« PreviousContinue »
FOGÆFUGITIVE SLAVE LAW.
FUGÆ. See MEDITATIO FUGÆ.
the right of coining money. Antony F., at his death, the Aute kind in continental organs of 4-feet both Indies. It is of him that the Emperor Charles FUGA'RO, tbe name of a well-known stop of left six millions gold crowns in ready money, besides
jewels and possessions in all parts of Europe and in pitch, and sometimes of 8-feet pitch, of a small is said to have remarked while being shewn the scale, made of wood or tin; in tone it is as piercing royal treasury in Paris : “There is a linen-weaver as the gamba, but much clearer.
in Augsburg that could pay all that out of his own FUGGER, one of the most remarkable families purse. in Germany, which, rising by industry and com. The Emperor Ferdinand II. raised the splendour merce, has founded numerous lines of counts, and of the House of F. still higher while confirming even princes. The ancestor of the family was John the imperial letter of Charles, by conferring great F., master-weaver in Graben, near Augsburg. His additional privileges on the two oldest of tho eldest son, John F., acquired by marriage, in 1370, family, Counts John and Jerome. The Fuggers cou. the freedom of Augsburg, and began to carry on a tinued still as nobles to carry on their commerce, traile in linen along with weaving. By a second and further increased their immense wealth. They marriage, in 1382, with the daughter of a councillor, attained the highest posts in the empire, and several he had two sons and four daughters. This John F. princely houses prided themselves on their alliance was one of the council of twelve (Ger. Die Zwölfer, with the House of Fugger. They possessed the most 'the twelvers ') in the weaver-guild, and an assessor extensive libraries and collections of objects of art, of the famous Fehmgericht (9. v.) or secret tribunal maintained painters and musicians, and liberally of Westphalia. He died in 1409, and left what was encouraged art and science. Their houses and a large fortune for the time-3000 guldens or florins. gardens were master-pieces of the architecture and
His eldest son, Andrew F., made such good use of taste of the times. There is thus nothing incredible his share of the inheritance that he got the name in the story that Antony F., on one occasion when of the Rich Fugger.' By marriage, he founded a Charles V. was his visitor, lighted a fire of cinnanoble line, which, however, died out in 1585. John's mon wood with the emperor's bond for money lent second son, Jacob F., who died in 1469, was superior him. and .twelver' of the weaver-guild, and a man held While thus indulging in splendour, they were not in high esteem by his fellow-citizens ; he was the less bent on doing good. Ulrich, George, and Jacob, first of the Fuggers that had a house in Augsburg, the sons of the beneficent Jacob, bought houses in and he already carried on an extensive commerce. one of the suburbs of Augsburg, pulled them down,
Of his seven sons, three, Ulrich, George, and and built 108 smaller houses, which they let to poor Jacob II., by means of industry, ability, and integ- citizens at a low rent. This was the origin of the rity, extended their business to an extraordinary Fuggerei, which still remains under the same degree, and laid the foundation for the palmy name, with its own walls and gates. Many other days of the family. They married into the noblest benevolent institutions were set on foot by Antony houses, and were raised by the Emperor Maximilian F. and his sons. It is questionable if we are to to the rank of nobles. The emperor mortgaged to rank among their benefactious their calling the them, for 70,000 gold guldens, the county of Kirch. Jesuits to Augsburg, and giving them buildings and berg and the lordship of Weissenhorn, and received revenues for a college, church, and school. The race from them afterwards, through the mediation of is still continued in the two principal lines of Pope Julius II., 170,000 ducats, to assist in carrying Raimund and Antony, besides collateral branches. on the war against Venice. Ulrich F., born 1441, The domains are chiefly in Bavaria. A collection of died 1510, devoted himself specially to the commerce portraits of the most important members of this that he opened up with Austria, and there was great house, executed by Domin. Custos of Antalmost no object that did not enter into his specula- werp, appeared at Augsburg (1593 et seq.). This tions; even the master-pieces of Albert Dürer went collection (increased to 127, with genealogies written through his hands to Italy. Jacob F., born 1459, in Latin) was republished by the brothers Kilian died 1525, engaged in mining; he farmed the mines (Augsburg 1618); and in 1754, a new edition of the in Tyrol, and accumulated immense wealth ; he lent work, still further improved, and containing 139 to the Archduke of Austria 150,000 guldens, and portraits, was published at Ulm, under the title built the magnificent castle of Fuggerau, in Tyrol. Pinacotheca Fuggerorum. Thus the wealth of the Fuggers went on increasing. Their wares went to all lands, and scarce a road or Scotland corresponds to outlawry in a criminal
FUGITATION. A sentence of fugitation in jea but bore their wagons or ships.
But it was under Charles V. that the Honse process in England, and is pronounced where a attained its greatest splendour. Jacob having died person fails to appear to answer to a criminal pro
secution against him. Amongst other consequenced childless, and the family of Ulrich being, also it entails the escheat of his whole movable propez to extinct, the fortunes and splendour of the house
to the crown. See ESCHEAT. rested on the sons of George F., who died in 1506. At his death, he left three sons, one of whom, FUGITIVE SLAVE LAW. Slaves being Marcus, entered the church; the two younger, regarded as property, things and not persons, as the Raimund and Antony, carried' on the business, Roman law puts it, the existence in every state in and became the founders of the two chief and still which slavery exists of a law recognising the right Aourishing lines of the House of Fugger. The two of the master to reclaim his property follows as a brothers were zealous Catholics, and with their logical consequence. Accordingly, the constitution wealth supported Eck in his opposition to Luther. of the United States of America having originally During the diet held by Charles V. at Augsburg, in recognized slavery, or service,' as termed by Amer1530, the emperor lived in Antony F.'s splendid ican writers, necessarily contained a number of enhouse in the Wine Market. On this occasion, he actments for its enforcement. By art. 4, s. 2 of raised both brothers to the rank of counts, and that document, it is declared that persons held to invested them with the still mortgaged properties service or labour in one state, under the laws thereof Kirchberg and Weissephorn; and a letter under of, and escaping into another, shall be delivered up, the imperial seal conferred on them the rights of on claim of the party to whom such service or la princes. For the support they afforded him in his bour may be due. In furtherance of this provision, expedition against Algiers in 1535, they received the laws of New York provided for the arrest of
buch fugitives on habeas corpus, founded on due a temporary purpose and returned, his state of slavery proof, and for a certificate in favour of the right of was resumed. These provisions had no influence on the claimant, and delivery of the fugitive to him, the condition of the fugitive slave (Kent, ut sup. ii. to be removed. This obsolete law, as narrated in p. 297). the latest edition of Kent, seems to be the following, The act of 1793, providing for the reclama- German flügel, a wing), an intelligent buldier poste!
FU'GLEMAN, (properly, Flugelman, from tho tion of fugitives from justice and from service, has, so far as relates to the latter, been amended, in front of a line of men at drill to give the tima and to a considerable extent superseded by the and an example of the motions in the manual and act of September 18, 1850. The judicial duties platoon exercises. He originally stood in front of imposed by the latter act are to be performed by the right wing, and hence the name. th: United States commissioners, who may have FUGUE, in Music, is the name of a composition the power of arresting or imprisoning for offences wherein the parts do not all begin at once, but against the United States, by the judges of the follow or pursue one another at certain distances; circuit and district courts of the United States, and thence the name, Fuga, a flight or chase, each part of the superior courts of territories, and by such successively taking up the subject or melody. Any special commissioners as the respective courts may of the parts may begin the fugue, but the others appoint. It is the duty of all United States follow according to fixed rules. The subject is marshals to obey, and execute all warrants and generally a few bara of melody, which is given out process of such judges and commissioners ; and in the principal key by the part which begins. The after the arrest of any fugitives, such officers are next part which enters repeats the same melody, liable for an escape with or without their assent. but a fifth higher or a fourth lower, and is called When any fugitive has escaped into another state or the answer. The third part follows with the subject territory, the owner, or his duly authorised agent, again in the principal key, but an octave higher or may pursue and personally arrest said fugitive, or lower than the first part, and is answered by the may demand a warrant and arrest from the officer fourth part in the same manner as the second part having due authority. The fugitive is then to be answers the first. After the subject is completed, taken before a commissioner or judge, whose duty it the melody which follows it, so as to form a conis to hear and determine the complaint in a sum- tinuation of the part, is called the counterpoint, in mary manner. Should he be satisfied of the validity the construction of which, facilities for ingenious of the claim and the identity of the slave, it is his double counterpoints of various kinds are afforded. duty to deliver to the claimant a certificate of the When the subject and answer have been introduced proceeding had, with authority to remove the fugi- in all the parts, the first section of the fugue is said tive to the place from which he fled. The testimony to be completed; an intermediate harmony of a of the fugitive is not admissible. Any assistance few bars then follows, sometimes in its form like rendered to a fugitive to enable him to escape from part of the subject, and with a modulation into a the claimant, or any obstruction offered to his nearly related key. The subject and answer are arrest, is penal, and also subjects the party to again brought forward, but following in a different (lamages at the suit of the owner. All citizens of order from the first section ; while at the same time the United States are required, when called upon, all the parts are continued, and in some of them to render the officers personal assistance in the per- the original counterpoint appears either simply or formance of their duties. These provisions apply to inverted, the subject and answer forming the preall the states, or did so, at least, previously to the dominating idea throughout the whole composition, war, whether slavery was recognised by their special and towards the end appearing in a variety of forms, laws or not; the principle being, that the constitu: intervals, and modifications. When the subject tion and laws of the United States secure the right does not extend in compass beyond the half of an to reclaim fugitive slaves against state legislation.'| octave, the answer is invariably made in the other In some of the slave-holding states, it was held, that half; and to avoid modulation out of the key, the if a slave from such a state go lawfully into a non-progression of a fifth is answered by a fourth. A slave-holding state, and acquire a domicile there fugue consisting of one subject with a counterpoint with his muster, or was enancipated there by his throughout, is called a strict fugue, as in the follow. master, he became emancipated, and ceased to be a ing example by J. Sebastian Bach, in which the slave on his return; but if he were carried there for first progression of a fifth is answered by a fourth:
When a second suhject is introduced in the middle the first subject, it is then called a fugue on two of man womposition, and afterwards worked up with subjects, as in the following from Graun's Tod Jesus
A double fugue begins at once with two subjects in throughout, as in the following from Mozart's different parts, both of which are strictly treated | Requiem:
A free fugue is that in which the subject and from the back of a dragon rising from the deep. counterpoint are not strictly treated throughout, According to another account, knotted cords, 20 but mixed up with intermediate harmonies and inches long, were used for writing, till Tsang-ke, ideas not connected with the subject, while the the minister of F., conceived the idea of characters rules of the fugue are not rigidly adhered to. from seeing the footprints of birds on the sands.
The fugue has always been, and will continue to F. instituted marriage, invented the musical instrube, esteemed by every sound musician, not from its ment called kin, and taught the art of fishing. It being the most difficult style of composition, but is clear that he personifies a condition of society. from its not being subject to caprice and fashion. He had a head with projections like the horns of The fugies of Bach, Handel, and other composers an ox, and the body of a dragon.-San-tsze-king, possess the same interest for the present time as 1. 21, 22; Kang-keen-e-che-luh, i. p. 6; Gutzlaff, they have done for generations past. Although the Sketch of Chinese History, i. p. 119. fugiie is held by many to be a mere mechanical FUH-KEEN, or FU-KIAN (Happy Established, study, which can be composed or written purely by or The Consummation of Happiness), one of the rule and calculation, still, it undoubtedly holds out eastern maritime provinces of China It lies to to a composer oi genius a wide field for great and the south of Che-keang, between the parallels beautiful effects, as well as peculiar artistic com- of 23° 35' and 28° 47', and is backed by the great binations. The best works on the fugne are by southern range of mountains that separates SouthMarpurg, Albrechtsberger, Kirnberger, and the late eastern China from the inland provinces. Together Professor S. W. Dehn of Berlin.
with the provinces of Keang-se, Kwang-tung, and FUJI-HE, or FUH-HE-SHE, the first of the a portion of Hu-nam and Hu-pih, F. forms tho ove emperors of China that flourished in the hilly portion of China Proper. It is a black-tea mythological period. He instructed the people in district, and produces burley and wheat. The the art of rearing cattle, and invented the på-kwă, principal fruits are the orange, lemon, and mulberry. 9 .ight cornbinations of four strokes, to express the On its coast are situated the ports of Fu-chow changes of nature. Ilis chief invention, however, the capital), and Amoy, or Hia-mum (the gate or was that of letters
, by drawing up the two linear barbour of Hia), opened by the treaty of Nankin, Ishles called Bo-too and Lo-shoo, which he copied | 29th August 1842. See Cuina The island of
Formosa and the Pang-hoo group are included in idiom altogether, and speak the language of the this province. Area, 53,480 square miles; population predominant race, which is termed tiw Fulfúlla 38,888,432.
The F. are not all under one ruler; they are a race, FÜHNEN (Dan., Fyen), the largest of the Danish such as those of Sókoto, Gando, Timbo, &c.
not a nation; and have founded many kingdoms islands after Seeland, is bounded on the W. by the endless tribes belonging to their stock are generally
The Little Belt, which separates it from Jutland and divided into four groups or families, the Jel, the Slesvig; on the N. by the Odensee Fjord; on the E. by the Great Belt; and on the s. by the Little Baá, the Só, and the Berl. Most of them became Belt, and by the island of Langeland, which is converted to Mohammedanism about the middle of incorporated with it in one circle, or stift, of the the 18th c., and in 1802, under the Imám Othman, kingilom. The area of this province is abont 1280 commenced a religious war on the surrounding square miles, and the population in 1870 was 236,311; lishment of the great Fulah empire of Sókota
which terminated prosperously in the estab The const is generally' rugged, and much indented Othman died in a sort of fanatical ecstasy of with bays or fjords; but the interior is flat, except | madness in 1818. towards the south' and west, where there is a inclined to trade; they work iron and silver, manu.
The F. are industrious and range
, of hills rising to about 500 feet. The land, facture with great neatness articles in wood and which is well watered by several small streams, leather, and weave various durable fabrics. They is fruitful and well cultivated, producing abundant crops of cereals.
are by far the most intelligent of the inhabitants Barley, oats, buckwheat, rye, flax, and hemp are grown in larger quantities than of Súdán, and have, besides mosques, schools in
almost all their towns. are required for home consumption. Honey is also Jargely exported. The F. horses are in great
FU'LCRUM, in Mechanics, is the prop or fixed request, and large numbers of these animals, and point on which a lever moves. See LEVER. of a fine breed of horned cattle, are annually sent out of the island. The province of F. is divided of Hesse-Cassel, 54 miles south of Cassel, is
FULDA, a town of Germany, in the electorate into the two bailiwicks of Odensee and Svendborg. pleasantly situated on a rising-ground on the right The principal towns are Odensee (q. v.!, Svendborg bank of the Fulda, a considerable stream, which, (q. v.), and Nyborg (pop. 5000), a fortified town on rising from the western base of the Rhöngebirge, in the east coast, and the most direct port of com. Bavaria, flows northward through Hesse-Cassel, and munication with Seeland, and memorable as having unites with the Werra on the Hanoverian border, been the seat of the annual Danehof, or meeting after a course of 110 miles. It is a pretty town, of the States, instituted in 1354 by Valdemar IV., surrounded by old walls, and has a market-place, and for the victory gained in 1659 by the Danes two squares, and eight suburbs. One of the chief and their allies over the Swedes.
buildings is the cathedral, the fourth church that FULAHS [properly, Fülbe (sing. Púllo), called has been built on this site. It is a handsome also Féllani (sing. Baféllanchi), Felláta, and Fullán), modern structure, and covers the shrine in which the name of a widely spread negro people in Upper the body of St Bonifacius was deposited after his Súdán, regarding whose origin there is much murder by the Frisians in 754. The other notable diversity of opinion. M. Eichwaldt (see Journal de structures are the palace, formerly the residence of la Société Ethnologique, 1841, vol. i. p. 2, et seq.) the prince-bishops of F.; the church of St Michael, has endeavoured to connect them with the Malays founded in 822 ; a gymnasium, schools of art and in the far East, but, according to Dr Barth, “none manufactures, and a public library. F. has acquired of his arguments are of any consequence. Yet Dr a reputation for its linen manufactures; it has Barth himself is of opinion that their origin is to also extensive establishinents for the manufacture be sought for in the direction of the East; but this,' of vinegar and beer; with dye-works, tangeries, and he alds, ' refers to an age which for us is enveloped weaving.. Por. 10,112. mostly Roman Catholics. in impenetrable darkness.' The F. first emerge into The province of Fuida, of which F. is the capital, the light of history about the beginning of the 14th forms part of what was formerly the grand-duchy c., when, as we learn from Ahmed Bábả's History of of Fulda. This territory was incorporate with Súdán, two members of the tribe went on a reli- the grand-duchy of Frankfurt by Napoleon in 1810, gious mission from Melle, on the borders of Sene. and ceded to Prussia in 1815, but immediately gambia, to the king of Bórnu. The importance of afterwards was made over to Hesse-Cassel. this incident lies in the fact, that it shews that FU'LGORA. See LANTERN-FLY. in the dawn of their history-a
-as has invariably been the case in later times-the course of the
FU'LGURITES (Lat., fulpur, lightning), tubes tribe was from west to east, and also, that at the formed of vitrified sand, which are found in sandearly period referred to, they were distinguished banks, and in soils consisting chiefly of silicious for that religious learning which still characterises sand, and are attributed to the action of lightthem. After the 14th c., successive swarms of ning melting and vitrifying, the sand.
first discovered in 1711 by the pastor F. appear to have left the kingdom of Melle, or the mountainous region of Fuládu, and to have spread Herman, at Massel, in Silesia, and have since been themselves over the greater portion of Súdán, found in many places; but their origin was first 'absorbing and incorporating with themselves pointed ont by Dr Hentzen in 1805. They are different and quite distinct national elements, which from a quarter of an inch to two inches and a half have given to their community a rather varying glassy substance, hard enough to scratch glass,
in diameter, their internal surface of a perfectly and undecided character. Hence originate the con. flicting accounts of travellers, some of whom speak and to give fire with steel. They are usually, but of the F. as differing little from the negroes; others, not always, placed vertically in the sanid, become as having their features and skulls cast in the narrower downwarıls, and sometimes divile and European mould; while Bowen describes those of subdivide into branches. — The effects of lightning Yoruba as being some black, some almost white, seem to be exhibited also in some places on rocks and many of a mulatto colour, varying from dark by vitrification and the production of a sort ui to very bright. Many other tribes, which have not enamel, sometimes assuming the form of beails been quite absorbed by the F., are yet so far FULHAM, formerly a village, but now a suburb blended with them, that they have lost their native of London, in the south of Middlesex, on the left
bank of the Thames, six miles south-west of St the Marquis Ossoli, to whom, though many years Paul's.
younger than herself, she was married in DecemFU'LICA. See Coor.
ber, 1847. She took the deepest interest in the FULI'GULA. See PocHARD.
cause of Italian liberty; and during the siege of
Rome, in 1849, devoted herself with untiring assiFULLER, ANDREW, an eminent Baptist minister, duity to the care of the sick and wounded. In May, and theological and controversial writer, the son of 1850, she and her husband set sail for America ;
small farmer, was born at Wicken, Cambridge- but a violent storm having arisen when they were shire, February 6, 1754. He received the rudiments near the coast of the United States, the vessel of his education at the free school of Sobam, and in struck on Fire Island Beach, Long Island, in the his youth was principally engaged in agricultural morning of the 16th of July, and a few hours la bouis. In his 17th year, he became a member of after went to pieces. Among those who perished a Baptist church at Soham, and in 1775 he was
were the Marquis and Marchioness Ossoli and their chosen pastor of a congregation at that place. His child. small stipend of £21 per annum he endeavoured to increase by keeping, first a small shop, and then a FULLER, THOMAS, D.D., an eminent English school. In 1782, he removed to Kettering, North- historian and divine, was born in 1608 at Aldwinkle, amptoashire, to take the pastorate of a congregation Northamptonshire, of which parish his father was there. On the formation, in 1792, of the Baptist sector. He was educated at Queen's College, CamMissionary Society by Dr Carey, himself, and eleven bridge, and greatly distinguished himself by his other ministers, he was appointed its secretary, and application to study. He took the degree of A.B. the whole of his future life was devoted to the in 1624, and that of A.M. in 1628. He stood se administration of its affairs. In 1794 he published high in the estimation of his college that, before hu & controversial treatise, entitled The Calvinistic and was 23 years of age, he was appointed to St Benets, Socinian Systems, examined and compared as to Cambridge, and acquired great popularity as their Moral Tendency (Lond. Svo). This work was preacher. Soon after, he was collated to a prebend attacked by Dr Toulmin and Mr Kentish, and F. in Salisbury Cathedral, and obtained a fellowship replied in a pamphlet, entitled Socinianism Indefen- in Sidney Sussex College. His first publication sille (Lond. 1797, 8vo). His other principal publica- was a poem, entitled David's Heinous Sin, Ilearty tions are The Gospel its own Witness (Clipstone, 1797), Repentance, and Heavy Punishments (1631, Svo). and Expository Discourse on the Book of Genesis (2 He was next presented to the rectory of Broad vols. 8vo, Lond. 1806). He was also the author of Windsor, Dorsetshire ; published his History of the a variety of single sermons and pamphlets. The Holy War at Cambridge in 1639; and in 1640 sense, sagacity, and thoroughly practical knowledge removed to London, where he was chosen lecturer
The same of mankind which these writings display, have at the Savoy Church in the Strand. won for F. the title of the Franklin of Theology.' year, he was a member of the Convocation at He died May 7, 1815. Three collected editions of Westminster, and one of the select committee his works have been published, besides American appointed to draw up new canons for the better reprints ; the first in 10 vols. Svo, the second in government of the church. During the civil war 5, and the third in 1 royal 8vo. A volume of he adhered tirmly to the royal cause; and shared in his treatises was republished in Bohn's Standard its reverses. In 1646, however, he was chosen Library, with a Memoir by his son. F's Memoir lecturer, tirst, at St Clement's Lane, Lombard Street, of the Rev. Samuel Pearce of Birmingham is much and afterwards at St Bride's. About 1643, he was esteemed as a religious biography.
presented to the living of Waltham, in Exsex. In FULLER, SARAH MARGARET, MARCHIONESS
1650, he published a geographical account of the Ossoli, an American lady, whose talents, rare indi. Holy Land, entitled A Pisgah Sight of Palestine viduality of character, and untimely death, give to and the Confines thereof (folio, with maps and her history a peculiar and tragic interest, was born views), and Abel Redivivus, a collection of lives of at Cambridgeport, in Massachusetts, in 1810. Under modern divines. In 1655, he published at London the care of her father, a lawyer 'and member of The Church History of Britain, from the Birth
lu Congress, she was early and tħoroughly instructed of Jesus Christ until the year 1648 (folio). in the classics. It is related that he used to say of 1658, he received the living of Cranford, Middle
sex, and at the Restoration he was reinstated her, while still a child, that she knew more Latin in his prebend of Salisbury, of which he had been and Greek than half the professors.' early age, she had also made great proficiency, in appointed chaplain extraordinary to the king, and
At a very deprived by the Parliamentarians. He was also French and Italian. After the death of her father created D.D. at Cambridge by royal mandamus, in 1835, she became teacher of languages in Boston, He died August 16, 1661. His principal work, and subsequently principal of a school at Provi: dence, Rhode Island. In 1839, she published a trang! The Worthirs of England, was published at Lon
Valuable for the informa. lation of Eckermann's Conversations with Goethe, tion it contains on provincial history, it abounds She became, in 1840, editor of the Dial, a periodical in biographical anecdote, witty remark, and acuto instituted for the advocacy and diffusion of Trans- observation on men and manners. cendentalism in America, and for which she wrote a with his life prefixed, appeared in 1810 (2 vols. 4to),
A new edition, anmber of admirable articles on literature and art. His Holy and Profune States were republished Her critique on Goethe especially, in the second
in America in 1831. volume of the Dial, has been greatly and deservedly F.'s peculiar characteristics; but his writings are.
Quaint humour is one of praiseul. Nowhere,' says Mr Emerson, 'did Goethe find a braver, more intelligent, or more sympa; when occasion demands, even for pathos.
no less remarkable for wisdom, imagination, and,
Next thetic reader.' Her Summer on the Lakes, a vivid and truthful picture of prairie-life, was published in
to Shakspeare,' says Coleridge, 'I am not certain 1843. Soon after, she took charge of the literary does not excite in me the sense and emulation of
whether Thomas Fuller, beyond all other writers, department of the New York Tribune. In 1846, the marvellous. . . . . He was incomparably the she visited England, where she made the acquaint- most sensible, the least prejudiced great man, in ance of Carlyle and other eminent men. From
an age that boasted of a galaxy of great men' London, she journeyed thrugh France to Italy. At Raune, she accidentally became acquainted with ! FULLER'S EARTH, & mineral consisting