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possessors of an inexhaustible purse of gold and a banquets for the populace, and the combats of the wishing.cap, which however, in the end, prove the gladiators, were, in the time of the republic, usually cause of their ruin. The moral is, that worldly held in the great forum, which also contained prosperity alone is insufficient to produce lasting monuments of various kinds, of which may be happiness. The oldest printed edition of the book mentioned the famous Columna Rostrata of C. now extant bears the date Frankfurt am Maine, Duilius, erected in memory of his victory over the 1509. Later German editions mostly bear the title, Carthaginians. The rostra, or platforms from which Fortunatus, von Seinem Seckel und Wunsch-hitlein public orations were delivered, formed the boundary (Fortunatus : Story of his Purse and Wishing.cap. between the forum in its narrower usage and the Augsb. 1530; Nürnb. 1677; and Basel, 1699). It comitiuni. After the time of Julius Cæsar and has been reprinted in Simrock’s Deutsche Volksbücher Augustus, the Forum Romanorum lost the import (5 vols., Frankt. am Maine, 1846). Various French ance it had previously derived from being the versions of the German story have appeared from central point of Roman political life. The other time to time, as the Histoire de Fortunatus (Rouen, two fora judicialia were the Forum Julii and the 1670); which served as the groundwork of the Forum Augusti. Compare Becker, landbuch der Italian Arennimenti de Fortunatus e de' Suoi Figli Röm. Alterthümer (1 vol., Leipsic, 1843). (Naples, 1670). From the Gerntan original, have

FORUM COMPETENS, in Law, is the court to also sprung, among others, the Dutch version Een the jurisdiction of which the party is amenable. Nieuwe listerie van Fortunatus Borse en van Zijnen Wensch hoel (Amst. 1796); later, the English History 1423 to 1457, a brilliant period of conquest and

FOSCARI, FRANCESCO, Doge of Venice from of Fortunatus and his Two Sons (London, no date); the Danish Fortunati pung og önskehat (Kopen. prosperity to his country, and of unexampled afllic 1664, 1672, 1095, 1756, 1783); the Swedish Fortu. tion to himself and family. Born about 1370, his natus (1694); and about 1690, two Icelandic versions, aspiring ambition soon tired him with passionate one in verse and another in prose.

The first to eagerness to exalt bis reign by the glory of condramatise the subject was Hans Sachs, in his Der quest, and speelily involved the state in a severe Fortunatus mit dem Wunschsecked (1553), after contlict with the Dukes of Milan ; which, how. whon comes the English Thomas Decker with his ever, the doge's great military ability in the end Pleasant Comedie of Old Fortunatus (1600), a work turned into a source of glory and augranulisement to which had the honour to make its reappearance in Venice. His triumph was embittered by the sucGerman about the year 16:20. The most poetical cessive loss of three sons; and the one who remained e lition of the story is that given by Tieck in his to transmit the name, and succeed to the inheritance Pluntarus (3 vols., Berlin, 1816). See Grüsse’s Die of the family, was, in 1445, denounced for baving Sugenkreixe des Mittelalters (Dresil. and Leip. 1842), received bribes from the hostile generals, to use his end Ersch and Gruber's Encyclopedie (tirst sect, intluence with the doge in procuring less rigorous

terms. Tried for this grave crime before the Tribu.

nal of the Ten, and racked cruelly in view of his FORTUNE-TELLER. Under the designation father, Giacopo Foscari was banished for life, wder Vagabonds, in the Scottish Act 1579 c. 74, are pain of death should he attempt to revisit his native included all who go about pre'ending to foretell land. In 1450, the assassination of one of the fortunes. The punishment inflicted on them by the Council of Ten,' Hermolao Donati, was imputerl, on statute is scourging and burning on the ear. what seem most unfounded grounds, to Giacopo,

FO’RUM, a Latin word, which originally signified who was consequently summoned froin his exile, an open place,' and is probably connected with tried, tortured, and banished a second time on still foras, out-of-doors.' The Roman fora were places

more rigorous terins to the island of Candia. Grown where the markets and courts of justice were hell. reckless through sulering, and longing to see his The former were termed fora venalia, and the latter the Duke of Milan to intercule in his behalf with

home and country on any terms, Giacopo petitioned foru judicialia. of the fora judiciulia, the most the senate, a step which, by Venetian law, was ancient and celebrated was the forum Romanorum, or, par excellence, the forum magnum, occupying the punished as a high crime, and led to the unforquarter now known as the campo vuccino (or cattle. tunate Giacopo being for the third time sulejected market). It stretched from the foot of the Capito- to torture and renewed banishment, on entering live Hill

, where the arch of Septinius Severus stands, into which he died of grief. The doge haud vainly to the temple of the Dioscuri, was seven jugeru in besought permission to resign a dignity grown loathi. extent, and was surrounded by streets and houses.

to him, from its imposing the barbarons The boundary on the east and north was the Sacra obligation of witnessing his son's torture ; but in riu, of which the side nearest the forum was left the end he was deposed, and ordered to vacate the open; while on the other were corridors and halls, palace in three days. At the age of 87, decrepit such as those of the argentarii (bankers or money. Francesco F., supported by his venerable brother,

from years, and bowed by sorrow and humiliation, changers). At a later period, the site of these was, for the most part, occupied by basilicas and temples descended the Giant's Staircase, and passed out for In the eastern portion of this space, were held the ever from the ducal place, the scene of such vain earliest Comitia (9. v.) of the Romans-the comitia pomp and bitter misery: Pasqual Malaperi was curilta ; hence this part took the name of the comic elected in his stead in 1457, and at the first peal tium, and was distinguished from the forum strictly of the bells in honour of his elevation, F. expired so callerl

. there were hung up for the benefit of the from the rupture of a blood vessel. Byron has public the laws of the Twelve Tables; and, aiter 304 written a tragedy on the subject, entitled The 7'200 B.C., the Fuxti written on white tables to inform

Foscari. the citizens when the law-courts were open. The FOʻSCOLO, Ugo, an Italian author, was born Forum, in the varrower usage of the worl, probably about 1778, at Zante, one of the lonan isles, and ceased to be employed as a market-place about 472 proceeded to Venice in his 16th year, where for B. C., when it became the place of assembly of the a time he pursued his studies, repairing later to Comitia Trimta. Of the later fora venalia, the prin Palna to enjoy Melchiore Cesarotti's noble course cipal were the forum boarium (the cattle-warket), ' o classic literature. His earliest efforts at poetical the forum suarium (pig-market), piscutorium (zsb-compositiou were strictly modelled on his favourite market), olitorium (vegetalıle-market), &c. Public Greek classics; and, as early as 1797, his tragedy,



Il Tieste, was received with favour by a critical a term formerly applied, in accordance with its Venetian audience. The dismemberment of the derivation, to whatever was dug out of the earth, Venetian states, decreed by the treaty of Campo whether mineral or organic, but now restricted to Formio, bitterly incensed F.'s patriotic spirit, and the remains of plants and animals imbedded in the inspired himn with one of his most remarkable earth’s crust. They were formerly, and are someworks, Le Lettere di Jacopo Ortix, which, owing times still, called petrifactions. They occur in nearly to the fierce political excitement then prevailing all the stratified rocks, which have, on this account, throughout the entire peninsula, was received with been called Fossiliferous strata. It is difficult or immense popularity. F. repaired to Milan on its impossible to detect them in the metamorpliic being declared the capital of the Cisalpine republic, rocks, for the changes that altered the matrix have and there obtained the gravle of otticer in the also affected the organisms, so as either alınost or Lombard legion. On the downfall of the republic, altogether to obliterate them. In the fundamental he retreated with the French into Genoa, where, mica-schist and gneiss they have escaped notice, it in the midst of the terrors of a rigorous siege, he ever they existed ; and it is only within the last composed two exquisite odes to Luigia Pallavicini few years that their presence has been detected in Cadula da Cavallo, and All Amica risanata. F. the gneiss and other rocks, which are the great'y subsequently entered France with the intention of metamorphosed representatives of the Lower Sili joining Napoleon's expedition against England, rian Measures in the north of Scotland. and prepared a much admired version of Sterne's The conditions in which fossils occur are very Sentimentul Journey, to exercise himself in English. various. In some Pleistocene beds the organio On the failure of the plan, he returned to Milan, remains are but slightly altered, and are spoken of and prepared a splendid edition of Montecuculi's as sub-fossil. In this state are the shells in some works, with notes and historical references- raised sea-beaches, and the remains of the liuge Opere di Raimondo Montecuculi, per Luigi Mussi struthious birds of New Zealand, which still retain (Milan, 1807-1808), a very rare edition. At this a large portion of the animal basis. In the progress time, he also published his exquisite poem, in of fossilisation, every trace of animal substance blank verse, I Sepolcri, which at once placed him disappears; and if we find the body at this stage, among the classic authors of his country. In without being affected by any other change, it is the same year, he was appointed to the chair of fragile and friable, like some of the shells in the eloquence in Pavia, and coutinued to occupy the London clay. Most frequently, however, a petrify, post, to the delight and benelit of his students, ing infiltration occupies the cavities left in the fossil until the professorship was suppressed in all the by the disappearance of the animal matter, and it colleges of Italy. His inaugurative aildress, Dell then becomes hardened and solidified. Sometimes Origine e del Ufficio della Letteratura, is a master the whole organism is dissolved and carried off by piece of beautiful, noble, and patriotic writing water percolating the rock, and its former presence From the time F. lost faith in the sincerity of is indicated by the mould of its outer surface, and Bo..aparte's intentions to his country, he not only the cast of its inner in the rocky matrix, leaving ceased to worship his early idol, but employed the a cavity between the cast and the mould agreeing full powers of his wrath and sarcasm in denouncing with the size of the fossil. This cavity is occasionhis treachery. After various vicissitudes, F. finally ally filled up with calcareous spar, flint, or some sought reruye in Britain about 1810, and soon other mineral; and we thus obtain the form of the mastered the language sufficiently to contribute to organism, with the markings of the outer and inner the Quarterly and Edinburgh Reviews. In London, surfaces, but not exhibiting the internal structure some of his best writings were published - viz., The most advanced and perfect condition of fossilisaEssays on Petrarcu and Dante, Discorso sul testo del tion is that in which not only the external form, Decamerone, Discorso storico sul testo di Dante, and but also the most minute and complicated internal various minor compositions. He died October 10, organisation is retained; in which the organism loses 1827, of dropsy, at Turnham Green near London the whole of its constituents, particle by particle, His works iu prose and verse were published in and as each little molecule is removed, its place is Milan, 18:22, by Silvestri.

taken by a little molecule of another substance, as FOSS, or FOSSE (Lat. fossa, from fodio, I dig); corals perfectly preserved in fiint, and trees exhi

silica or iron pyrites. In this way we find calcareous in Fortification, is a ditch or moat, either with biting in their silicified or calcified stems all the or without water, the excavation of which has details of their microscopic structure—the cells, contributer material for the walls of the fort it is spiral vessels, or disc-bearing tissue, as well as the designed to protect. The foss is immediately

medullary rays and rings of growth. without the wall, and offers a serious obstacle to escalauliny the defences.

FOSSIL FERNS. As far as has been yet deter

mined from the rocky tablets of the earth's crust, FOʻSSA ET FU'RCA, or PIT AND GALLOWS, ferns first appeared in the Devonian period, but then was an ancieut privilege, granted by the crown only sparingly, not more than nine or ten species to barous and others, which implied the right of having been observed. In the immediately sucdrowning female felons in a ditch, and hanging ceuling Coal-measures, they suddenly reached their male felons on a gallows.

maximum development. The dense forests and the FOSSA'NO, a town of Piedmont, in the admini- moist atmosphere of this period were so suited to strative di vision of Coni or Cuneo, is situated on the their growth that they formed a large bulk of the left bank of the Stura, on a hill surmounted by an

vegetation. Upwarıls of 350 species have been old castle, 14 miles north-east of Coni. It is sur.

described, some of them tree ferns of a size fitting rounded with old walls

, and is well built; but the them to be the companions of the immense Sigil. houses are crected over arcades, under which run associated with theirs in the Carboniferous rocks.

larias and Lepidodendrons whose remains are found the foutways, and thus the streets have a somewhat gloomy appearance.

It has a handsome Twenty-three species have been found in Permian

strata cathedral, ten churches, a royal college, and nume

Many, uew forms appear in the Trias rous minor educational institutions,"silk-factories, and their number is increased in the Oolite. The paper-mills, and tanneries. Pop. 16,423.

fresh-water beds of this period contain bumerous

beautiful ferns, upwards of fifty species having been FO'SSIL (Lat. fossilis, dug out of the earth), described. The marine beds of the Cretaceous


period contain very few forms, and in the Tertiary and republished in Bohn's Standard Library in rocks they are equally rare.

1852, FOSSILI'FEROUS ROCKS are those which FO'THERGILL PROCESS. This is one of the contain organic remains. If we except the lowest numerous dry processes in Photography (q. v.) metamorphic rocks, in which, as yet, no fossils which have for their object the preservation of have been found, the term is equivalent to the sensitive plates ready for exposure. It is named * stratified rocks,' when used comprehensively; but after the inventor, and consists in the partial it d'ay also be applied to a particular bed, as when removal of the free nitrate of silver which adhereg we speak of an unfossiliferous sandstone compared to the collodion film on withdrawing it from the with the neighbouring fossiliferous shale or lime- sensitising bath by washing with water, and the stone.

subsequent conversion of the remaining free pitrato FOSSOMBRO'NÉ, a small episcopal town of of silver into albuminate and chloride of silver by Italy, in the province of Urbino and Pesaro, is pouring over the plate dilute albumen, containing pleasantly situated on a hill on the left bank of the chloride of ammonium, the excess of albumen being Metauro—which is here spanned by a fine modern finally washed off by violent agitation with a copious bridge-11 miles east of the town of Urbino. It supply of water. The plates being set aside to rose in the 14th c., from the ruins of Forum Sem- drain on folds of blotting-paper, are, when dry, pronii, destroyed by the Goths and Lombards. Some ready for use. For details of manipulation, see interesting Roman inscriptions and remains of the Hardwich's Photographic Chemistry. ancient city are contained in the cathedral of St FOUCHÉ, JOSEPH, Duke of Otranto, the son of Aldobrando. F. is celebrated for its fine manufactures of carpets and woollen cloths, and particularly and educated at the Oratoire.

a sea-captain, was born at Nantes, 29th May 1763,

He hailed the for the excellent silk of its neighbourhood. Three Revolution with enthusiasm, and in 1792 became a miles from F. is Il Monte d'Asdrubale, famous as member of the National Convention. He voted for the scene of the engagement in which the Cartha- the death of Louis XVI., and was one of the comginian general was defeated and killed by the missioners of the Committee of Public Safety sent Romans in 207 B.C.–See Lauro Jacomo, Historia to Lyon in 1794 to reduce that city to obedience. e Pianta di Fossombrone.

In 1795, he was expelled from the Convention as FOSTER, John, a well-known English essayist, a dangerous Terrorist, and kept in continement for was born in the parish of Halifax, Yorkshire, Sep- a short time. After the revolution of the 18th tember 17, 1770. He was educated for the ministry Brumaire (5th November 1799), in which he took at the Baptist College at Bristol, but after preach- a part, F., as minister of police (an office to which ing for several years to various small congregations he had been appointed on the 31st July of the with very indifferent success, he resolved to devote same year), organised an extraordinary police. Ho nimself mainly to literature. His Essays, in a restrained the new government from deeds of Series of Letters, were published in 1805, while he violence, and by his advice the list of émigrés was was officiating as pastor of a Baptist chapel at closed, a general amnesty proclaimed, and the prin. Frome, in Somersetshire. They were only four in ciple of moderation and conciliation steadily adhered number—On a Man's Writing Memoirs of Himself; to. His remark upon the execution of the Duke On Decision of Character; On the Application of d'Enghien was very happy: C'est bien pis qu'un the Epitliet Romantic; and On some of the Causes crime, c'est une faute' (It is much worse than a crime; by which Evangelical Religion has been rendered it is a blunder). In July 1804, he was again placed less acceptable to Persons of Cultivated Taste; yet at the head of the police. His chief endeavours were Sir James Mackintosh did not hesitate to affirm directed, as before, to attaching the royalists to the that they shewed their anthor to be one of the imperial throne by prudent moderation. In 1819, most profound and eloquent writers that England the Emperor conferred on him the title of Duke of has produced.' They have been remarkably popu- Otranto, along with large grants from the revenues lar, especially among the more thoughtful of the of the Neapolitan territory, An unguarded exprescommunity, and have gone through upwards of sion, however, in a proclamation, lost him the twenty editions. In 1808, F. married the lady to favour of Napoleon, and in the following year he whom his essays were originally addressed, and was forced to resign. In the campaign of 1813, the retired to Bourton-on-the-Water, in Gloucestershire, Emperor summoned F. to head-quarters at Dresden, where he lived a quiet, studious, literary life, and sent him thence as governor of the Illyrian preaching, however, in the villages round about on provinces, and, after the battle of Leipsic, to Rome Sundays. In 1819 appeared his celebrated Essay and Naples, in order to keep a watch upon Murat's on the Evils of Popular Ignorance, in which he proceedings. Being recalled to Paris in the spring urges the necessity of a national system of edu- of 1814, he predicted the downfall of Napoleon even cation. He was long the principal writer in the before his arrival in France. After the Emperor's Eclectic Reviero, and a selection from his contribu- | abdication, F. advised him to abandon Europe tions to that magazine was published by Dr Price in altogether. On his return from Elba, Napoleon 1844. He died at Stapelton, near Bristol

, October again nominated him minister of police; but after 13, 1843. F. was a man of deep but sombre piety. the battle of Waterloo, F. placed himself at the The al adows that overhung his soul were, however, head of the provisional government, brought about those of an inborn melancholy, and had nothing the capitulation of Paris, drew back the army In common with the repulsive gloom of bigotry or behind the Loire, and thereby prevented unnecestanaticism. His thinking, is rugged, massive, and sary bloodshed. At the Restoration, Louis XVIII, original ; and at times, when his great imagination reappointed him minister of police; but he resigned rouses itself from sleep, a splendour of illustration his office in a few months, and went as ambassador breaks over his pages that startles the reader both to Dresden. The law of the 12th January 1816, by its beauty and its suggestiveness. Besides the banishing all those who had voted for the death of works already mentioned, F. published several Louis XVI., was extended to F. also, who from others, of which the most important is an Intro- that time resided in different parts of Austria ductory Essay to Doddridge's Rise and Progress He died at Trieste, 26th December 1820, leaving of Religion (1825). Compare the Life and Corres. an immense fortune. Napoleon, at St Helena, called pondence of T. (2 vols. 1846), edited by J. E. Ryland, F. 'a miscreant of all colours;' and Bourrienne


declares that he never regarded a benefit in any prevent him from being again appointed on the other light than as a means of injuring his bene- occasion of the coup d'éiat, 2d December 1851. Ho factor'-statements which are far too exaggerated once more resigned his position on the 25th January to be worth much. The simple truth appears following, in consequence of the decree ordering to be, that F. was a man whose highest principle the contiscation of the property of the Orleans was self-interest, but whose sagacity was not less family. The same day, however, he was created a conspicuous, and who never failed to give the senator, and shortly afterwards returned to power as governments which he served the soundest political minister of state. In this capacity, he superintended advice. It is true, however, that he was unscru. the Universal Paris Exhibition in 1855, the com. pulous in passing from one party to another, and pletion of the palace of the Louvre, and other great that he was as destitute of political morality as measures. He remained one of the most confidential Napoleon Himself. In 1924, appeared a work ministers of Napoleon III. till December 1860, when entitled Mémoires de Fouché, Duc d'Otrante, edited he was succeeded as minister of state by Comte by A. Beauchamp, which, though declared to be Walewsky. He was out of office up to the 14th spurious by the sons of F., is generally held to have November 1861, at which date he was reappointed been based on genuine documents.

finance minister, his long experience and well-known FOUGERES, a handsome town of France, in the ability as a financier pointing him out as the man to department of Ille-et-Vilaine, stands on a hill on manage the crisis of the French finances at that time. the right bank of the Couesnon, 28 miles north-east He was removed in 1867, and died the same year. of Rennes. It is a well-built town, with wiile FOULIS, ROBERT and ANDREW, tw eminent streets, and in the old quarter retains traces of the printers of Glasgow, brothers, whose names are middle ages in the ancient arcades which still usually classed together.—Robert, the elder, born in obtrude in some places upon the streets. The castle that city, April 20, 1707, was bred, and, like Allan of F. is picturesque, but being commanded by other Ramsay, for some time practised as a barber-in parts of the town, forms but a feeble defence. In those days of flowing periwigs, a profitable and the neighbourhood is a great forest containing respectable profession. Having attended for several Druidical remains. A famous engagement took years the lectures of the celebrated Dr Francis place here between the Vendean royalists and the Hutcheson, then Professor of Moral Philosophy in Republicans, November 15, 1793. F. has manu- Glasgow University, he was advised by that gentle. factures of sail-cloth, canvas, tape, flannel, lace, man to become a bookseller. In winter, he and hats, &c.; and dyeworks, principally for the dyeing his brother Andrew (born November 23, 1712) of scarlet. In the vicinity are important glass and employed themselves in teaching languages; and in paper works. Pop. (1872) 9850.

summer, they made short excursions to the contiFOULA, a solitary isle in the Atlantic, 25 miles of learning and knowledge of the world. Andrew

nent, and thereby acquired a considerable amount west of the Mainland of Shetland. It is 3 by 16 miles in extent, and consists of five hills (highest, 1727, he entered as a student at the university of

seems to have been designed for the church. In 1300 feet), rising steeply out of the water. The seacliffs are sublime, and covered with sea-birds. The regular course of studyAbout the end of 1739,

Glasgow, where he is supposed to have undergone a isle is seen from Orkney in fine weather, and is Robert began business in Glasgow as a printer, his supposed to be the Ultiina Thule of the ancients. first publications being chiefly of a religious nature, It has only one landing-place. It is inhabited by In 1742, he published an elegant edition in 4to of about 250 fishermen. F. consists of sandstone, with Demetrius Phalereus on Elocution, supposed to be a small patch of granite, gneiss, mica-slate and the first Greek work printed in Glasgow. In 1743, clay-slate in the north-east corner.

he was appointed printer to the university. In FOULD, ACHILLE, was born in Paris on the 1744, he brought out his celebrated immaculate 31st of October 1800, and was educated at the edition of Horace, 12mo, each printed sheet of Lycée Charlemagne, one of the most celebrated which was hung up in the college of Glasgow, and establishments of Paris. He originally belonged to a reward offered for the discovery of any inacthe Jewish creed, his family being wealthy Jew curacy. Soon after, he took his brother Andrew into bankers, but now adheres to the Protestant faith. partnership; and for thirty years they continued Early in life, he was initiated into financial trans- to bring out some of the finest specimens of correct actions by his father, and _his natural talents and elegant printing, particularly in the Latin were developed by travel in Europe and the East. and Greek classics, which the 18th c. produced, In 1842, he began his political career, being then either in this country or on the continent. Among chosen as a member of the council-general of the them were Cicero's works, in 20 volumes ; Cæsar's Hautes Pyrénées, and immediately after elected a Commentaries, folio; Homer's works, 4 vols. ; deputy for Tarbes, the chief town of that depart. Herodotus, 9 vols., &c.; also an edition of the

He soon acquired a high position in the Greek Testament ; Gray's poems ; Pope's works ; Chamber of Deputies for the peculiar talent with a folio edition of Milton, and other publications which he handled questions of finance and political in English. With the view of proinoting the economy. In 1841, he was appointed reporter to cultivation of the fine arts in Scotland, Robert the commission on stamps on newspapers, and Foulis, after a two years' visit to the continent in his views were adopted, in spite of the opposition preparation, commenced, in 1753, an academy at party, he being at that period a stanch supporter Glasyow, for the instruction of youth in painting of M. Guizot's home and foreign policy. Aiter the and sculpture. The great expense attending this revolution of 1848, F. accepted the new régime of institution led to the decline of the printing the republic, and offered his services to the pro- business, which, however, continued to be carried on visional government. In July 1848, he was elected till the death of Andrew, September 18, 1775. In representative for the department of the Seine, 1776, Robert exhibited and sold at Christie's, Pall and continued to rise in public estimation by the Mall, London, the remainder of his paintings, when, elevated views he expressed in the chamber, while after all expenses were defrayed, the balance in his opposing among other things a proposed issue of favour amounted only to fifteen shillings. assignats. During the presidency of Louis Napoleon, died the same year, at Edinburgh, on his return to F. was four times Minister of Finance, and his Scotland. He was twice married, and left several repeated rosignations for state reasons did not l children. One of them was a printer in Glasgow as




Late as 1804. His Virgil, printed in 1778, and his feet must be enveloped in hot bran poultices, and Æschylus, 1795, for beauty and exactness, were not kept off the hard ground by a plentiful supply unworthy of the name of Foulis.

of short litter. Soap and water clysters, repeated FOUNDATION. This term may be applied the bowels, which are very irritable, and physic,

if necessary every hour, usually suffice to open either to the surface or bed on which a building if required, must therefore be used with extreme rests, or to the lower part of the building which

caution. Two drachms of aloes is rests on the natural bed. 1. Foundation as the dose in founder.

an ample bed. - The best that can be had is solid rock, or any inflamed laminæ by getting the animal, if possible,

Have the strain taken off the kind of resisting incompressible stratum, free from to lie down, or, where this is impracticable, by water. Where there is no chance of water, sand slinging him. When the inflammation contiruen forms a solid foundation. When the soil is soft, loose, and shifting, a solid bearing can be obtained between the sensitive and horny laminæ, they

so long that serum and lymph are poured out only by driving piles or long beams of wood, sharp. must have free exit provided, by making an opening ened at the end, through the soft soil, till they through the toe with a small drawing-knife. This reach a hard bottom. This is then planked or laid with cross-beams, on which the superstructure is may prevent the pumiced and disfigured feet that built. The piers of many bridges are formed in the acute symptoms pass, cold applications to the

are apt to follow severe and repeated attacks. After this manner. Where the soil is soft, but not feet, and a mild blister round the coronet, help to shifting, as in the case of made or deposited earth, restore the parts to their natural condition. the method of Concreting (q. v.) is adopted—i. e., a large surface is laid with broken metal or gravels of obtaining casts of any desired object by means of

FOUNDING, or METAL-CASTING, is the art broad solid artificial rock, on which the building pouring melted metal into moulds prepared for the may rest. 2. Foundation as the base of the building purpose. It has risen to great importance in recent -The broader and larger the lower courses of the times, on account of the many new applications of mason-work, the stronger the wall. The stones

iron. Iron-founding, brass-founding, type-founding, should, if possible, extend through and through, and as well as casting in bronze and zinc, are the prin: project on each side of the wall.

cipal divisions of the art. The casting of the finer In the best periods of art, the foundations have metals and alloys, as gold, silver, and German silver, always been most attentively considered. · The is necessarily conducted on a smaller scale. Romans formed solid bearings of concrete as above

When the casting of an object is required, it is described, and paid great attention to secure the necessary, in the first place, to make a pattern. stability of their buildings. In the dark ages, when Suppose it to be a plain round iron pillar, such there was want of knowledge combined with want

as is used for hanging a gate upon. A pattern of of materials and means, many buildings fell from this is turned in some wood which can be readily the yielding of the foundations. Some of the made smooth on the surface, such as pine, and then earlier Gothic buildings also suffered from the same varnished or painted so as to come freely out of the

But knowledge came with experience, and mould. This wooden pillar, or any similar pattern, the foundations of the later Gothic buildings, during is always made in at least two pieces, the division the 14th and 15th centuries, were built with extreme being lengthwise, for a reason which we shall precare, and on the virgin soil—the stones being as

sently see. The next step is to prepare the mould. finely dressed as those above ground, where neces. The moulds used by the iron-founder are either of sary to resist a strong thrust. And where the sand or loam, but more generally of fine sand. Proweight is thrown unequally on piers and walls, ceeding with the preparation of the mould, the these detached points are all carefully united

founder takes a moulding-box, which is composed of below the floor with a net-work of solid walls.

two open iron frames with cross-bars, the one fitting Bad foundations have been the cause of the ruin exactly on the other, by means of pins in the upper,

Oneof many modern buildings. This has arisen from dropping into holes in the lower frame. the costly nature of making a good foundation, half of the box is first filled with damp sand, and when the soil is not naturally suitable. But it

the pattern laid upon it, a little dry parting sand is clear that no expense should be spared to make being sprinkled on the surface. The upper half of the foundation good, as the value and stability of the box is then put on, and sand firmly rammed all the superstructure depend entirely on the security round the pattern. The box is then carefully of the foundation.

opened, and, when the pattern is removed, its im

pression is left in the sand. The mould at this stage, FOU'NDER, also called LAMINITIS, consists of however, is generally rough and broken. It is inflammation of the vascular sensitive laminæ of the necessary, therefore, to give it a better finish, which borse's foot. It is rarely met with in cattle or is done by taking each half of the mould separately, sheep, owing to the corresponding structures being repairing it with a small trowel, and re-introducing in them greatly less developed. Occasionally, the the corresponding half of the pattern till the impreslaminæ are strained from severe exertion ; more sion is firm and perfect. Finally, the surface of the frequently, they suffer from the morbid effects of mould is coated with charcoal-dust, which gives a cold, which is especially injurious after the excite-smooth surface to the future casting. These columns ment and exhaustion of labour. Very commonly being made hollow, there is yet another matter to also, they become inflamed from their close sympathy arrange before the casting can be made--namely, the with diseases of the digestive organs, often following core. In the instance before us, it would simply be a engorgement of the stomach, or intlammation of | rod of iron, covered with straw and loam to whatthe bowels. All four feet are sometimes affected, ever thickness the internal diameter of the column more usually the fore ones only. They are hot happened to require. The core of course occupies and tender; the animal stands as much as possible the centre of the mould. upon his heels; trembles and groans when moved ; The cast iron is melted with coke in a round fireand is in a state of acute fever and pain. Except brick furnace, called a cupola, the heat being urged when following superpurgation or internal disease, by means of a powerful blast, created by fanners bleeding is useful. The shoes must at once be revolving at a high speed. The molten metal is rua removed, and the toes, if long, reduced, but no from a tap at the bottom of the furnace into a furt'er rasping or cutting is permissible. The malleable iron ladle, lined with clay, from whicb it


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