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FURSTENWALDE-FUSEL

German from the original, hy himself, in conjunction on the British mountains, and often suffers from with other scholars; Der Orient ; Berichte, Studien und the frost of severe winters; whereas in inild Kritiken für Jüdische Geschichte und Literatur (The seasons its flowers may be seen all winter, so that East ; Notices, Studies, and Criticisms in connection there is an old proverb, Love is out of season when with Jewish History and Literature, Leip. 1840); the furze is out of blossom.' It is scarcely known, Die Jüdischen Religionsphilosophen des Mittelalters in any of the northern parts of Europe ; and (The Jewish Religious Philosophers of the Middle Linnæus is said to have burst into exclamations of Ages, Leir. 1845); Geschichte der Juden in Asien grateful rapture when he first saw a common covered (liistory of the Jews in Asia, Leip. 1849); Biblio- with F. bushes glowing in the profusion of their Theca Judaica (1849—-1853); and Hebräisches und rich golden flowers. F. is sometimes planted for Challäisches Handwörterbuch (Hebrew and Chaldee hedges, but is not well suited for the purpose, occuManual, Leip. 1851–1854), preceded by a history pying a great breadth of ground, and not readily of Hebrew lexicography. He died in 1873.

acquiring sufficient strength; besides, it does not, FÜ’RSTENWALDE, a small walled town of when cut, tend to acquire a denser habit. It is Prussia, in the province of Brandenburg, on the useful as afforling winter food for sheep, and on this right bank of the Spree, 30 miles east-south-east account is burned down to the ground by sheep of Berlin. It has a brick church of the 14th c., the farmers when its stems become too high and woody, Marienkirch, which contains a fine Gothic Sacra. so that a supply of green succulent shoots inay be mentshäuschen (or pyx for keeping the host), built of secured. In some parts of Wales, F., chopped and sandstone, and dating from 1510. F. manufactures bruised, forms the principal part of the winter fodder linens and woollens, and carries on some trade by of horses. In some places, it is sown to yield green river. Pop. (1871) 8197.

food for sheep or other animals, but is preferable to FÜRTH, a flourishing manufacturing town of they could not be advantageously cultivated. It

other green crops only on dry sandy soils, where Bavaria, in Middle Franconia, is situated at the is most extensively cultivated in Flanders. It is confluence of the Rednitz and the Pegnitz, about chopped and bruised by means of a mallet, one 5 miles north-west of Nürnberg, with which it end of which is armed with knife-blades; or by is connected by a railway, laid out in 1835, and means of a simple machine, called a gorse-mill

. -A the first that was completed in Germany: It has double-flowering variety is common in gardens. A numerous churches, synagogues, a town-hall

, theatre, very beautiful variety, called Irish F., because &c. It is the most industrious and most prosperous originally found in Ireland (V. strictus of some manufacturing town of Bavaria ; its mirrors, chande: botanists), is remarkable for its dense, compact, liers, snuff-boxes, lead-pencils, its brass and wood and erect branches. A dwarf kind of F. (U. nanus) wares, and its articles of dress, are famous. The occurs in some places, and is perhaps also a mere making of metallic leaf, and the manufacture of variety; if so, there is only one species known. articles in bronze, are most important branches of

In fox-hunting countries, F. is encouraged on industry. F. also produces pinchbeck rings, watch- account of the excellent cover it affords. It is also keys, brass nails, spectacles and optical instruments, a favourite cover for rabbits. in great abundance. An annual fair, lasting fourteen days, takes place at Michaelmas. Pop. 24,569. FUSE, FUSEE, a tube of wood or metal, perof whom 2500 are Jews, and the rest Protestants. forated down the side with a vertical row of holes, F. first appears in history about the beginning of and used for firing shells. The tube is filled with the 10th c., when it belonged to the archbishops a composition of nitre, sulphur, and gunpowder, of Bamberg. Subsequently it acknowledged the which will burn gradually. The distance between authority of the Burgrafs of Nuremberg. In 1634, each hole representing a second, the range and during the Thirty Years' War, the Austrian Croats time of flight are computed, and that hole is left burned it to the ground. In 1680 a great fire open which will communicate the fire in the fuse to almost laid it in ashes again. It first began to the loaded shell at the moment the latter touches attain importance as a seat of manufactures in the ground after being discharged. Of course, when the latter half of the last century.

combustion reaches this aperture, the shell is FURY AND HECLA STRAIT, lying in lat. 70° burst by the explosion of the contained gunpowder, N., and long. from 82° to 86° W., separates Melville and scattered around in numerous fragments. Fuses Peninsula on the south from Cockburn Island on the

constructed on a similar priuciple are used in north, and connects Fox's Channel on the east with exploding military mines (q. v.), the Gulf of Boothia on the west. It is of no value FUSEL or FOUSEL OIL, known also as whatever as a means of communication, nor is ever Potato SPIRIT, is a frequent impurity in spirits likely to be so, its western entrance having been distilled from fermented potatoes, barley, rye, &c., ascertained by Captain Parry, who discovered it, on to which it communicates a peculiar and offensive his second voyage, to be impenetrably closed from odour and taste, and an unwholesome property. shore to shore by the accumulated ices of many Being less volatile than either alcohol or water, it years. It is traversed from west to east by a strong accumulates in the last portions of the distilled current, which passes down Fox's Channel into liquor. According to Liebig, it is principally formed Hudson's Strait.

in the fermentation of alkaline or veutral liquids, FURZE (Ulex), a genus of plants of the natural while it never occurs in acidulous fermenting iluids order Leguminosa, sub-order Papilionacece, distin- which contain tartaric, racemic, or citric acid. It guished by a two-leaved calyx with a small scale or mainly consists of a substance to which chemists bractea on each side at the base, stamens all united have given the name of amylic alcohol, whose compo by their filaments, and a turgid pod scarcely longer sition is now represented by the formulu C51120. than the calyx. The Common F. (V. Europaus), It is a colourless limpid Buid, which has a persistalso called Wuin and Gorse is a shrub about ent and oppressive odour and a burning taste. It two or three feet high, extremely branched; the is only sparingly soluble in water, but may be mixed branches green, striated, and terminating in spines ; with cohol, ether, and the essential oils in all the leaves few and lanceolate; the flowers numer proportions. Any spirit which produces a milky ous, solitary, and yellow. It is common in many appearance, when mixed with four or tive times its of the southern parts of Europe and in Britain, volume of water, may be suspected to contain it. although it does not reach any consides able elevation Fusel oil is principally sold in this country for the

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purpose of yielding pear essence for the so-called Enfield rifle. Fusilier is therefore simply a historical jargonelle-drops; it has likewise been patented as title borne by a few regiments, viz.: the Scots Fusilå solvent for quinine ; and according to Liebig, it is ier Guards, the 5th Northumberland, 7th Royal, sometimes employed in lighting distillery buildings. 21st North British, 231 Welsh, 87th Irish, 101st and FUSE'LI, HENRY, the second son of John Caspar 104th Bengal, 102d Madras, and 1030 Bombay Fusil

iers, Fuseli

, or Fuessli, a portrait-painter, and anthor of Lives of the Swiss Painters, was born at Zurich FUSING FREEZING POINTS in 1742. He studied in his native town and at Berlin, terms applied to the temperature at which solids travelled with Lavater in 1761, and then went to assume the liquid form, and liquids become solid. England, where, by Reynolds's advice, he devoted The following table gives some of the best deter. himself to art. In pursuance of this object, he minations of the fusing-point: proceeded to Italy in 1770, where he remained for

Mercury,

Alloy (18n,2Bi), eight years, studying in particular the works of

Oil of vitriol,

(35n, 2Pb), Michael Angelo, and in 1778 returned to England. Bromine,

Tin, In 1790 he was elected a member of the Royal Oil of lurpentine,

Bismuth,

Sitrate of soda, Academy, where, nine years later, he became pro

Lard,

Lead, fessor of painting. He died at Putney Hill, near Phosphorus,

Nitrate of potash, London, 16th April 1825, and was buried beside Potassium, his friend, Sir Joshua Reynolds, in St Paul's. His

1430.6 Antimony, (about) Stearic acid,

Silver, most remarkable works are The Ghost of Dion,'

Copper, from Plutarch ; ' Lady Macbeth ;' «Hercules and the Fusible metal (5P5,39n, Gola, Horses of Diomedes ;' and his 'Milton's Gallery,'

8Bi),

Wrought iron, higher comprising 47 designs from Paradise Lost. Fi's

Sulphur,

32800 imagination was bold, but coarse ; he had more genius than art; and his execution was often spas. We see from this table that alloys may have a modic in the extreme. His art-criticism, however, fusing-point far below that of any of the metals strange to say, ranks among the best in the lan- which enter into their composition. Similarly, guage. His literary works, with a narrative of his mixtures of various silicates fuse at a temperature life, were published by Knowles (3 vols., London, far below that which is required to melt any one 1831).

of them, and the same remark applies to mixtures

of various chlorides, carbonates, &c. FUSIBI'LITY. With few exceptions, all solids

Most solids, when heated to their fusing-point, which can bear a high temperature without undergoing chemical change, may be melted. Many sub- change at once into perfect liquids ; but some-as, stances which are popularly regarded as infusible for example

, platinum, iron, glass, phosphoric acid, -as, for example, platinum and flint-readily fuse intermediate pasty condition before they attain

the resins, and many others-pass through an before the oxyhydrogen blow.pipe, or between the poles of a powerful galvanic battery; even carbon perfect fluidity, and, in these cases, it is difficult, if has been partially fused by the last-named means. This intermediate condition is termed vitreous fusion,

not impossible, to determine the exact fusing-point. There are many substances which cannot be melted because it is a characteristic property of glass. It because they are decomposed by the action of heat is in this intermediate state that glass is worked, Thus, wood and many other organic compounds are and iron and platinum forged. decomposed into certain gases, which escape, and into carbon and fixed salts, which are left. Simi

As a general rule, the freezing-point is the same larly, carbonate of lime (chalk) is decomposed into as the fusing-point--that is to say, if a substance in carbonic acid gas and lime at a temperature below the liquid form be cooled below the fusing-point, it its fusing-point. If, however, we prevent the gas we can cool a liquid several degrees below its fusing

again becomes solid; but there are cases in which from escaping by contining the carbonate of lime in a hermetically closed gun-barrel, it can be melted point; thus, by keeping water perfectly still, we

can cool it to 5', or even to 1°.4 before it freezes. at a high furnace-heat.

A taple of • The Oriler of Fusibility of the Metals' If, however, we drop a solid body into water in this is giver by Miller in his Elements of Chemistry, 21 condition, or if we shake the vessel containing it, edition, sol. ii. p. 294.

congelation begins at once, and the temperature

rises to 32°. This phenomenon is exhibited to a FUSIBLE METAL. Fusible metal is composed still greater degree in viscid fluids, like the oils. of 2 parts of bismuth, 1 of lead, and I of tin. It It is well known that the freezing-point of water fuses at 201 F., becoming pasty before it completely is depressed by the presence of salts. Thus, seamelts. It expands in a very anomalous manner; water freezes at about 266, and a saturated its bulk increases regularly from 320 to 95° ; it solution of common salt must be cooled as low as then contracts gralually to 131 ; it then expands 4 before freezing. Despretz has given the freezing. rapially till it reaches 170°, and from that point till points of various saline solutions at different degrees it melts, its expansion is uiform. The faculty of of concentration in the fourth volume of the Comptes expanding as it cools, while still in a comparatively Rendus, p. 435. soft state, renders the alloy very serviceable to the die-sinker, who employs it to test the accuracy of velvet, but shorter, and which is manufactured in

FU'STIAN, a cotton fabric having a pile like his die, every line being faithfully reproduced in the cast male of the alloy. The proportions of nearly the same manner as velvet-viz., by leaving the three metals are sometimes varied, and another then cutting them through so as to form upright formula is given in the table in Fusing AND threads, which are afterwarıls smoothed by shearing, FREEZING Poixts.

singeing, anc brusbing. See VELVET. FOSIL (Fr. fusee, a spindle) is represented heraklically as longer and more acute than a used for producing a yellow colour, and with chemi.

FUSTIC, a name given to two kinds of dye-wood Lozeuge (q. v.).

cal additions, other colours, such as brown, clive, FUSILIEʻRS were formerly soldiers armed with and green. The name seems to be derived from the a lighter fusil or musket than ihe rest of the army ; French Fustet, the name of the Venice Sumach but at present all regiments of foot carry the |(Rhus cotinus, see SUMACH), a shrub found in the

FUSUS--FUTTYGURA

south of Europe ; and to have been transferred to a lamp, being suspended horizontally by a corih, its a very different plant, the Maclura tinctoria of Don, cavity containing the oil, and the wick passing or Morus tinctoria, a tree of the natural order through the canal. This mollusc is often dredged Moracec, a native of the West Indies, Mexico, Brazil, up with oysters. It is eaten by the poor, but is Columbia, &c. The fustic is a large and handsome more generally used as bait for cod, skates, &c. tree, the wood is of a greenish-yellow colour, and is This genus makes its first appearance in the sometimes used in mosaic cabinet-work and turning, Oolite, in which 10 species have been noticed. The but chietly in dyeing. About 10,000 tons are numbers increase to 35 in the Cretaceous rocks, imported annually into Britain. The tree is particu- to 100 in the Eocene, and to 150 in the Miocene aud larly abundant in Campeachy. The wood contains Pliocene. a great quantity of colouring, matter, which forms the most durable of vegetable yellow dyes ; but county of the Lower Bacs, is sitnated on the left

FUTA'K, a town of Lower Hungary, in the as the colour is rather dull, it is more used for bank of the Danube, in lat. 45° 15' N., and long producing other colours. The name OLD F'USTIC 19° 42' W. It has a beautiful castle and garden is sometimes given to it, and Young FUSTIC to and the inhabitants grow vegetables and tobacco the wood of Rhus cotini 8. These terms began extensively. F. has a great trade in corn, and has to be employed about the Leginning of last century, from the mistaken notion that the one, in small Turkey, Greece, and Armenia. Pop. 4642.

a fair in November, frequented by merchants fron pieces, was the wood of the young tree, and the other, in comparatively large logs, of the same tree FUTEHGU'NGE (in English, Victory Market in a more nature state. - The OSAGE ORANGE (9. v.) is the name of two places in Rohilcund, the scenes of North America (Macluru aurantiacu) is nearly respectively, as the name implies, of two battle 3 allied to old fustic, and its wood also affords a gained by the British over the Rohillas.-1. Easten yellow dye.

F., a town of the district of Bareilly, is situated ve ir Old Fustic, or Yellow Wood, is employed for the right bank of the Bhagal, in lat. 28 4' N., and dyeing woollens yellow, and also to impart to them long. 79° 42' E. The action, from which this sint is green and olive colours when mixed with indigo designated, was fought in 1774, giving to the Nawab and salts of iron. It furnishes a yellow colouring of Oude, then an ally of the English East India matter, which may be obtained in crystals by Company, a large part of Rohilcund ; and it was, in evaporating its watery solution. This substance fact, to commemorate that event, that Eastern F. is termed moritannic acid, and its composition is was built by that prince.-2. Western F:, a town represented by the formula CgoH, 20. The also of the district of Bareilly, is situated is lat. 28° bichromates of potash and of lead have to a great 28' N., and long. 79° 24' E. The conflict that dis degree superseded the use of Olv Fustic.

tinguished this locality occurred in 1796. The only Yousa Fustic is the wood of Rhus cotinus or eminence in the neighbourhood, the most hotly conVenetian sumach. It contains a yellow colouring tested point in the struggle, bears twotuld testimony inatter, to which the name Fusteric has been given to the story, in the memorials of those who fellIt is generally used in combination with other plain and simple monument of fourteen British dyes, iu order to strike some particular tint. officers, and a carved and minareud tomb of two

Rohilla chieftains. FUSUS (Lat. a spindle), a genus of gasteropodous molluscs nearly allied to Murex (9. v.), having a

FUTTEHPU'R, a town of the Doah, on the spindle-shaped shell, with a very elevated spire, the great trunk-road between Calcutta and Delhi, stands first whorl often much dilated, and a straight elon- in lat. 25° 57' N., and long. SG 54' E., 70 miles gated canal. The whorls are not crossed by varices, north-west of Allahabaul, and 50 miles to the southas in Mure. The species were formerly, however, east of Cawnpore. It is a thriving place, with included in that genus. About 100 existing species (1871) 20,478 inhabitants. t'esides the buildings have been described, and more than three times that belonging to the civil establishinent of the district number of fossil ones. The existing species are dis- of its own name, it contains a small, but very tributed over the whole world, living generally on clegant mosque. muddy and sandy sea-bottoms at no great depths. FUTTEHPUR, the district of which the town

of the preceding article is the capital, lies wholly within the Doab, and vceapies its entire breadth from Jumna to Ganges. It extends immediately to the west of the district of Allahabad, in lat. from 25° 25' to 26'13 N., and in long. from 80° 12 to sio 23 E., containing 1583 square miles, and 663,817 inhabitants.

yields large quantities of cotton, and by means of its bordering rivers, and a branch of the Ganges Canal, it possesses considerable facilities for inland navigation.

FUTTUHA, or FUTWA, a town of 12,000 inhabitants, in the district of Patna, and sub-presi. dency of Bengal, stands at the contluence of the Punpun and the Ganges, in lat. 25° 30' N., and long. 85° 22 E. As the Ganges is here deenel

peculiarly sacred, F. is, at certain seasons of the Roaring Buckie, as used by the Zetlanders year, the resort of vast numbers of pilgrims

FUTTYGU'RH, the military cantonment of F. antiquus is known in the south of England as Furruckabait, stands about three miles to the east the RED WHELK, and in Scotland as the Roaring of that city, on the opposite or left bank of the Buckie, from the continuous sound—as of waves Ganges, being in lat. 270 2: N., and long. 79' 41' breaking on the shore--heard when the empty shell E. its name became peculiarly fam us, or ratlier is applied to the car. In the cottages of Zetland, infamous, in the mutiny of 1857, less, however, four ibe shell

, generally about six inches long, is used for the outbreak that occurred on the spot, th:an for

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FUTTYPUR-FYZABAD.

the unparalleled sufferings of the hapless fugitives receive a dividend, deducting interest at 5 per cent. -men, women, and children. Pop. (1871) 10.335. for the period which was to elapse before the date FUTTYPU'R, a town in the district of Sangor debts payable on a contingency might be valueil,

when the debt was payable in due course. By s. 56, and Nerbudda, and sub-presidency of the North- and a dividend paid on the estimated value. Similar west Provinces, stands on the Unjon, a tributary of the Nerbudda, about 20 miles froni the point of provisions were inserted in the 12 and 13 Vict. c. junction, being in lat. 22° 38' N., and long. 78° 38' E. 24 and 25 Vict. c. 134, s. 153, it is enacted that

196, ss. 172 and 177. By the last bankruptcy act, It is a place of some importance, as being the residence of three Gond rajahs.

person having a claim for unliquidated damages,

which are of the nature of a future debt, may have FUTURE DEBT is a debt wherein the obliga. his claim assessed by a jury either in the court of tion to pay and the time for payment is fixed and equity, or before a common-law judge, or, in caso certain, but the day for performance has not arrived. of agreement between the parties, by the court Of such a debt, it was said in the civil law dies cedit without a jury. etsi nondum venerit ; an. it was distinguished from By the common law of Scotland, the rule of the A contingent debt, i. e., " debt payable on the per. civil law, as to the rights of creditors having a formance of a condition which was uncertain, in future claim, has always been recognised. In the wbich it was said dies nec ceilit nec venit. Thus, an event of bankruptcy, creditors in both future and obligation to pay six months hence is a future debt; contingent debts are allowed to rank, but the latter an obligation to pay 'if my ship returns from Spain,' only to the extent of receiving a security until the is contingent. In the event of the death or bank condition is purified. But by 19 and 20 Vict

. c. 79, ruptcy of a person having large commercial trans- s. 53, which is now the ruling statute as to bank. actions, it is often of great importance that the right ruptcy in Scotland, contingent creditors may have of the holders of such securities should be accurately their debts valued, and may vote in the Sequestrafixed. In Rome, on the death or bankruptcy of tion (q. v.), and draw dividends proportionate to the a citizen, a creditor holding a claim for a future valuation. It is also enacted, s. 14, that all creditors debt was entitled to payment, deducting a per. whose debts are not contingent may concur in the centage proportionate to the date at which his debt petition for bankruptcy. But the Scotch law affords was payable ; but a contingent creditor only receivel to future debtors a further privilege, unknown to a security for payment in case his debt should the system of the sister.country-viz., that of become payable. This general principle has been arrestment in security, whereby a creditor having a introduced into the legal systems of modern states. future claim is enabled, in case his debtor seem to In Holland and in France, the rights of creditors be wilfully diminishing his means of discharging his having claims not immediately payable are based debt, to attach the goods of the debtor as a security apon the rule of the civil law. "In England, a future for the payment of his debt. See ARRESTMENT. debt, in order to found a valid claim, must be in writing, but it may be constituted by bond, bill, or and north-east from the Sound of Bute, in the south

FYNE, Loch, an arm of the sea running north note or other security. By common law, such a of Argyleshire, to beyond Inverary, in the north, and claim could not be enforced until the actual time is bounded by the district of Cowal on the E., and for payment has arrived ; and forinerly, in case of by those of Årgyle, Knapale, and part of Cantire ba ikruptcy, a creditor on a debt of this kind was not all .wed to insist in his claim. At the same time,

on the W. It is 43 miles long, 2 to 10 iniles broad, the bankrupt's discharge was held not to release and 40 to 70 fathoms deep. Its shores are deeply him from a debt which had not been almitted to indented, and bordered by low bare hills, which clai o in the process ; and hence debtors were some

rise bigher and are wooded near Inverary. On the timos incarcerated for years on debts which they the Crinan Canal. Loch F. is celebrated for its

west side, it sends off a small branch leading to were wholly unable to discharge. See IMPRISONMEXT FOR Debt. This state of things was pro

herrings. ductive of manifest injustice on both debtor and FYZABAD, a rapidly decaying city of Oude, creditor; on the latter, by excluding him from stands on the right bank of the Ghogra, here a insisting in his claim at a time when he might have navigable river, in lat. 26° 47' N., and long. S2° 10' E. obtained a partial payment; on the former, by Originally an appendage, as it were, of Ayodha or punishing him for his default when he was deprived Oude, the ancient capital from which the country of the ineans of making any return. The subject took its name, F. became, in 1730, itself the seat was frequently discussed in parliament before a of government. But 1775, immediately after the remely was applied. At last, by 6 Geo. IV. c. 16, annexation of part of Rohilound (see FUTEIGUNGE), B. 51, it was enacted that, in cases of bankruptcy, it was supplanted by Lucknow, which lay about 90 whero a debt was not immediately payable, the miles to the west, in the direction of the nerly credit or should be entitled to prove his debt, and acquired territory. Pop. (1871) 37,804.

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G

THE seventh letter in the Roman (Nagy Karoly in 1811, studied at the college of alphabet, and in the modern alphabets Buda, and at the university of Pesth, and entered

derived fro:n it. For the history soon afterwards the administrative career, being of the character, see ALPHABET and attached to the Hungarian Council of Lieutenancy. letter C. The original and proper G. began writing early, and proved equally successsound of G (corresponding to Gr. v is ful when gossiping in the columns of Kossuth's that heard in gun, give, glad. But the famous Pesti Hirlap, and when engaged in translat

same natural process which turned the ing a masterpiece of Cervantes, filling the periodicals k-sound of c before e and i into that of 8 with tales and novels, or furnishing original works (see C), produced a similar change ou G, so for the National Theatre. The sketches of country.

that before e and i it came to be pronounced life as it was, and as it still continues on the by the Latins like dzh. The sibilation of the vast plains of Hungary, are nowhere to be found letter g before i followed by a vowel, had begun as more viviilly and more truly exhibited than in G.'s early as the 4th c. A. D., as is evident froin the comedies and tales. The following are some of misspelling in inscriptions; in the case of c, the G.'s original compositions : Szirmay Ilona, a novel change can be detected much earlier. From the in 2 vols. (Pesth, 1836); Peleskei Notarius (The Latin, the dzh-sound of g passed into the Romanic Notary of Peleske, Pesth, 1838), a comedy in four tongues, and also into English. As a general rule acts --might be called the Hungarian comedy par in English, in words derived from the classical and excellence ; Szvatopluk, a tragedy in tive acts Romanic languages, 9 has the hissing sound before Tales : Pusztai Kaland (An Adventure on the ę i, and y; it has its natural sound in all words Hungarian Prairies); Tengeri Kaland az Alfoel before a, 0, and u; and it retains it in Teutonic doen (Seafaring Adventures in Lower Hungary); worıls even before e and i.

Hortobágyi éjszaka (A Night on the Heath of G, in its proper power, belongs to the order of Hortobágy). During the sojourn of the Hungarian gutturals, ki or c, 9, ch, gh; of the two bare' Diet at Debreczin (1819), G. was editor of a journal gutturals, 9 is the fat (or medial), and k the combating extreme radical views. sharp; while gh and ch are the corresponding Aspirates (q.v.).

GA'BBRO, the name given by Italian geologista The following are some of the interchanges diallage. It is equivalent to euplotide or diallage

to a variety of greenstone composed of felspar and between g and other letters : Lat. ager, Gr. arros,

rock. Eng. acre, Ger, acker; Gr. triakonta, Lat. triginta , Gr. gonu, Lat. genu, Eng. knee ; Lat. (g)nosco, Gr.gi GABELENTZ, Hans Coxon VON DER, a distin. gnosco, Eng, know; Lat. genus, Eng. kin; Gr. chen, guished German philologist, was boru at Altr. Ger. gans, Eng. goose and gander; Lat, hesternus, burg, 13th October 1807, and educated at the Ger. gestern, Eng. yester (day) ; Lat. germanus, Span. universities of Leipsic and Göttingen. In 1833, he hermano. The convertibility of g and y is seen published his Eléments de la Grammaire Mandschoue, in the old English participles in y, as yclad, corre a new grammar, in which the entire idioblatić sponding to Sax. and Ger. ge- ; in Ger. gelb, Eng. character of that language was developed in concise yellow ; Ger. tag, Eng. day; Ger. mag, Eng. may; rules. He had, moreover, a share in the estab yate for gate; yard for garden, Lat. hortus. In lishment of a journal devoted to Oriental science Italian, gi is substituted for j, as Giulio for (Zritschrift für die Kunde des Morgenlandrs), and Julius; and in French, which has no w, that letter contributed to it some interesting papers on the is represented by gu, as guerre, guardler, for Mongolian language. Along with J. Löbe, he also Eng. war, ward or guard. G has been frequently published a critical edition of the Gothic translation dropt out, as Lat. nosco for gnosco; Eng. enough, of the Bible by Ulfilas, with a Latin translation, compared with Ger. gerug ; agone, with ge-gangen; and with a Gothic glossary and grammar appended Lat. magister, Fr. mais're or muitre, Eng. master. (Leipisic, 1813–1846), G. was also the first phil. May, Lat. Maius, contra ted from Nagius, is from ologist in Germany who undertook a scientitic treatA root mag, or (Sans.) mah, to grow : 80 that May is ment of the dialects of the Finnish-Tartar stem. jizst the season of growth.

Besides a Syrjan grammar (Grundzüge der Syrjän. G, in Music is the fifth sound of the natural ischen Grammatik, Altenburg, 1841)," he furnished diatonic scale of C, and the eighth sound of the contributions to periodicals on the Mordvinian and chroznatic scale. It stands in proportion to C as 2 Samoyed languages. He has since published sons to 3; is a perfect fifth above c, and the second coutributions to the science of language (Beilrüge harnionic arising from C. as a fundamental note. zur Sprachenkunde)., The first three parts wero In the solmisation of Guido Aretinus, the note G issued in 1852, and the first volume of a collection was called Sol, Re, or Ut, according as the hexa- of his Philological Fragments (Sprachwissenschafte chord began with C, F, or G. G major as a key liche Fragmente) appeared in 1859, and a Dissertahas one sharp at its signature, viz., F sharp. Ğ tion on the Passive Voice (Ueber das Passivum, Eine minor has two Hats at its signature, viz., B Hat and Sprachvergleichende Abhandlung) in 1860. E flat.

GABELLE, a French word, derived from the GAAL, JOZSEF, a Hungarian author, was born at German Gobe, gift or tribute, and originally used in

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