battle of St Albans, at the fort.

and at the very conclusion of the reign of Henry VI.' FORT GEORGE, a fortification in the north-east In March of that year, he fought at the battle of of Inverness-shire, on a low sandy projection into Towton for that monarch, and was attainted by the the Moray Firth, here only one mile broad, opposite parliament under Edward IV. He accompanied the Fertrose, and nine miles north-east of Inverness. It queen, Margaret of Anjou, and her young son, Prince is the most complete fort in the kingdom, and was Edward, on their flight into Scotland, and while built, at a cost of £160,000, soon after the rebellion there wrote a treatise in support of the ciaim of the of 1745, to keep the Highlanders in subjection. It House of Lancaster to the English crown. Iu 1463 octers twelve acres, and can accommodate 2000 inen. he embarked with the queen and her son for Holland, It is an irregular polygon, with six bastions, and where he remained for several years, intrusted with

upwarıls of 70 guns. It is defended by a ditch, the education of the young prince. During his exile, • covert-way, a glacis, two lunettes, and a ravelin. It he wrote his celebrated work, De Laudibus Leigum

bas casen a ted curtains, 27 bomb-proof rooms, bomb- Angliæ, for the instruction of his royal pupil. In the proof magazines, and is supplied with water from introduction, and throughout the dialogrie, he desig. eight pump-wells. It is, however, only secure from nates himself 'Cancellarius. It was when he was attack by sea.

in Scotland that the title of Chancellor of England FORT GEORGE (INDIA). See MADRAS.

is said by some to have been conferred upon liiın by FORT MAJOR, the next officer to the governor office of chancellor in partibus during his exile, but

the dethroned monarch. He probably haul the titular or commandant in a fortress. He is expected to understand the theory of its defences and works, he returned with Queen Margaret and her son ; but

never exercised the functions in England. In 1471, and is responsible that the walls are at all times on the final defeat of the Lancastrian party at the duly protected. He is on the staff, and receives battle of Tewkesbury, where he is said to have been 9s. Gil. a day in addition to his half-pay.

taken prisoner, finding that parliament and the FORT ROYAL, a fortified senport of the French nation had recognised the title of Edwarıl IV., hn island of Martinique, in the West Indies, is the submitted to that monarch, and, as a condition of capital of the colony. It stands on the west coast, his parılon, wrote a treatise in favour of the claim of in a bay of its own name, in lat. 14° 35' N., and the House of York. He was allowel to retire to his long. 61° ¢ W. It has a population of about 12,000, seat of Ebrington, in Gloucestershire, where he died and contains offices for the local government, bar- in his 90th ear. His male representative was, in racks, arsenal, and hospital.

1789, created Earl Fortescue and Viscount Ebrington FORT ST DAVID, on the Coromandel or east in the peerage of Great Britain. coast of Hindustan, belongs to the district of South FORTH, a river of Scotland, rises in the north. Arcot and presidency of Maulras. It is three miles west of Stirlingshire, in the mountains between to the borth of Cuddalore, and 100 to the south Loch Katrine and Loch Lomond, from two main of Maulras, in lat. 11° 45' N., and long. 79° 50' E. branches, the Duchray, 16 miles long, from the east The place became British in 1691. It occupied a side of Ben Lomond, and the Avendhu, 12. miles prominent position in the great struggle for supre- long, Howing through Loel's Chon, Dhu, and Ani. macy between England anl France. From 1746 to These streams unite at Aberfoyle, and issue from the 1758, it v as the capital of the settlements of the

mountains. The F. then runs east and south-east former power on the Carnatic; but soon afterwards, along the borilers of Perth and Stirling shires, with its fortitications having been demolished, it sank nunerous windlings, in a wide valley abounding in into comparative insignificance.

picturesque scenery. It passes Stirling, and a little FORT WILLIAM, a village in Inverness-shire, above Allua it willens out into the Firth of Forth. near the west base of Ben Nevis, 63 miles south- The F. is only 30 miles long in a straight line from west of Taverness, and at the south end of the its source to the mouth of the Devon ; but, owing Calelonian Canal. A fort was originally bult to its sinuosities, its real course is more than twice here by General Monk, and afterwarıls rebuilt on that length. It is navigable for vessels of 100 tons a smaller scale by William III. It is an irregular to Stirling. Its chief tributaries are the Teith, the work, with ditch, glacis, ravelin, bomb-proof maga. Allan, and the Devon. The upper parts of the F. zine, and barracks for 100 men. It resisted sieges and Teith traverse some of the most romantic lako by the Highlanders in 1715 and 1745. It was one and mountain scenery in Scotland. of the olul keys to the West Highlands, and is now

FORTH, FIRTH OF, an arm of the sea, or the only inferior to Oban as a centre for tourists to explore these romantic regions.

estuary of the river Forth, lies between the counties

of Clackmannan, Perth, and Fife on the north, anıl FORT WILLIAM (INDIA). See CALCUTTA.

those of Stirling, Linlithgow, Edinburgh, and Had. FOʻRTÉ, in Music, the Italian term for loud ; dington on the south. It first extends 6 miles forlissiino, as loud as possible.

south-east from where the Devon joins the Forth ; FORTESCUE, Sir John, an eminent judge and then, with an average breadth of 2 miles, it rume 10 Triter on English law, descended from a Devonshire miles to Queensferry; and finally, it extones 36 family, was the son of Sir Henry Fortescue, Lord miles north-east, gradually expanding in wilth to Chief justice of Ireland, anıl was born some time in 15 miles between Fife-ness and Tantallon Citstle on the reign of Henry IV. Educated at Exeter College, the coast of Haildingtoushire. Its waters are from Oxforil, he was called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn, 7 to 30 fathoms deep, and encircle the Isle of May, am in 1441 was made serjeant-at-law. The follow. Bass Rock, Inchkeithi, Inchcolm, Cramomil Isle, &c. iny year, he was appointed Lorel Chief-justice of the On the coast, are many fiue harbours. St Margaret's Court of kiny's Bench. In the struggle for the Hope, above Queensferry, is one of the safest roadlo cron between the Houses of York and Lancaster, he steails in the kingiloin. The chief rivers which fall eteulily aulhered to the latter, anıl is supposed to have into the firth are the Forth, Carron, Avon, Almond, bern for a time Lord High Chancellor of England. Esk, and Leven. The culinties along its shore are Lorii Campbell, in his Lives of the Lord Chancellors the most fertile and best cultivated ir. Scotland, vol is p. 307), under date February 17, 1461, says : and include the maritime towns of North Berwick,






Musselburgh, Portobello, Leith, Queensferry, Grange- the earth. Accoutred troops must remove these mouth, Culross, Bruntisland, Kirkcaldy, etc.

before they can pass, and the operation of removal FORTIICOMING, in the Law of Scotland, is an

under fire from the besieged is a very serious one

indeed. action by which an arrestment is made available to the arrester. The arrestment secures the goods or tion) are pointed iron or wooden rods fixed crosswiss

Chevaux-de-frise (q. v. for derivation and illustradebts in the hands of the creditor or holder; by in a wooden beam, and until removed offering : the forthcoming the arrestee and common debtor complete obstacle to progress

. They are very useful are called before the judge to hear sentence given, in a breach or other unclosed portion of a work, ordering the debt to be paid, or the effects to be and are now made in pieces, so as to be portable delivered up to the arresting creditor. (Bell's and yet ready for immediate putting together. A Law Dictionary.)

cheval-de-frise is usually 12 feet long, with a beans FORTIFICATION, a term derived through the 9 inches square. Italian from the Latin fortis and facere, means Chausse-trapes, or Caltrop8 (q. v.), give serious literally the 'making strong' of any place whatever, annoyance to troops advancing, and are especially be it a town, an arsenal, a camp, a mere house, or dangerous in cases of night-attack. Their usu was, the extended position of an army occupying a tract however, more general formerly than it is now. of country, a province, or even a kingdom. In effect, Trous-de-loup (wolf-traps), which are deep holas the term is limited to strengthening by means of dug, and armed at the bottom with spikes, young walls, ditches, or other stationary obstructions, trees cut down and their stumps pointed, inverted aided more or less by artillery, which may impede harrows, broken sword-blades, bayonets, or any hostile advance.

similar annoyances, are resorted to as expedients to Fortitication cannot pretend to render strongholds gain time, and thereby insure a more deadly fire on impregnal·le, for no works, however skilfully devised, the assailants. They are frequently constructed in will withstand the continued tire of well-directed the glacis of a work. artillery, backed by energy and discretion on the

Fraises and Stockades represent another form of part of assailants : its aim is to enable a beleaguered additional defence, and are stout posts driven hori. garrison to hold out, without losing ground, until it zontally or perpendicularly into the earth, in long can be relieved by the advance of allies operating in the tield. In fortifying a place, the engineer usually proceeris upon some detined system of entourage ; but if he hope for success, his science must be sufficiently elastic to adapt itself to all the natural features of the locality; and from this it follows that a system perfect in theory, and of universal application, will in practice have to undergo moditications, differing in almost every instance. The origin of the art is involved in an obscurity

Fig. 1.-Fraise and Stockade in section): which history need not hope to penetrate. The AB, parapet; C, escarp; P, fraire; E, stockade; F, glacis;

G, ditch; 11, couulerscarp. earliest records of all nations speak of walled cities and furts. The prime element of all fortification is the para defences in the ditch of a fortress, and it will be per.

close rows. Fig. 1 shews the use of both these pet (from Italian para, before; petto, the breast), ceived at once how formidable to an attacking party which may be a wooden stockade, a wall of masonry, solid lines of these posts must be. The stockade or a mound of earth, and is intended to give more forms likewise, at tiines, a good substitute for the or less cover to the defender from the projectiles of parapet itself, particularly when the direct fire of his adversary, while he is still able to use his own artillery is unlikely to be brought against it, as in weapous against the latter.

The simplest form of warfare with barbarous tribes, or in a work at the parupet being the mound of earth, the ground very crest of a steep hill. In this case it is usually adjoining it would probably be dug up for its for constructed of two rows of strong palisaules firmly mation, and from this would almost unconsciously imbedded in the ground: the outer nearly a foot enste the ditch, as an additional means of separating square, planted with three-inch intervals between ; the assailant and the assailed. Starting, then, from the second about six inches in diameter, closing thiese this parapet and ditch or fosse, as the elementary spaces behind Every second small palisade is cut forn's of defence, it will be well, before proceeding to describe the ancient ar-1 modern systems, to give conc se practical definitions of the parts, adjuncts, and technical names of a fortification.

Th: first duty of a defender is to prevent, as far as possible, the enemy's near approach to any of his works. In developed systems, this is sought to be done by bastions, &c. (of which hereafter), which stand out at angles to the general line, so as to afloril a tire commanding all parts. But as cases occasionally happen of troopas, defended by a mere straight parapet and ditch, having to withstand the advance of the enemy, it is necessary to adopt every measure which can obstruct his path, haras3 his advance, and, if possible, aid in cutting off his retreat in the event of failure.

Fig. 2.-Stockade. Fig. 3.-Double Stockade. Abullin (9. v.) are among the simplest obstacles to be improvised, consisting of trees cut down, sborn short a few inches, so as to leave a loophole for mnsof their liaves and smaller twigg, having their ketry-tire (as in fig. 2). A hill protected in this manbranchies pointed, and then laid close together, in ner is shown in fig. 3. one or inore lines parallel to the works, branches CONSTRUCTION OF THE PARAPET.—The object out war, and trunks imbuilded or pinned down in of the parapet being to defend, or defilade a certain


portion of ground behind it, its height must be parapet, since the salient angles can, perhaps, bo Galculated so that missiles passing across its crest brought on elevated ground; while the re-entering shall fail to strike the troops mustered behind. angles, though with less elevation, may in some The minimum width defiladel to allow of safe communication for troops behind, and actually defending, is 30 feet; but if the men have to be drawn up in line, not less than 90 feet will suffice. The mode of ascertaining the height of parapet necesBary in particular cases will be seen from the next diagram (lig. 4). Let A be the position at which the parapet is to be made, and AB the space which

Fig. 5. of 아

degree compensate that defect by greater distance from the front. A disadvantage of Hanked defences is, that the hostile tire crosses the parapet at a less angle than in the straight line, and may, therefore, be more deadly; indeel, the object of the assailant will always be to obtain an eptilade fire

alorg one or more parapets of the defence, as (in Fig. 4.

tig. 5) an enemy posted at F, would be able to

su'eep the complete line of the parapet CB. To it is reqnired to defilade to a height throughout avoid this, the engineer who constructs the works equal to BC, D, D,, Dą, are three points, accord must ascertain minutely the elevation of the sur. ing to the supposed country round, from which fire rounding points, and make his salients at such could be haul at the parapet—one, D, being on the angles that the prolongation of his parapets towards level, the others on ground respectively higher and the enemy shall always fall on low ground, whence lower than the parapet: if lines he now drawn no command can be obtained. from these points to C, their intersection with a Now, where the salient angle becomes somewhat perpendicular, raised on the point A, will shew acuite, and there is an enemy on both fronts, the the elevation necessary for the parapet protecting solliers defending the right parapet, and standing the space AB to the height BC. From this, the on its banquette, would be exposed to a reverse or disulvantage will be apparent of constructing a back tire from the enemy in front of the left parapet, parapet within range of higher ground, as for beyond the detilaling of which they would doubt. every extra foot of elevation in the commanding less lie. As a remedy, an internal parapret, called rise a proportionate addition must be maile to the a traverse, or, froin its duty, a parulox, is raised height of the parapet. In practice, the orclinary between the parapets of the salient, its height being parapet for a level is eight feet high, which determined on precisely the same principles as were allows for the depresserl trajet tory of a spenal. made use of in regard to the original parapets. ing ball. See PROJECTILES. If the parapet be

Where both the faces of the salient are unavoid. raised on ground above the attacking position, it ably so placed as to be entiladed, a small work, called may be lowerul, according to the angle, to about six a bonnei, is constructed at the angle, which consists fert six inches

, the height necessary for a man in the parapet being so raised up to an extra height standing p to be thoroughly protectel. On the of twelve feet if necessary, and at the same time other hand, if the position, A, be lower than the widened, that the banqnette shall be detiladel. If point occupied by the assailant, the parapet must a height of twelve feet is insufficient to detiladle the be raisel: as 12 feet forms the livnit to wbich whole length of the banquette, traversing parapets a parapet can conveniently be thrown up, further must be raised at right angles to the face of the height necessary for protection is obtained by sinking work, and within it, at such distances that the the ground to be delilauled before the parapet's base. whole may be safe : of course, the height of the In nieasuring for these heights, the instruments used bonnet and of the traverses must be decided od are lining-roulx, which are fixed in the ground at D rules analogous and B, with the pormal height of a man markel to


E on them; a third rod at A is then marked at the plained in fig. 4. point where the line of sight between the normal The increased points on the two others intersects it, and so shows height of the the height of the parapet.

parapet of the The foregoing parapet has been provided only as bonnet renders & straight brerstwork, deriving its safety solely from it necessary to its own tire in a direct line on the lesiegers ; but have in priu tice such a rampart would be exposed to the more banquettes

Fig. 6.-Bonnet disalvantage of holling but little command over the at that port.on scrrp or exruirp (part ent away) at its foot; so that of the work, with steps to aid the ascent (sce secti, na if apporaherl under cover, an enemy could realily in fig. 6); as AB, the crest of the general para ** lolu bimself therein. To guard against this a work with banquette at C; and DE, the bounet, wick is slankrol, so that the fire of one part shall take in banquettes at F and G. flauk an enemy allvancing against another part. See lo enclosed works-i.e., in works entirely sur fig. 5, where A BCDE is a flanked or reciprocally rounded by parapets—the position of the para los is defensive parapet, in which it is evident that the of vital importance; and they have often to be fire from AB, DE, must take in Hank any force deviseal with great ingenuity, so as to protect the moving on BC or CD, while the latter aldr, in like defenılers from reverse tire in any direction, and at manner, Hank AB, DE, themselves. In a flanked the same time not to prevent necessary communica. defence of this sort, the angles, A, C, E, which tion between different portions of the fortress. project towarıls the comtry, are technically termed Relief means the height of any point in a work sation! anulex; those at B and D, re-entering angles. above the plave of construction, which may be the Lise flanked parapet has often, likewise, the power line of sight or the bottom of the ditcis. In the of delinding larger spaces than the simple de vf | lutter case, the relief of the parapet is an important





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