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great joy of his people, in 1813, the allies were soon 'political opinion, was strictly circums eribed. The able to renew hostilities, which were carried on life of the king was twice attempted; first in with signal success until they finally culminated in 1847 by a dismissed burgomaster, named Tschech; the great battle of Leipsic, in which the Prussians, and secondly, in 1950, by an insane discharged under their general, Blucher, earned the greatest soldier of the name of Sefeloge. In 1857, F.-W. share of glory. The Peace of Vienna restored to was seized with remittent attacks of insanity; and Prussia almost all her former possessions, while the in 1858 he resigned the management of public part taken by the Prussian army under Blücher in affairs to his brother and next heir, who acted as gaining the victory of Waterloo, by which Napo- regent of the kingdom till his own accession, in leon's power was finally broken, raised the kingdom 1860, as William I. F.-W. died in 1861. from its aliasement. From that time, F.-W. devoted himself to the improvement of his exhausted states; Brunswick, in British North America, stands on the

FRE’DERICTON, the political capital of New but although before the French revolution of 1830 right bank of the St John, the largest river in the Prussia ha recovered her old position in regard province. It is 56 miles to the north-west of the to material prosperity at home and political con- principal seaport, which bears the name of the stream sideration abroad, the king adhered too strictly to the above mentioned, and it is itself accessible to vessels old German ideas of absolutism, to grant his people of 50 tons. The population is about 6000. In addimore than the smallest possible amount of political tion to the public buildings, which F. possesses as liberty. He had indeed promised to establish a the seat of government, it contains the university representative constitution for the whole king of King's College, which, independently of other dom, l ut this promise he wholly repudiated when resources, receives from the legislature an annual reminded of it, and merely established the Land

grant of £2000. stände, or Provincial Estates, a local institution, devoid of all effective power. His support of the

FRE’DERIKSHALD, a fortified seaport of NorRussian government in its sanguinary methods of way, in the department (amt) of Smalenen, stands on crushing revolutionary tendencies in Poland, shewed an inlet called Swinesund, near the Swedish border, his absolute tendencies, and his dread of liberal about 60 miles south-south-east of Christiania. It principles. F.-W. was more than once embroiled is beautifully situated, and is a neat, well-built with the pope, on account of his violation of the town, with several handsome edifices. Its harbour concordat. 'He concluded the great German com- is excellent; in it the largest vessels may be safely

moored. mercial league known as the Zollverein (see GER

F. largely exports deals and lobsters. MANY), which organised the German customs and Pop. 7408. To the south-east of the town stands duties in accordance with one uniform system. He the fortress of Frederiksteen, on a perpendicular died in 1840.

rock 400 feet high. This fortress, though often TREDERICK-WILLIAM IV.,

assaulted, has never yet been taken. While laying

OF PRUSSIA, son of the foregoing, was born October 15, 1795. He siege to Frederiksteen, Charles XII. of Sweden was had been carefully educated, was fond of the society obelisk was raised, in 1814, upon the spot where he

killed, 1718; in commemoration of which event an of learned men, and was a liberal patron of art

fell. and literature. He exhibited much of his father's vacillation and instability of purpose; and although

FREE BENCH (Francus Bancus). By custom he began his reign (June 7, 1840) by granting minor of certain manors in England, a widow was entitled reforms, and promising radical changes of a liberal to dower out of the lands which were held by her character, he always, on one plea or other, evaded husband in Socage (q. v.). In some places, the widow the fulfilment of these pledges. He was possessed had the whole, or the half, and the like dum sola el by high but vague ideas of the Christian state, casta vixerit (Co. Litt. 110, b). This right is called and shewed through life a strong tendency to francus bancus, to distinguish it from other dowers, mystic pietism. The one idea to which he adhered for that it cometh freely, without any act of the with constancy was that of a union of all Germany husband's or assignment of the heir (Co. Litt. 94, bl. into one great body, of which he offered himself to See DOWER. A widow who has forfeited her free be the guide and head. He encouraged the duchies bench is, by the custom of some manors, permitted of Holstein and Slesvig in their insurrectionary to recover her right. At East and West Enborne, movement, and sent troops to assist them against in the county of Berks, and also in the manor of Denmark; but he soon abandoned their cause, and Chadleworth, in the same county, and at Tort, in being displeased with the revolutionary character of Devon, if the widow commit incontinency, she for. the Frankfurt Diet, refused to accept the imperial feits her estate ;, yet if she will come into the court crown which it offered him. The conspiracies in of the manor riding backward on a black ram, with Prussian Poland were suppressed with much rigour; his tail in her hand, and will repeat certain verses and the popular movement which followed the more remarkable for their plainness than their French revolution of 1848, was at first met by delicacy), the steward is bound by the custom to the king with resolute opposition; but when the admit her to her free bench (Cowel's Interpreter, people persisted in demanding the removal of the ed. 1727, fol.). troops from the capital, and enforced their demand FREE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND, the name by storming the arsenal, and seizing on the palace assumed by those who at the · Disruption' of the of the Prince of Prussia (the present king), who was Established Church of Scotland, in 1843, withdrew at that time especially obnoxious to the liberals, he from connection with the state, and formed them. was obliged to comply with their wishes. Constitu; selves into a distinct religious community, at the ent assemblies were convoked, only to be dissolved same time claiming to represent the historic church when the king recovered his former security of of Scotland, as maintaining the principles for which power, and new, constitutions were framed and it has contended since the Reforination. sworn to, and finally modified or withdrawn. After (It is proper to state that, in accordance with a the complete termination of the revolution in Ger. method adopted in other cases also in this work, the many, the revolutionary members of the Assembly present article is written by a member of the church of 1848 were prosecuted and treated with severity, to which it relates, and is an attempt to exhibit the the obnoxious pietistic' party and the nobility view of its principles and position generally taken were reinstated in their former influence at court, by those within its own pale.) and the freedom of the press and of religious and! There is no difference between the F. C. of S. and


the Established Church in the standards which they 1688, an act ratifying the Westminster Cunfession receive; and all the laws of the church existing of Faith itself, and incorporating with the statute and in force prior to the Disruption, are acknow. | law of the realm all its statements concerning the ledged as still binding in the one as much as in the province of church judicatories and that of the other, except in so far as they may since have been civil magistrate, and the bounds of their respective repealed. The same Presbyterian constitution sub- powers. sists in both churches, with the same classes of The rights and privileges of the Presbyterian office-bearers and gradations of church-courts. The Church of Scotland, guaranteed by the Revolution F. C., indeed, professes to maintain this constitution settlement, were expressly secured by the Treaty and church-government in a perfection impossible in of Union, and jealously reserved from the power the present circumstances of the Established Church, of the British parliament; yet within tive years because of acts of parliament by which the Estab- afterwards, when Jacobite counsels prevailed in lished Church is trammelled, and interventions of the court of Queen Anne, an act was passed for civil authority to which it is liable. And the whole the restoration of patronage in Scotland, with the difference between the F. C. and the Established design of advancing the Jacobite interest by renderChurch relates to the consent and submission of the ing ministers more dependent on the aristocracy, Established Church to this control of the civil power and less strenuous advocates of the most liberal in things which the F. C. regards as belonging not principles then known. This act soon became to the province of civil government, but to the the cause of strife within the Church of Scotlanci, church of Christ and to its office-bearers and courts, and of separation from it; effects which have con. as deriving authority from Him; so that the contro- tinually increased to the present day. How the versy is often described as respecting the Hearlship church at first earnestly protested against the act; of Christ or the Kingdom of Christ. It is to be how this protest gradually became formal, and was borne in mind, however, that the doctrine of the at last relinquished; how the church-courts themheadship of Christ over his church, as set forth in selves became most active in carrying out the the Westminster standards, is fully professed both by settlement of presentees, notwithstanding all oppo-, the Established Church and by the F. C. of Scotland"; sition of congregations, are points to which it is the only question between them is, whether or not enough here to allude. It is important, however, the existing relations of the Established Church to observe that in all the enforcement of the rights Scotland to the state are consistent with the due given to patrons by the act of 1712, during the 18th maintenance and practical exhibition of this doc- c., and considerable part of the 19th, no direct trine. And the question does not directly relate to invasion of the ecclesiastical province took place Voluntaryism (9. v.). Those who constituted the on the part of civil courts or of the civil power; the F. C. of S. in 1843, firmly believed that the church presentation by the patron was regarded as convey. might be connected with the state, and receive ing a civil right at most to the benefice or emolu. countenance and support from it, to the advantage ments only, whilst the church-courts proceeded of both; whilst they maintained that there must without restraint in the induction of ministers; and pot, for the sake of any apparent benefits flowing in a few instances it happened that the benefice and from such connection, be any sacrifice of the inde- the pastoral office were disconnected by the opposite pendence or self-government of the church, as the decisions of the civil and ecclesiastical courts. And kingdom of Christ, deriving its existence, organis- even the forced settlements,' in which the fullest ation, and laws from Him. Nor has any change effect was given by the church.courts to the will of of opinion on this subject been manifested. patrons, were accomplished according to the ancient

The Westminster Confession of Faith asserts form, upon the call of the parishioners, inviting the that there is no other head of the church but the presentee to be their minister, although the caŭ was Lord Jesus Christ ;' and that the Lord Jesus, as à mere form-in the words of Dr Chalmers, the King and Head of his church, hath therein appointed expressed consent of a few, and these often the mere a government in the hand of church-officers, distinct driblet of a parish.' from the civil magistrate ;' it ascribes to these When the • Moderate' party, long dominant in church-officers the right of meeting in ‘synods or the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, councils, which it affirms to be an ordinance of became again the minority in 1834, the accession of God ;' and represents the exercise of church-dis- the Evangelical party to power was at cipline as intrusted to them as well as the ministry signalised by an attempt to restore the call to of the word and sacraments. It ascribes to the efficacy. This was done by the famous Veto Law, civil magistrate much power and many duties con- by which it was declared that it is a fundamental cerning things spiritual, but no power in or over law of this church that no pastor shall be intruded these things themselves. And all this was equally on any congregation contrary to the will of the the doctrine of the Church of Scotland before the people, and enacted, in order to give effect to tliis Westminster Confession was compiled. The sup- principle, that a solemn dissent of a majority of port which, in many parts of Europe, princes gave to male heads of families, members of the vacant con. the cause of the Reformation, and the circumstance gregation, and in full communion with the church, that states as well as churches were shaking off the shall be deemed sufficient ground for the rejection letters of Rome, led in many cases to a confounding of the presentee. The Veto Law thus determined of the civil and the spiritual. The Church of rather how strong an expression of discent by the Scotland accomplished its emancipation from Rome, parishioners should be requisite to invalidate a not with thco-operation of the civil power, but call

, than how strong an expression of assent should in spite of its resistance; and after the Reformation, be requisite to give it validity; a circumstance the Scottish Reformers and their successors were whicb was afterwards much turned to account ia compelled to a closer study of their principles, by the controversy; as if the veto were a new and uncon: continued attempts of the civil rulers to assume stitutional principle introduced ; although it was authority over all the internal affairs of the church. certainly adopted as the least extreme mode of But amidst their struggles, the Presbyterians of giving effect to the old principle which the law Scotland so far prevailed as to obtain at different declared. ruines important acts of parliament in recognition of The same General Assembly by which the Veto their principles, and ratification of the liberty of Act was passed, is memorable for the assertion of the true kirk;' and finally, after the Revolution of the constitutional principles and inherent powers of



the church in another important particular, the the only course open to them was to retire from admission of the ministers of 'chapels of euse’ to their position by the sacrifice of the emolumenta the same ecclesiastical status with the ministers of and benefits of an establishment. And this they did endowed parishes, in consequence of which they at the meeting of the General Assembly on 18th became members of church-courts, and had districts May 1843. Headed by Dr Chalmers, Dr Welsh, Assigned to them quoad racra, with the full parochial and others of the most eminent for piety, learning, organization.

eloquence, and usefulness in the church, they left The Veto Act was soon the subject of litigation the appointed place of meeting of the General in the Court of Session. A conflict arose, which in Assembly, St Andrew's Church, Edinburgh, and various forms agitated the whole of Scotland, and proceeded to another place, previously prepaird, which, erelong, related as much to the status of Tanfield Hall, Canonmills, where, in the wist of a chapel ministers as to the rights of presentees to great concourse of people, the first General Assembly parishes ; and indeed involver the whole question of the F. C. of S. was immediately constituten, of the relations of civil and ecclesiastical powers, at and Dr Chalmers was unanimously called to the least as far as the Established Church was con chair as its moderator. Four hundred and sevelty. cerned. The first case carried into the civil court four ministers renounced their connection with the was that of a presentation to Anchterarder, in Establishment, and along with them a great body which the call to the presentee was signed by only of its elders and members. two parishioners, whilst almost all who were entitled Immediate steps were taken for completing the to do so according to the Veto Act, came forward organisation of the F. C., and extending it as inuch to declare their dissent. The decision of the Court as possible into every district of Scotland. The of Session, which, upon an appeal, was affirmed by forethought of Dr Chalmers had already devised the the House of Lords, was to the effect, that the SUSTENTATION FUND (q.v.). The F. C. undertook rejection of the presentee on the ground of this from the first the continued support of all the misdissent was illegal; the opinions of the judges in sions previously carried on by the Church of Scotthe Scottish court were indeed divided; but those land ; and all the missionaries hastened to declare in accordance with which the judgment was pro- their adherence to the Free Church. An 'educa. nounced, asserted the right of the civil courts to tion scheme' was soon afterwards undertaken, when review and control all proceedings of church-courts, it began to be found that parish schoolmasters were a power which it was speedily attempted to put forth ejected from their office for their adherence to the in other cases, to the extent of requiring presbyteries F.C.; and colleges for the training of ministers were to proceed to the settlement of qualified presentees founded in Edinburgh, Glasgow, and Aberdeen without respect to the opposition of congregations ; Considerable opposition was at first experienced on interdicting the admission of ministers to pastoral the part of landowners, who refused to grant sites charges even when no question of emoluments was for churches and other buildings ; but this gradually involved ; interdicting the quoad sacra division of gave way, although not until much hardship had in parishes or any innovation on the existing state of many cases resulted from it. The bitterness of feel. à parish as to pastoral superintendence and the ing which at first existed between the Established jurisdiction and discipline of the kirk-session ; inter- Church of Scotland and the F. C. has passed away dicting church-courts from pronouncing ecclesiastical to a degree which could scarcely have been expected censures, and suspending or revoking them when in so short a time; and there are many who hope to pronounced ; interdicting ministers from preach. see the questions between them amicably discussed ing the gospel and from administering the sacra- and settled. ments within certain parishes ; determining who In 1873, the number of ministerial charges in the should and who should not be deemed entitled to F. C. of S. was 905. There are also numerous sit and vote in General Assemblies and other courts 'preaching stations,' in which preaching is regularly of the church ; and other such things, wholly sub- maintained, and other ordinances are administered versive of the independence of the church, and under the care of presbyteries. All of these would be reducing it, if acquiesced in, to the condition of a provided with ministers of their own, if the means creature of the state. They were not, however, at the disposal of the church admitted of it; and acquiesced in; and although in one instance, some of them are continually being added to the list ministers were brought to the bar of the Court of of ministerial charges. The whole sum raised for Session, and reproved for disregarding its authority, religious and educational purposes by the F. C. of S. their protest against its claim to authority was up to March 1873, or in about 30 years, has been maintained even there ; and in the far greater about £10,299, 306, or rather more than £343,310 2 number of instances, its interdicts were broken year. In this are included the sums devoted to the without any attempt being made to call those who erection of churches, manses, school-buildings, coldid so to account. It is impossible here to enter into leges, &c. The Sustentation Fund for the year endthe details of this struggle, which was brought to a ing 15th of May 1873, amounted to £136,779, 198. rinal issue by the judgment of the House of Lords 8d.; the missionary and educational funds to £77, 35 in August 1842, affirming a decree of the Court of 5d. congregational funds to £147,715, 6x. Id. Session, which required the presbytery of Auchter. Since 1843, the history of the F. C. has been gene ander to take the ordinary steps towards the settle- rally that of peaceful progress. It has been agitated ment of the presentee to Auchterarder, without by internal questions respecting the administration regard to the dissent of the parishioners. The law of the Sustentation Fund, the propriety of having of the land being thus decided by the supreme only one college or more than one, &c., which are of court to be such as they could not with good con. comparatively little interest to those beyond its own science comply with, and parliament having rejected pale, but which have produced no permanent divi. an application, in the form of a 'Claim of Right,' sions, and have either reached or advanced towards for an act such as would have reconciled the a peaceful solution. Latterly, however, it has again duties of their position according to the law of the been brought into a litigation in the Court of Session, land, in the church by law established, with what in which, according to the belief of its members, its they believed to be their duty towards Christ and fundamental principles are involved. The minister According to his law; it now seemed to the greater of the F. C. at Cardross, in Dumbartonshire, having number of the ministers and elders holding the been charged with immorality, and suspended by principio of the indepen lence of the church, that the General Assembly of 1858, had recourse to the


Court of Session, on the alleged ground of irregu. FREE-LANCES were roving companies of larity in the proceedings of the ecclesiastical judi- knights and men-at-arms, who, after the Crusades catories, demanding the suspension of the sentence; had ceased to give them employment, wandered and heing on this account summarily deposed by the from state to state, selling their services to any lord General Å ssembly, he raised an action in the Court who was willing to purchase their aid in the per of Session, not only claiming dimages, but to have petual feuds of the middle ages. They played their the sentence rescinded and found null and void. most prominent part in Italy, where they were The case terminated in the recognition of the inde- known as Condottieri (q. v.). pendence of the church in things purely spiritual, and

FREEMAN AND FREEDMAN. In the most its subjection to the civil courts in all things temporal

. general acceptation of these terms, the first implies FREE CITIES, the name given to those German one who has inherited the full privileges and immu. towns, Hamburg, Bremen, Lubec, and Frankfort-on- nities of citizenship: the second, one who has been the-Maine, which were of themselves sovereign states delivered from the restraints of bondage, but wbo, and members of the German Confederation. They usually, is not placed in a position of full social as are remnants of the once numerous •Imperial' cities, even political equality with him who was born free or cities not subject to any superior loru, but imme- Though the words are Teutonic (being composed of diately under the empire. Of the four F. C., Ham- frei, free ; and mann, a man or human being), the burg, Lubec, and Bremen still retain their privileges distinction between them depends on the constitu. under the re-constituteil German Empire, but Frank. tion of Roman society. The erivalent for freeman fort (q. v.) was annexed to Prussiu in 1866.

(liber homo), indeed, comprehended all classes of FREEDOM OF THE PRESS. See PRESS

those who wei e pot slaves; but the distinction bere

pointed out was preserved by the application of the FREEHOLD, ESTATE OF (liberum tenementum, term ingenuus to him who was born free (Gaius, frank tenement). Real estates in England in the 1. 11), and of libertinus to him who, being born present day are divided into freehold and copy. in servitude, was emancipated. For the further hold. By freehold property is meant all estates development of this subject, as regards the classical which owe no duty or service to any lord but nations of antiquity, see SLAVERY, CITIZEN. As the king. What are now known as estates of free: the organisation of Roman society survived the hold were, under the feudal system, denominated convulsions of the middle ages to a far greater irank tenements. They were held by the honour extent in the towns (see MUNICIPALITY, MUNICIPAL able tenure of Knight's Service (q. v.) and Free CORPORATION) than in the landward districts, where Socage (q. V.), and might have been held either the institutions of feudality almost entirely super. of the crown or of a subject. But the statute of seded it, it is in the borough and other municipal Quia emptores having abolished subinfeudation, all corporations of this country, and of continental freehold estates, except those which have been held Europe, that we still find freemen, or persons inheritof subjects since the time of Edward I., are now ing or acquiring by adoption, purchase, or apprenticeheld of the crown. A freehold estate must be an ship, the rights of citizenship. See FREEMAN'S ROLL estate in fee, in tail, or for life; all other estates in But the idea of a freeman was by no means peculiar land, as estates for years, are called chattel interests, to the Roman or Romanised population of Eurcpe; An estate of freehold could in general be created on the contrary, it belonged to the constitution of only by livery of sasine of Feoffment (q. V.). By society in all the Indo-Germanic nations. Amongst the doctrine of the fendal law, no person who had those branches of them commonly known as Teutonic, an estate of less duration than for his own life or it was generally based on the possession of some for the life of another man, was considered to be a portion of the soil. In Anglo-Saxon England, the freeholder; and none but a freeholder was con- freemen were divided into Ceorls (q. v.) and Eorls sidered to have possession of the land. A tenant for (q. v.), or Thanes (q. v.). See CITIZEN. years, &c., was regarded as holding possession for the freeholder. The possession of the freeholder

FREEMAN'S ROLL. By 5 and 6 Will. IV. might, however, be defeated by the wrongful act of 76, commonly called the Municipal Corporations the tenant; for a transfer of possession or livery of Act, which placed the corporate towns, or

, as they sasine by the tenant would divest the freeholder

, are denominated, the boroughs enumerated in the and leave him to his Right of Entry (q. v.). This schedules A and B-i. e., nearly all the horoughs in effect of a feoffment by wrong was abolished by 8 England and Wales except London-under one uni. and 9 Vict. c. 106, s. 4. Before the tiine of Henry form constitution, a distinction is made (s. 2) between VI., all freeholders were entitled to vote on the the Freeman's Roll and the Burgess Roll. Every election of a knight of the shire, as they still may person who, if the act had not passed, would, as a for the appointment of coroner.

But by 8 Hen. Vi. burgess or freeman, have enjoyed, or might have a. 7, the famous statute was passed which still in acquired, the right of voting in the election of memgreat measure regulates the county elections, and bers parliament, is to be entitled to enjoy or enacts that no freeholder shall vote who cannot acquire such right as heretofore. And it is further spend from his freehold at least 408. & year. By shall make out a list, to be called the Freeman's Roll


enacted (s. 5), that the town-clerk of each borough 2 WII. IV. c. 45, s. 18, this qualification is continued as to all freeholds of inheritance, and to free of all persons admitted burgesses or freenien, for holders for life in actual occupation, or who have the purpose of such reserved rights as aforesaid, as acquired their lands by marriage, marriage settle distinguished from the burgesses newly created by

the act, and entitled to the rights which it newly ment, devise, or promotion to any benefice or office.

confers; these last are to be entered on another FREEHOLD LAND SCHEME had for its roll, to be called the Burgess Rollo See BURGESS. object to enable mechanics, artisans, and other per

FREEMASON, FREEMASONRY. See Bons belonging to the lower classes, to purchase a piece of freehold laul, of such yearly value as to Mason; Masons, FREE. entitle the owner to the elective franchise. Irre. FREE PORT (Ital. Porto Franco), is a harbuur spective of any political object, benefit building where the ships of all nations may enter on paying societies now exist in most of the greater towns of a moderate toll

, and load and unload. Free ports this country, and are believed to be of great service to form dépôts where goods are stored at first with the jalouring men, See BENEFIT SOCIETIES, out paying duty; these goods may then be eather

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FREE SPIRIT-FREE TRADE. re-shipped for export on paying a mere transit duty, FREE STATE, ORANGE, See ORANGE RIVEL or they may pay the usual full customs of the coun- FREE STATE. try, and be admitted for home consumption. Free FREE'STONE, any rock which admits of being ports thus facilitate transit made, and form, as it freely cut and dressed by the builder. It has also were, a foreign district within a state. See WARE- been defined as any rock which works equally freely HOUSING SYSTEM.

in every direction, having no tendency to split in one FREE-SPIRIT, BRETHREN OF THE, a fanatical direction more than another. In this sense, liineBect of the middle ages, which was very generally

stone and even granite have been called freestoues. (though sometimes secretly) diffused over Italy,

FREE-TOWN, the capital of Sierra Leone, a France, and Germany, between the 13th and 15th British settlement of freed negroes on the west coast centuries. They took their name from the freedom of Africa, situated on the left bank of the Sierra of spirit' which they claimed, in virtue of the words Leone river, about 5 miles from the sea, in lat, 8° 20° of St l'aul (Romans, viii. 2, 14), maintaining that N., and long. 13° 9' W. The temperature is tolerathe true sons of God are exempt from subjection bly uniform, varying in opposite seasons between the to the law. They appeared first in Alsace, in the averages of 770.6 F. and 800.9. Towards the interior ewly part of the 13th c., and attracted notice by F. is enclosed by the mountain chain from which the their singussr attire and their fanatical proceedings, colony takes its name. Pop. about 16,000. traversing the country in troops, accompanied by

FREE-TRADE in a literal sense means trade or aumen, with whom, under the name of sisters, they striction. As generally used, however, the term has

commercial intercourse free from interference or relived in the greatest familiarity. Their doctrine was a species of pantheistic mysticism, which they a wider and more complex nieaning, and expresses a applied with fearless consistency to all the details principle of political economy which holds that the of the moral obligations. They held, according to prosperity of a State can best be promoted by freeing Mosheim, who has collected the original authorities, the exchange of all commodities and services—foreign

that all things emanate from God, and will revert as well as domestic—to the greatest possible extent, back into Him; that rational souls are part of from all interferences and obstructions, but more the Divine Being; that the whole universe is God; especially from such as are of an arbitrary, artificial that a man, by turning his thoughts inward, character, resulting from legislation or prejudice, is united inexplicably with the First Cause, and Free-trade in this sense is not, as is often asserted, becomes one with Him; and that those who are so necessarily opposed to the imposition of taxes on immersed in the vortex of the Deity attain to per- imports, but simply demands that taxes shall not be fect freedom, and are divested not only of the lusts, imposed by the State for any purposes other than to but even of the instincts, of nature. From these provide revenue for the defraying of necessary and principles, they inferred that the free man, thus legitimate public expenditures, and, subject to snch a absorbed in God, is himself God, and a son of God, limitation, regards the question as to what forms in the same sense in which Christ is called the Son taxation had best assume as one merely of experiof God; and that, as such, he is raised above all ence and expediency. Free-trade as an economic laws, human and divine ; to such a degree that, principle, or politico-commercial system, is moreover according to some of them, “the godlike man cannot the direct opposite of the principle or system of prosin, do what he may ; either because the soul, being tection, which maintains that a State can most surely elevated and blended with the divine nature, is no and rapidly attain a high degree of material prosperity longer affected by the actions of the body, or by “protecting' or 'shielding' its domestic industries because the emotions of the soul, after such union, from the competitive sale or exchange of the products become in reality the acts and operations of God of all similar foreign industries; the same to be efhimself, and therefore, though apparently criminal, fected either by direct legislative prohibition of imand contrary to the law, are really good and holy, ports, or by the imposition of such taxes on imports because God is above all law!' These blasphemous as shall, through a consequent enhancement of prices, and immoral principles, incredible as they may interfere to a greater or less extent with their introappear, are extracted by Mosheim, partly from the duction, free exchange, and consumption. Some of books of the sect, partly from the decrees of Henry, the principal arguments in favour of free-trade, as conArchbishop of Cologne, by whom they were con- tradistinguished from protection, are as follows: demned. · Principles such as these drew down upon 1. The highest right of property is the right to the sect the arm of the state, as well as the censures exchange it for other property; and in the absence of of the church. No sect of the time suffered so much all freedom of exchange between man and man, each from the inquisition in the 14th century. They individual would be assimilated to the condition of were regarded as offenders against public order and Crusoe on his uninhabited island. It would, theremorality, as well as against the faith of the church. fore, seem to stand to reason that to the degree in See INQUISITION. After the first appearance of the which we obstruct the freedom of exchange, to that sect in Alsace (1212), where its leader was a certain same degree we oppose the development of civilisation. fanatic called Ortlieb (after whom the members are 2. Any system of law which denies to an individual sometimes called Ortliebians), it spread into Thurgau the right to freely exchange the products of bis and the Upper and Lower Rhine. During the latter labour, by declaring that A may trade with B, but part of that century, one of the leaders, named shall not trade on equally favourable terms with * Meister Eckart,' had so large a following at Cologne, 1.c, reaffirms in effect the principle of slavery; for that the archbishop made his teachings the subject both slavery and the artificial restriction or proof a lengthened edict. The sect shread also inhibition of exchanges, deny to the individual the Swabia, where its members were confounded with right to use the products of his labour according to the Beghards. In France, they were popularly known what may seem to him the best advantage, without by the name “Turlupins,' a word of uncertain making in return any direct compensation. The plea etymology. We meet them in Bohemia in the that is put forth in justification of such restriction, beginning of the 15th c., and there is considerable that any present loss resulting to the individual is similarity between their principles and those of the more than compensnted for by an indirect benefit Adamites, who figure in Hussite history. From this accruing to society, is the same in character as that date they are heard of no more.–See Mosheim, which has always been advanced in justification of Soames's ed. ii. 582; also Gieseler's Church History, slavery, enforced conformity to established religious, lii. 467, iv. 226.

and in vindication of persecution for unbelief.

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