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ENCRINITES-ENCYCLOPÆDIA. nf permanently stalked E. lives in modern seas. It ENCYCLOPÆDIA means properly a book or is a native of the West Indian seas.

work professing to give information, more or less full, on the whole circle of human knowledge. The name is compounded of two Greek words, enkyklos, circular or general; and paideia, discipline or instruction. These words were used by the Greeks and Romans to signify the circle of instruction through which every free-born youth had to pass before entering on public life. That circle embraced more particularly grammar, music, geometry, astro. nomy, and gymnastics, and afterwards became the 'seven liberal arts of the middle ages. The compound name Encyclopædia appears to have been unknown to the Greeks, and also to the Latin writers of the classic period ; and there is no evidence that either Greeks or Romans ever applied the words, single or compounded, to designate a book. The short form Cyclopædia has still less classical authority than Encyclopædia.

Encyclopædias, in the modern sense of the word, are most commonly Alphabetical ; but sometimes the arrangement is rational,' i. e., according to the natural relations of the subjects. An alphabetical

Encyclopædia is a Dictionary of Universal KnowPentacrinus Caput Medusa.

ledge. Besides this, its proper meaning, of a reper

tory of universal knowledge, the name Encyclopædia The family commenced its existence with the is often applied—less properly perhaps—to alphaearliest sedimentary deposits. Seventy-three genera betical works whose scope is limited to a particular have been described, containing upwards of 300 brancn—works differing in no respect from others species, two-thirds of which are found only in which are styled Dictionaries, Gazetteers, &c. See Palæozoic rocks. The most ancient E. have nearly Dictionary. As all works of this kind, which now all round stems, the few that are five-sided having form a large and increasing section of literature in the articulated surface of the joints simply radiated, every language, have in so far a common character and not complexly sculptured as in Pentacrinus, with Encyclopædias proper, we may give some the type of a division of the order which appears account of the whole class under the present head.

For the sake of convenience, they may be arranged in three divisions : 1. The earlier works of this kind, having, for the most part, merely an ency. clopædic character, i. e., embracing a large range of subjects, without distinctly aiming at univer

sality ; 2. Encyclopædias proper, which treat of the a

whole circle of human knowledge ; 3. Books pro

fessedly confined to a definite department of know3

ledge, whether under the name of encyclopædia dictionary, gazetteer, or other title. As books of this class profess to touch on every important point that comes within their scope, they may be considered as encyclopædic in a limited sense. In the following sketch, the distinction between the first

and second of those classes, which is of a somewhat indeterminate kind, is not strictly adhered to when it would interfere with the chronological sequence.

1. The earliest work of an encyclopaedic character is generally ascribed to Speusippus, a disciple of Plato. The great collections of Varro (Rerum Humanarum et Divinarum Antiquitates and Dis. ciplinarum libri ix.), of the elder Pliny (11istoria

Naturalis), of Stobæus, of Suidas, of Isidorus (the Aplo Crinitus Rotundus (from Buckland's Bridgewater Origines), and of Capella, belong to the same class, Treatise).

but they exhibit no plan, and are only confused 2, expanded; b, closed; o, chewing where the stem has been accumulations of the then known arts and sciences. injured, and repairer by calcareous secretion. Vincent of Beauvais (1264) surpassed them all.

He gathered together with wonderful iligence tho first in the Lias. The earlier seas literally swarmed entire knowledge of the middle ages in three comwith these animals. "We may judge,' says Dr prehensive works, Speculum Historiale, Speculum Buckland, of the degree to which the individual Naturale, and Speculum Doctrinale, to which soon crinoids multiplied among the first inhabitants after an unknown hand added a Speculum Morale. of the sea, from the countless myriads of their But these, as well as the other similar compilations petrified remains which fill so many limestone beds which appeared in the later medieval period under of the older formations, and compose vast strata the title of Summa, or Speculum (Mirror), are markod of entrochal marble, extending over large tracts throughout by a lack of philosophic spirit. Perhaps of country in Northern Europe and North America. the nearest approach to the modern encyclopedia The substance of this marble is often almost as by an ancient writer, dates two centuries earlier entirely made up of the petrified bones of Encri- than the time of Beauvais. In the tenth century, nites, as a corn-rick is composed of straws.' See flourished Alfarabius, the ornament of the school CRINOIDEÆ and PENTACRINUS.

of Bagdad, who wrote an encyclopædic collection of

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ENCYCLOPÆDIA.

knowledge, remarkable for its grasp and complete where received with the greatest enthnsiasm, and ness, and which still lies in M$. in the Escorial of it secured a place in the literary history of the Spain. Among the earliest and most noted of the nation for the editors and principal writers, who modern encyclopædias was that of Johann Heinrich are ordinarily known as the Encyclopédists of France. Alsted, or Alstedius, which appeared in Germany They were D'Alembert and Diderot the editors, in two volumes in 1630. It consisted of 35 books Rousseau, Grimm, Dumarsais, Voltaire, Baron in all, of which the first four contained an explana d'Holbach, and Jancourt. (See La Porte's Esprit de tion of the nature of the rest. Then followed | l'Encyclopédie (Paris, 1768); and Voltaire's Ques. six on philology, ten on speculative, and four on tions sur l'Encyclopédie (Paris, 1770).] D'Alempractical philosophy; three on theology, juris- bert's celebrated preliminary discourse was garbled prudence, and medicine; three on the mechanical in various pretentious works of this class pubarts ; and five on history, chronology, and miscel. lished for the most part in England; such were laneous topics. Two important French works Barrow's New and Universal Dictionary of Arts belong to this century—the one is Louis Moreri's and Sciences, 1 vol. folio, 1751 ; and the Com Grand Dictionnaire Historique et Critique, of which plete Dictionary of Arts and Sciences, by Croker, the first edition appeared at Paris in 1673, and the Williams, and Clerk, 3 vols. folio, 1766. A some last in 1759; the other, Peter Bayle's famous what better, though rather illogical performance Dictionnaire Historique et Critique, published at was published by a Society of Gentlemen' in 1754 Rotterdam, in 4 vols., 1697. The first encyclopædic in four 8vo volumes, generally known as Owen's dictionary, so far as known, appeared in Germany as Dictionary, from the name of the publisher of it. the Lexicon Universale of Hoffmann (2 vols., Basel) The first rude outline of the ponderous and solid in 1677. Some time after there appeared in France Encyclopædia Britannica was laid down in the year Thomas Corneille's Dictionnaire des Arts et des 1771, in three volumes, but it was nothing more Sciences, 2 vols. (Paris, 1694). Dictionaries limited than a dictionary of arts and sciences; it had not to the explanation of technical terms bad long yet attained to its subsequent universality. Such is been common throughout Europe ; but previous to a brief outline of the earlier kind of encyclopædias. Hoffmann's work, no attempt had been made to 2. The first encyclopædia proper that demands bring the whole body of science and art under the our attention is the Encyclopædia Britannica, of lexicographic form. A highly successful attempt which the 2d comparatively complete edition, identical in kind, and attributable in idea, it may containing biographical and historical articles, be, to the German work just alluded to, was the appeared in 10 vols. between 1776 and 1783; the Lexicon Technicum of Dr Harris, 2 vols. folio (Lon- 3d edition was completed in 18 vols. in 1797 ; the don, 1710), which may fairly be regarded as the 4th edition, in 20 vols., in 1810; the 5th and parent of all the dictionaries of arts and sciences 6th editions (which were not true reprints), and that have since appeared in England. The Cyclo- supplements in 6 vols., appeared between 1815– pedia of Ephraim Chambers, published in 1728, in 1824; the 7th edition, in 21 vols., in 1830-1842; two very large folio volumes, presents the next and the 8th and last edition, in 21 vols., 1852— marked advance in the construction of encyclo- 1860. The method pursued by this work, while pædical dictionaries. This one was brought out thoroughly alphabetical, consists in a combination with considerable claims to originality of arrange of the systematic and the particular. In few ment. The author endeavoured to communicate to instances is any science broken up into fractional hiz alphabetical materials something of the interest parts ; nearly all the sciences are given in treatises of a continuous discourse,' by an elaborate system as they severally occur in the order of the alphabet. of cross references. Another peculiarity of this In some cases, however, where obscurity might cyclopædia was, that its author, in the details of result from such a plan, the other method is adopted. mathematical and physical science, gave only con- A marked feature of this work, is the number of clusions and not processes of demonstration. was complete treatises and dissertations which it cou. long a very popular work. The largest and most tains by men of European name. From first to comprehensive of the successors to Hoffmann's book last, this Encyclopædia has been executed and in Germany, was Zedler's Universal Lexicon, 64 published in Edinburgh, the literary reputation of vols. (Leip. 1732—1750). In point of comprehen- which it has helped in no small degree to increase. siveness, this work should be classed with the The next encyclopædia that we must notice is the encyclopædias proper, there being almost nothing Encyclopédie Méthodique par Ordre des Matières, then known that may not be found in it. Perhaps which was begun in 1781, and was not finished the strongest impulse, if not in all respects the till 1832, when it appeared in 201 volumes. Each best, communicated by this successful attempt of subject is treated in a separate volume or series Ephraim Chambers, was given to the French mind of volumes, so that the work is a collection of through D'Alembert and Diderot. Their Encyclo- separate dictionaries, more extensive than any ency. pédie was really, though not professedly, founded clopædic work that has yet appeared. A work apon E. Chambers's book, which an Englishmau of higher scientific value, however, and even of Lamed Mills had translated between 1743 and 1745, a more varied nature, has been in progress for though the French version of it never was published nearly half a century in Germany, undertaker The great French Encyclopédie was written by originally by Professors Ersch and Gruber in 1818, various authors of high literary and philosophical and which has since continued to appear, in three attainments, but of whom nearly all were tainted several sections of the alphabet, up to the present too much with the most impracticable revolutionary time. There have already (1861) appeared of this ideas, besides holding for the most part extremely great Allgemeine Encyclopädie der Wissenschaft unil sceptical opinions concerning religion. They excluded Künste some 125 volumes. In 1802, Dr Abraham both biography and history from its scope, yet Rees projected an extended and improved edition infused into it more originality, depth, and ability of Ephraim Chambers's Cyclopædia, which was than ever had appeared before within the boards completed in 45 volumes in 1819. The system of of an encyclopædical dictionary. It appeared at cross references peculiar to E. Chambers is very Paris in 28 vols. between the years 1751—1772, effectually carried out in this book; but besides and was followed by a Supplement in five vols. including a great accession of historical and bio (Amst. 1776—1777), and an analytical index in graphical detail, it contained a large number of two vols. (Paris, 1780). The work was every: I papers, prepared by competent writers, on subjects

ENCYCLOPEDISTS- END.

In

with which their life had rendered them familiar. encyclopædias are Meyer's Grosse Conversations Another work of considerable merit, which began to Lexicon, in 38 vols., 1840--1852, besides 6 volumes appear in 1810, was Brewster's Edinburgh Encyclo- of a Supplement and 8 volumes of plates, &c., in predia, edited 'hy the late Sir David Brewster, and 1853–1855; and Pierer's Universal Lexicon, in 34 completel in 18'volumes in 1830. It was, if any- vols. (Altenburg, 1840—1846), a new and improved thing, too much given up to physical science, even edition of which began to appear in 1851. for the taste of tlie 19th century. In 1812, a great addition to these, there are at present (1861) several impetus was given to encyclopædic publications by encyclopædias in course of publication in other the appearance of the Conversutions-Lexicon of F. A. European countries; all of which are based upon Brockhaus of Leipsic. It has since gone through the Conversations-Lexicon-viz., the Enciclopedia as many as ten editions, the last issue of it, amount- Española, begun at Madrid in 1842; the Nuova ing tn 15 volumes, having appeared between 1851 Enciclopedia Popolare Italiana, begun at Turin and 1855. It has been translated into nearly all the in 1856; the Almenn. Dansk Konversations-Lexicon civilised languages of Europe ; no fewer than four (Copenhagen, 1849); and the Svenskt Konversa. English works of the kind being professedly founded tions-Lexikon, begun at Stockholm in 1845 ; besiden on it: these are the Encyclopedia Americana, in 14 others in Russia, Hungary, the Netherlands, &c. vols. (Pbila., 1829–1848); the Popular Encyclopedia, 3. We have now to direct attention briefly to 7 vols. (Glasgow, 1841); Appleton's new American Cy- those books that are dictionaries or encyclopædias clopedia, 16 vols. (N. Y., 1857—1863), and annual sup- for one branch of knowledge. These works have plements (1861–1869); and Chambers' Encyclopedia, been always very numerous, both in this country io vols. (Edin, and Phila., 1861–1868), and revised and on the continent. Such are the Biographie edition in 1870 by J. B. Lippincott & Co. The latter Universelle (commenced in 1811; new edition, 1854, has been pronounced ‘one of the most convenient, re- still going on); Chalmers's Biographical Dictionary, liable, and useful compends of knowledge in existence.' in 32 vols. (1812-1817); the Dictionaire des

The next encyclopædic work which appeared after Sciences Médicales, 60 vols. (Par. 1812–1822); the Conversations-Lexicon, was one projected accord. Nouveau Dictionnaire d’llistoire Naturelle, 36 vols ing to an original philosophic plan by Samuel (Par. 1816—1819); F. Cuvier's Dictionnaire des Taylor Coleridge, in 1818, and finished in 1845, in Sciences Naturelles, 61 vols. text, 10 vols. plates, 30 volumes. This Encyclopædia Metropolitana was (1816—1845); Dictionnaire de l'Industrie, &c., 10 arranged in four divisions : 1st, the pure sciences; vols. (Par. 1831–1841); M‘Culloch's Commercial 2d, the mixed and applied sciences; 3d, biography Dictionary (2d edition, 1834; last edition, 1869) ; and history; and 4th, miscellaneous and lexico- M'Culloch's Geographical Dictionary (1st edition, graphic articles. The contributions to the first two 1941 ; new edition, 1866); the Dictionary of Pracdivisions were written by persons of recognised tical Medicine, 3 vols. (Lond. 1844–1858); Chain. ability, and they have nearly all been published bers's Cyclopedia of English Literature (1843; new separately in 8vo volumes since the Metropolitana edition, 1858); Creasy's Encyclopoylia of Civil Engiappeared. If the book had any fault, it was that neering (1847); Johnston's Gazetteer (1850; new the plan of it was too rigidly philosophical, and edition, 1859). Morton's Cyclopedia of Agriculture, therefore not adapted to be consulted dictionary | 2 vols. (1851); the Nouvelle Biogruphie Générale fashion ; for although in one sense the alphabetic (begun in 1853); Lippincott’s Gazetteer of the United arrangement, by its jumble of subjects, is most States (Phila., 1854); S. Austin Allibone's Critical heterogeneous and irrational, it recommends itself Dictionary of British and American Authors, 3 vols. to popular acceptance by its extreme simplicity; 8vo. (Phila., the 1st issued in 1858, the 20 and 31 in and in point of fact, no encyclopædia has ever been 1870); Lippincott's Gazetteer of the World, 1st edition thoronghly popular that has not been executed on (Phila., 1855, 2d edition, revised, 1866); Lippincott's the plan of a single alphabet, in which all subjects, (Thomas') Universal Pronouncing Dictionary of Bihowever various, are included. Next appeared the ography and Mythology, 2 vols. (Phila., 1870). Nor Penny Cyclopedia of the Society for the Diffusion must we overlook the dictionaries of Dr. Wm. Smith, of Useful Knowledge, which was begun in 1833, viz.: the Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and completed in 1813, in 28 volumes. This work and Mythology, 3 vols. (1843–1848, new ed., 1849— was perhaps, at the time it appeared, the most 1851); the Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquiuseful and convenient, for the purposes of general ties, 1 vol. (1848); the Dictionary of Greek and Roconsultation, of any encyclopædical treatise that had man Geography, 2 vols. (1854–1857); the Dictionary ever been issued. The English Cyclopædia is founded of the Bible, 2 vols. (1860—1861); and Watts' Dicon the copyright of the Penny Cyclopædia, but is tionary of Chemistry, 5 vols. (1863—1869). These rearranged into four great divisions, which are each dictionaries are perhaps the most splendid specimens of given in the order of the alphabet, viz., geography, encyclopedias devoted to special branches of knowledge natural history, biography, and arts and scis.ices. that have anywhere appeared. See DICTIONARY. This publication was begin in 1853, ard was com. ENCYCLOPÉDISTS. See ENCYCLOPÆDIA. pleted in 1861 in 22 volumes. Among a host of abridgments and smaller publications of this char END. This familiar word is concerned in some acter which have appeared in the course of the important discussions, and especially in Ethica. It is present centary, may be mentioned Wilkes's Ency in the sense of the thing aimed at,' the object, clopædia Londonensis, in 24 vols. 4to (Lond. 1810 purpose, or goal of human action, that we have here -1829); the Encyclopædia Perthensis, in 23 vols. to consider it. There is a fundamental contrast (Edinburgh, 1816); and the London Encyclopædiu, between Science and Art, Knowledge and Practice. 12 vols. (Lond. 1829). The French have likewise Science, or Knowledge, embraces the general order published an Encyclopédie des Gens du Monde, in of the universe, and states that order in the form 22 yols. 8vo (Par. 1833-1844); an Encyclopédie by which we can take in as much as possible in one Moderne, which, with its Supplement, occupies view; it is the fullest intellectual comprehension of 36 vols. 8vo (Par. 1857); and a Dictionnaire de la the phenomena of nature that the mind can attain Conversation et de la Lecture, in 68 vols. (Par. 1839 to. Art, or Practice, on the other hand, selects :-1851), of which a new edition, begun in 1851, and appropriates certain items of knowledge, so as is still in progress.

The last of these is to a to subserve some useful purpose, some exigency large extenu based on the Conversations-Lexicon of of human life. Thus, Agriculture, Navigation, Law, Brockhaus. The most notable of the other German Politica, Education are all branches of Practice,

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ENDEMIC-ENDIVE.

they involve knowledge, but in strict subordination distance from the source at the prison. Such to their several purposes. The navigator studies poisons are always observed to be inore virulent Astronomy, not with a view to enlighten his under- in summer than in winter—more dangerous at standing ag to the mysteries of the solar system night, when the vapours are concentrated on the and the starry sphere, but with a view to the surface of the soil, than in the day-time-more guidance of his course in the sea. In short, to an abundant in the plains, and in close confined Art (the word is not here used in the narrow sense places, than at a certain degree of elevationof a Fine Art), or a department of Practice, belongs more easily carried in the direction of the wind in the first place the consideration of the end. than in the opposite—and very often arrested Every Art has its end, wbich is its distinction from altogether by water, or by a belt of foreet or every other. In most of the arts, the end is clear other luxuriant vegetation. In all these partieni. and unmistakable: we all know what is expected lars, endemic are different from epidemic diseases, of a builder, a soldier, or a judge ; the only which bear no very obvious relation to the soil, question is how to obtain the knowledge requisite and are not observed to be considerably modified for adequately performing each separate function. either by the prevailing winds or the period But there are some departments where the end of the day or night at which exposure to their itself is not agreed upon, which casts a peculiar influence takes place. The most marked type of difficulty on the practice. Thus, it was remarked an endemic disease is Ague (q. v.) or Intermittont under ČIVILISATION, that the end of the whole Fever, which has all the habits mentioned above, mechanism of Human Society, including Politics, and is to so marked a degree a denizen of particular &c., is differently viewed by different minds. But tracts of country as to lead to their being in some it is in the one special Department of Morality instances almost depopulated. Many places in that the consideration of the end is of most vital Italy are a prey to the aria cattiva or malaria, as consequence. This feature of the ethical problem it is popularly called ; and hence, no doubt, even has been very little adverted to in modern dis- more than for protection from human foes, the cussions, while the ancient philosophers kept it custom so prevalent in that country of building the more prominently before them. Aristotle begins his villages on the tops of hills, so as to secure immuEthics by remarking that every art aims at some nity from the poisonous vapours raised by the solar good ; most arts, as medicine, ship-building, general- heat from the plains lying on either side at the ship, having limited or partial ends; while some base of the Apennines. Terrestrial miasms, or such comprehend much wider ends than others. The poisons as generate endemic diseases, are usually largest end of all is the good of mankind collectively, found in the neighbourhood of marshy flats, or of Hence he goes on to inquire what is the highest uncultivated tracts of land at the confluence of good of man, and finds that happiness is neither rivers, or where a delta, or a wide channel subject to Pleasure, nor Honour, nor Virtue (by itself), nor overflow, is formed at the upper end of a lake. In Wealth, but that it is 'an energy of the soul proportion, too, as the heat of the sun is greater, the according to virtue ;' activity, in opposition to tendency to malarious emanations is increased ; and Oriental notions of luxurious repose, being an essen- in the tropics, accordingly, large tracts of jungle tial in his eyes. He has next, therefore, to inquire and forest are often rendered absolutely uninhabitwhat 'virtue' is, according to which a man must able and almost impassable at certain seasons, employ his activity—a question of no easy solution. by the invisible and odourless germs of interStill, the discussion brings out the one fact, that mittent, remittent, and even continued Fevers Morality is a branch of Practice, but unlike most (q. v.), which are more fatal and unmanageable arts in this, that the end is peculiarly difficult to than the most terrible epidemic pestilences to those determine precisely. Accordingly, it is necessary to who are exposed to them. Such diseases are have in connection with it a set of discussions, almost always sudden in their mode of attack, called by Mr J. S. Mill (Logic, concluding chapter) and they indicate the range of their influence by Teleology, or the Doctrine of Ends, corresponding to the number of persons attacked; but they are what the German metaphysicians have termed the wholly free in most cases from the suspicion of Principles of Practical Reason. The various theories communication by Contagion (q. v.), which is so of Moral Obligation differ in their statement of the frequent in the case of epidemic diseases. The poison end of Morality: according to one, it is the self- hitherto termed malaria is now believed to arise from interest of the individual ; according to another, the reception and growth of minute vegetable spores in the interest of mankind on the whole. The most the human system. Their spread is almost invariably prevalent theory is the harmonising with a certain checked by drainage and cultivation of the soil; and inward sentiment called the Moral Sense. See hence many places in Europe, formerly very proErhics.

ductive of endemic diseases, have now ceased to be ENDE'MIC (from en, among, and dēmos, the so, as in the case of the Tuscan Maremma, and people), a term applied to diseases which affect some parts of Kent and Essex, and of the Lothians numbers of persons simultaneously, but so as to shew in Scotland. a connection with localities as well as with their

E'NDERBY LAND, discovered by Biscoe in inhabitants. Endemic diseases are usually spoken 1831, lies in lat. 67° 36' S., and long. 50° E. It of as contrasted with Epidemic (q. v.) and Sporadic appeared to the discoverer to be of corsiderable (q. v.); the first term indicating that a disease extent, and was closely bound by field ice. but infests habitually the population within certain owing to stress of weather and the extreme cold, it geographical limits, and also that it is incapable of could not be approached within 20 or 30 miles, and being transferred or communicated beyond those Biscoe was thus unable to say whether the land he limits; while, on the other hand, a disease is termed discovered was an island or a strip of continental epidemic if it is transmitted without reference

coast. to locality; and sporadic if it occurs in isolated instances only. The theory, accordingly, of endemic E'NDIVE (Cichorium Endivio), an annual or diseases is, that they are in some way or other biennial plant, of the sainc genus with Chicory connected with the soil—the result of terrestrial (q. v.), said to be a native of China and Japan, but nfluences, or miasms-of poisons generated within which is naturalised in the Levant, and bas long the earth, or near its surface, and diffused through been in cultivation as a garden vegetable; ito che air, so as to be weakened in proportion to the blanched root-leaves being much used as a salad,

ENDOCARDITIS- ENDOSMOSE.

and also sometimes for stewing and in soups. The when any cause makes the growth of the stem root-leaves are numerous, smooth, wavy at the unusually slow, so that it is much stunted, it margin. The varieties with much curled leaves are remains solid ; the fistular character of the stem is preferred. Some of the varieties boll of themselves, the result of its rapid growth, rupturing the cells of and are thus blanched; others require to be tied the central portion, which finally disappear. Endo. up. In Britain, the seed is usually sown from the genous stems have no cambium and no proper middle of May to the end of June, and by a little bark. There is, indeed, a cellular epidermis ; and care and protection, plants may be kept fit for use there is also within it, and exterior to the hardest throughout most of the winter.

woody part of the stem, a comparatively soft layer ENDOCARDI'TIS, inflammation or disease of bark, sometimes false bark, which does not separate

of a corky substance, which is sometimes called the internal surface of the heart, resulting in the from the wood below it without leaving myriads of deposit of fibrin upon the valves. See Heart, little broken threads, the ends of the fibres which DISEASES OF.

have extended into it from the hardest part of ENDO'GENOUS PLANTS, or ENDOGENS the stem. In those exogenous plants which pro(Gr. endon, within, and genos, birth or origin), duce lateral buds and branches, the fibres of the one of the great classes into which the vegetable branches on descending to the stem extend on the kingdom is divided, the others receiving the corre. outside of the proper stem, between its hardest sponding designations of Exogenous Plants and portion and the false bark; and in this way a great Acrogenous Plants. The character from which this thickness is sometimes attained, as in the dragon. designation is derived is found in the structure of tree. In the Grasses, a plexus of fibres takes place the stem, which does not increase in thickness by at the nodes, the fibres crossing from one side to the additional layers on the outside like the exogenous other. No British tree-and it may almost be said stem, familiarly illustrated in all the trees of the no tree of temperate or colder climates—is endoger colder parts of the world, but receives its additions ous. Almost all the endogenous trees are palms of woody matter in the interior; and in general although a few, as the dragon-tree, belong to other does not continue to increase indefinitely in thick- orders. Endogenous plants, however, are numerous dess like the exogenous stem, but is arrested when in all parts of the world. Among endogenous plants

certain thickness has been attained, different in are many of the plants most useful to mankind, different species, and afterwards increases only in particularly palms and grasses, all the true corn. length. When a transverse section is made of an plants being included among the latter. Nutritious

substances are very extensively produced both in the fruit or seed, and in other parts; poisonous products are comparatively rare, although found in the Araceae, Liliaceæ, Melanthacea, and other orders. Aromatic secretions are characteristic chiefly of one order, Scitaminere, Besides palms and grasses, many of the endogenous plants are of great beauty, and many produce most beautiful flowers. Lilies and orchids may be mentioned as instances.

Endogenous plants are monocotyledonous ; and the

terms enulogenous and monocotyledonous are thereTransverse and Vertical Sections of Endogenous Stem. fore often employed indiscriminately to designate

the class. But Lindley distinguishes a class of Dicendogenous stem, numerous bundles of vessels are tyogens (q. v.), which, although monocotyledonous, seen dispersed irregularly in cellular tissue, the have stems approaching to the exogenous character. younger and softer parts of the stem exhibiting The leaves of endogenous plants generally exhibit the cellular tissue in greatest proportion, the older parallel venation, which is indeed strictly contined and lower parts chiefly abounding in vascular to them, although a venation resembling it, or rather bundles, which are, however, somewhat scattered simulating, it, may be seen in some exogenous in the central part of the stem, and are densely plants. The seed also germinates in a peculiar aggregated towards the circumference, there, in the manner, different from that of exogenous plants, palms generally, forming very hard wood, in some of and to which the name endorhizal has been given, them wood so hard that it cannot be cut with a the radicle being protruded from within the subhatchet. The stems of endogenous plants in the stance of the embryo, and surrounded by a cellular iar greater number of cases produce terminal buds sheath formed from the integument which it breaks only, and not lateral buds, and are therefore un- in its egress. branched. From the bases of the leaves, definite ENDO'RSE. See BILL bundles of vascular tissue converge towards the centre; but these extending downwards extend

ENDORSE, in Heraldry, an Ordinary contain. also outwards, and thus an interlacing of fibres ing the fourth part of a pale. Endorsed, again, or takes place, which contributes not a little to the indorsed, signifies that objects are placed on the

shield back to back. strength and compactness of the wood in the lower part of the stem. As the fibres extend down ENDOSMO'SE AND EXOSMO'SE (Gr, inward wards, they also become attenuated, spiral and motion and outward motion), terms applied by porous vessels disappearing, and nothing but the Dutrochet, the first investigator, to the transfusion most ligneous substance remaining. It is the har- that takes place when two liquids or two gases of dening of the outer part of the stem which arrests different densities are separated by an animal or a its increase in thickness. Endogenous stems have vegetable membrane. As the transmission has no not a distinct pith, nor any medullary rays. When necessary relation to ontwards or inwards, the term the central part is soft and pith-like, yet it is not osmose, or osmotic action, is now preferred. Sen distinctly separated from the surrounding wood, and DIFFUSION. has no medullary sheath. In many endogenous This action performs a very important part in plants, as in the greater number of grasses, the living organisms, and explains many phenomena of centre of the stem is hollow. This is not the the circulation of sap and the processes of nutrition, case at first, when the stem begins to grow; and which were previously referred only to the wonderful

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