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action of vital energy. Thus, the blood, continually he is to be held guilty of treason. Under this streaming through the capillary vessels, gives forth statute, the subjects of states at war with us am 4 portion to the surrounding cells, and so supplies held to be enemies, though war has not been thein with the necessary chyle. This may, however, i solemnly proclaimed. Every species of assistance, by the expansion of the cirpillary vessels (see In- whether by joining in acts of hostility, or sending FLAMMATION) lead to immoderate exndation. On the supplies or intelligence to the enemy, is deemed an other hand, the blood, in passing by, takes up a act of adherence. To incite to hostilities the subnumber of worn-out constituents of the juices of jects of a state at amity with us, is not held to these cells, and in this way serves, by the exchange fall under this provision. But if the subjects of a which it effects, to restore the body, and to disburden friendly state make a hostile invasion, any British it of products which have become useless.- In plants subject rendering assistance will be deemed guilty also, osmose performs an important part in the pro- of treason under this clause. See TREASON. cess of nutrition and the motion of the sap. The ENEMY. An enemy, according to the civil law, substances in the cells of plants are usually denser is one who has publicly declared war against us, or than the fluids without, and thus a process of endos- we against him; all others are thieves or robbers. mose takes place, by which the plant is supplied in Hostes hi sunt qui nobis, aut quibus nos, publice the first instance from the soil, being incapable, bellum decrevimus; cæteri latrones aut prædones sunt. however, of appropriating any nourishment which is Digest, i. 16, 118. Thus, in order to constitute an not presented in a liquid state to the fibrils of its enemy, there must be a public declaration of war. roots ; whilst that which the roots y ve off by exos- This declaration must also be made by a duly mose, is supposed gradually to unfit the soil for the organised state or kingdom, for a declaration of war growth of the same kind of plant. The bursting of by any turbulent body of men is not sufficient; and the capsules of some kinds of plants is owing to a hostile act committed by private citizens will not a process of endosmose going on in the cells, as in justify a war, unless that act be sanctioned by the the fruit of the Elaterium or Squirting Cucumber.

government. The purpose for which this public Some of the Entozoa, as tape-worms, seem to live declaracion is required, is stated by Grotius to be entirely by endosmose. See OSMOSE.

that it may be clearly known that the war is underENDY'MION, in Greek Mythology, was a son taken not as a venture, but by the will of the two either of Zeus or of Aëthlios, and followed, according people. Hostilities having been formally declared, to some accounts, the occupation of a herisman or every subject of the hostile nations becomes ar hunter, but according to others, was king of Elis. enemy of the opposing state, as do likewise those On account of his uprightness, he is said to have independent nations which attach themselves to the received, at his own request, from Zeus, the gift interests of either party. According to ancient of immortality, unfading youth, and everlasting usage, the utmost violence and cruelty was lawful sleep; but another version is, that Zeus having towards those who were enemies of the state; but taken him up to Olympus, E. fell in love with Here by the humane principles which prevail in modern (Juno), and was condemned hy her enraged husband times, warfare is to be carried on subject to certain to eternal sleep on Mount Latmos. Others, again, general rules, which are intended as much as may prettily fable that Selene (the Moon), charmed by be to abridge the calamities of war, and to protect the beauty of the youth, conveyed him to Caria, the rights of individuals

. Thus, an army invading and sent him to sleep on Mount Latmos, that she an enemy's country is bound to suffer, as far might nightly kiss him unobserved. The Eleans, on as possible, the peaceable inhabitants to remain the contrary, declared that he died among them, and unmolested. Unnecessary devastation of the country in proof of it were wont to shew his monument and the seizure of property are also contrary to the The myth of E. has been happily interpreted by laws of civilised war; and Grotius lays it down Max Müller in his article on Comparative Myth- that the use of poisoned weapons, and of assasology, in the Oxford Essays (1856). E., according to sination, and violence to women, are to be reprohim, is one of the many names of the sun, but with bated. On the other hand, individuals taking up special reference to the setting or dying sun, being arms, without the sanction of the state, in order to formed from enduo, probably a dialectic variety of annoy an invading enemy, are regarded as lawless duo, the technical verb in Greek to express sunset. marauders. The result of this distinction is, that E. sleeps in the cave of Latmos, i. e., of night (from such persons are not treated as prisoners of war, the same root as Leto or Latona, the night). So far but are subject to be summarily dealt with by tho the myth poetically describes certain phenomena of commander of the invading army. As to the right uature, the sinking of the sun in the west, and the of individuals to fit out vessels for the annoyance rising of the moon, that seems to follow his depart of the enemy, see PRIVATEERING and Piracy. It ing Leams. But the original signification of the appears to be a recognised principle of international metaphors becoming lost, as might naturally happen law, that the property of an alien enemy residing in when the words expressing them had only a local either of the hostile states may be confiscated. The usage, it was, we may say, inevitable that people Americans, during the war with England, asserted should transfer the metaphors to persons, and this right in regard to British property found in invent a history to supply the place of the vanished their territory: But the usage of civilised nations poetry. And this invention, or, more properly, for a long period has much modified the stern rule explanation (for it was doubtless made in all good of law. It is provided by Magna Charta, cap. 30, faith), is what properly constitutes the myth of that if merchants' be of a land making war with Endymion. The story has been made the subject us, and be found in our realm at the beginning of of a poem by Keats.

the wars, they shall be attached without any harm ENE'MA (Gr. en, in, and iēmi, I enter), a medicine chief justice, how our merchants be intreated there

of body or goods, until it be known to us, or our or fluid sulistance conveyed into the body by injec in the land making war against us; and if our tion, usually through the rectum or lower bowel. merchants be well intreated there, theirs shall be See CLYSTER.

likewise with us.' Aud by 27 Edw. 111. c. 17, E’NEMIES, ADHERING TO THE QUEEN'S. By 25 merchants of a foreign state at war with us were Edw. III. st. 5, c. 2, it is declared that if a man' be allowed forty days, after proclamation of hostilities, adhereut to the king's enemies

in his realm, giving wherein to remove from the kingdom themselvez them aid and comfort, in the realm or elsewhere,' and their goods; and if that space of time were not

ENERGICO-ENGAGEMENT. Bufficient, forty days more were to be conceded to character, but which had to stop in 1850 for want of them. Vattel (üi. 4, 63) denies that the right to funds. E. afterwards held an important situation on contiscate the zoous of an alien enemy is a right the Lyons and Mediterranean Railway. His princiinherent in a state by the law of nations, insisting pal works are his Doctrine de St Simon, in conjunction that a sovereign having permitted foreigners to with others (Paris, 1830); his Traité d'Economie enter the state, and to continue there, had tacitly Politique (Paris, 1831), and La Religion Saint-Simopromised them full liberty and security for their nienne (Paris, 1831); Moral; Le Livre Nouveau return. Whatever be the principle, there is no (1832); Correspondence Philosophique et Religieuse doubt that the almost universal practice of modern (1847); Correspondence Politiqne (1849); La Vie Eternations has been to respect the property of indivi. nelle Pussé, Présente, Future (1861). He died il 1864. duals at the outbreak of hostilities. Provisions

ENFEO'FFMENT. See FEOFFMENT. 279 frequently inserted into commercial treaties, stipulating that, in case of war, the subjects of the

E'NFIELD RIFLE FACTORY. See SMAIJ. enemy shall have time to depart, and even that they Arms FactORIES, ROYAL. should be allowed to remain and carry on a peace ENFILA'DE is a military term applied to a fire able trade. As to the practice in regard to EMBARGO' of musketry or artillery made in the direction of tho and LETTERS OF Marque, see those articles. The length of a line of troops or of a line of rampart. A right to confiscate the debts of the subjects of a besieging battery so placed as to send its shot along hostile nation appears to rest on the same basis as any part of the line of a fortification, and inside the that of the contiscation of other property. Trade parapet, does great execution in dismounting the between the subjects of two hostile powers is guns, which thus present the largest surface to the absolutely suspended during hostilities, unless per balls. Hence the lines of rampart should be planned mitted by express sanction; and the importation that their prolongations may fall in situations inacof articles particularly useful in war is contraband. cessible to the enemy. Where this is not possible, All such articles, whether supplied by subjects of the lines are either broken, or are protected by the enemy, or of another state, are seized and con- Bonnets (q. v.), or by Traverses (q. v.), or Blindages fiscated. See CONTRABAND OF WAR; see also Prize (q. v.). In the siege of a fortress, the trenches and PRISONER OF WAR. On the subject of this of approach are cut in a zigzag, to prevent the article, see Grotius, De Jure Belli et Pacis, lib. iii

. defenders entilading them from the walls. cc. 3 to 7; Vattel's Law of Nations, b. iii. c. 4 and 5; Kent's Commentaries, vol. i. c. 3.


to make free; the admission to certain liberties or ENE'RGICO, an Italian term in music, meaning privileges. Thus, a person made a denizen of the with energy and force; with strong articulation country, or receiving the freedom of a city or burgh, and accentuation, and a marked powerful delivery is said to be enfranchised. of the single uotes, without losing in distinctness


See COPYHOLD. ENFANTIN, BARTHÉLEMY PROSPER, the chief representative of St Simonism, and as such, usually in the canton of Grisons, second only to the Valais

ENGADI'NE, a famous valley in Switzerland, styled Père Enfantin, was the son of a banker at Paris, where he was born in the year 1796. He in length, extends north-east for about 50 miles became a pupil in the Ecole Polytechnipie in 1812, along the banks of the Inn, from the foot of Mount

Maloja to the village of Martinsbruck. It is but was expelled in 1814, in consequence of his divided into two portions—that toward the southhaving joined the pupils who left school and fought west, called the Upper Engadine, and that toward against the allies on the heights of Montmartre and the north-east, the Lower Engadine. The latter St Chaumont. He was afterwards a commercial traveller in Russia, then a banker's clerk, and in is wild and bleak; pent up within narrow limits 1825 became director of the Caisse Hypothécaire. among the hills, and having a huge barrier of About this time, he became a disciple of St Simon, Frost and snow occur in July, and winter prevails

glaciers between it and Italy, its climate is dismal. whose ideas he developed, after the death of their for nine months of the year. The Upper Engadine author, in the Producteur. After the July revolu- is more open, and possesses much tine meadowtion, E. associated himself with M. Bazard for the land. The Inn, which enters the valley at its active propagation of St Simonism. Bazard preached south-west or upper extremity, and flows through it in its relations to philosophy and politics; E., it, has many towns upon its banks, the highest mainly in its relations to the social state. Soon, of which, Silvaplana, is about 5600 feet above however, a schism broke out between the two on the question of marriage and the relation of the sexes. sea-level, while the lowest, Martinsbruck, is 3137

The inhabitants devote themselves prin. Recognising the .mobility of the affections, E. cipally to the rearing of cattle; they also make affirmed that they ought to be “free,' and of course cheese, and export it largely. More than one-half pronounced against the ties of marriage. E.'s views of the young men emigrate at an early age, and were pushed so far, that government deemed it betake themselves to continental capitals, where necessary to interfere on the grounds of public they ofteu attain comparative wealth, in which case decency. The • Supreme Father (as his disciples they almost invariably return, build a house in their trial of two days, sentenced to two years' imprison. native valley, and therein spend the remainder it

their days. Pop. about 11,000, alınost all of the ment, and to pay a fine of 100 francs. Being released

Reformed, or Calvinistic Church. The language at the expiration of a few months, E. went to Egypt, most generally spoken is the Ladin (a corruption and, after an absence of two years, returned to of Latin), a Romanic tongue, but differing from France, and became a post-master and farmer in the the other Romanic dialects of the Rhaetian Alps, vicinity of Lyon. In 1841, he came to Paris, and and bearing a resemblance to the Italian. was appointed a member of the Scientific Commission for A),iers, and on his return from Africa, wrote ENGAGEMENT, MILITARY, considered as a a sensibile, interesting book, entitled Colonisation de confiict between two armies or hostile forces, cannot l'Algérie (Paris, 1843). After the revolution of be described within limits suitable for this work. 1848, he edited the journal entitled Le Crédit Public, Almost every term applicable to armies in the field s paper retaining much of the old St Simonian bears relatior in some way or other, to a hostile


engagement, and those terms will be found briefly He died 13th September 1853. Patristic and medieval aoticed under their proper beadings.

dogmatics, and Neoplatonisın, are the subjects ENGAGEMENT, NAVAL, admits of more precise lished at Erlangen a translation of the first Ennead

which he has chiefly investigated. In 1820, he puband terse illustration than a military engagement, because each ship of war is a unit in itself, bounded of Plotinus ; in 1823 appeared his translution of the by a clearly marked watery margin from all the writings ascribed to Dionysius the Areopugite. His other ships of a fleet.

Kirchengeschichtlichen Abhandlungen Erl. 1832), In the small war-vessels of ancient times, before Auslegung des speculativen Theils des Evangeliums the invention of gunpowder, a naval engagement

Johannis durch einen deutschen mystichen Theologen usually began by running the galleys violently (Erl. 1839), and his contribution to the bistory of against each other, to crush or sink the enemy by the mystical theology, entitled Richard von Si Victor means of the beak or prow. The prows were, for und Johannis Ruysbroek (Erl. 1838), are works of this purpose, armed with brazen or iron points. On great value, and have thrown a new light on muny the leck was sometimes a kind of turret filled with important points. Very useful, too, especially on Boldiers, the probable precursor of the forecastle in account of the richness of their special rotices, are modern ships; and there was also frequently a his Handbuch der Kirchengeschichte (Erl. 183+), and platform for accommodating swordsmen, slingers, Dugmengeschichte (Neustadt, 1839). E., in the course and javelinmen. High and bulky ships, of no great of his life, wrote many learned dissertations in the length, were best for this kind of warfare. Some Journal of Historical Theology, among which may times a massive piece of iron or lead, called a be specified his Ueber die Hesychiasten aud Vever dolphin, was let down violently from the yard-arm, Erasmus Sarcerius. to crush or break through some part of the enemy's ENGHIEN, LOUIS ANTONIO HENRI DE BOURvessel. The men fastened sickles to the end of long BON, DUC D', only son of Prince Henry Louis poles, to cut the enemy's rigging and sails. Other Joseph, Duc de Bourbon, was born at Chantilly, means for carrying on a hostile attack were battering. 2d August 1772. In 1789, he quitted France, and rams- heavy maces with very long handles, stone. travelled throngh several countries of Europe. In throwing machines, and grappling-irons.

1792, he entered the corps of émigrés assembled by In modern ships, preparations for an engagement his grandfather, the Prince of Condé, on the Rhine, are made with the utmost coolness and precision. and commanded the vanguard from 1796 until 1799. The boatswain and his mates communicate to all the At the peace of Lunveille, in the year 1801, ho crew the order to clear for action. The men take went to reside at Ettenheim, an old châtean on the their hammocks, lower them, tie them up, and carry German side of the Rhine, not far from Strasburg, them to the quarter-deck, poop, forecastle, and other and within the territories of the Duke of Balen. parts of the ship, where they are stowed between a Here he married the Princess Charlotte of Rohan double netting above the gunwale, and form a partial Rochefort, and lived as a private citizen. When defence against the enemy's musketry. The sails, the conspiracy of the Bourbon princes, headed by yards, booms, bowsprit, &c., are secured by strong Cadoudal, Picheyru, &c., against the life and auchains and extra ropes, to prevent or lessen disaster thority of Bonaparte, was discovered at Paris, the if they are shot away. The boatswain and the latter chose to believe that the Duc d'E. was privy carpenter collect together, and place at hand all kinds to it, although there was not a tittle of evidence of pieces of wood, iron, rope, and canvas that may to prove this. Perhaps Bonaparte was afraid that be useful in quickly repairing shot-holes and other the valour and humanity of the last descendant damage. The gunner and his mates examine the of the great Condé might one day prove dungerous cannon and the filled cartridges, and see that all the to his power. Be that as it may, he unscrupulously implements for gunnery are at hand. The master resolved to seize the person of the duke. On the and his subordinate officers look to the trim and state night of the 17th March 1804, the neutral territory of the sails. The lieutenants visit all the decks, to of Baden was violated, and the château of Ettensee that obstructions of every kind are removed. heim surrounded with a body of soldiers and genWhen the engagement is about to begin, the drums durmes. The duke, at first, endeavoured to defend beat to arms. Every man repairs to his place. himself; but the force was too great to be opposed, The marines are drawn up in rank and file on the and he, with several friends and domestics, was quarter-deck, poop, and forecastle. The surgeon and captured, and carried prisoner to Strasburg, and imhis assistants are ready in the cockpit to amputate mediately after to Vincennes. On the 20th of March, limbs, extract bullets, and dress wounds. Then he was tried before a court-martial, consisting of begins the battle, which varies in its character eight officers, and after an examination of five according to the number and kind of ships on hours was condemned to death. Half an hour later, each side, the nature of the sea, the direction of the sentence was put into execution. So cruel and the wind, and a multitude of other circumstances. audaciously criminal an act has fixel a deep stigma In the British navy, the order of battle for a on the character of Bonaparte. M. Dupin has pnbfleet is ordinarily in two lines, each being divided lished the records of the trial, and shown the illeinto the Starboard and Port Division or squadron. gulity of the proceedings of the military commisWhen the battle is ended, if it has been a severe sion. This illegality was publicly acknowledged one, the probabilities are that many men have by General Hullin, the president of the court. been killed or wounded, decks and sides battered After the Restoration, the bones of the judiciully and splintered, cannon dismounted, rigging, masts, murdered duke were taken up, and interred in the yards, and sails destroyed or torn. The whole chapel of the castle at Vincennes. ahip's crew, except those disabled, then work hard

ENGINEE'R AND ENGINEERING, to get the vessel back into trim; an attempt that

Engifnquently cannot be realised without aid from neering, the business of the engineer, is the art other ships, or from the resources of a port.

of designing and superintending the execution of

works of a constructive character, such as ronds, E'NGELHARDT, JOH. GEORG Vert, a learned railways, briilges, canals, harbours, docks, works German theologian, was born 12th November 1791, for supplying water to towns, drainage and sewerage *t Neustadt on the Aisch, and studied at Erlangen, works, mining machinery, and the working of where, in 1820, he was appointed extraordinary metals. professor, and in 1822 ordinary professor of theology. I It may be divided into two kinds-civil and


also many

military. The military engineer is an officer in the given a great impulse to commerce and civilizatio. service of government, whose duties are principally which in their turn have created the necessity fo. to construct fortifications, to make surveys for war- the numerous and magniticent engineering works like purposes, to facilitate the passage of an army of modern times; such as the innumerable railways, by the construction of roads and bridges; in short, roads, and canals that intersect this and foreign to execute all engineering works of a military countries; the bridges, water works, docks, harnature; but he is also, especially in this country, bours, and vessels that facilitate cur commerce and called upon to undertake many works which more increase our comfort and prosperity. Among the properly belong to the business of the civil engineer, most remarkable of these works may be mentioned such as the survey of the country--called the the tubular bridges of the St. Lawrence and Menai Ordnance Survey—the inspection of public works, Strait, the Niagara railway suspension bridge, and god, in short, 'all the duties of a government the electric telegraph system, which covers this engineer.

country and the seas and countries of Europe, The civil engineering profession is subdivided into and may, at some future time, connect us with several sections, according to the special nature of the continents of America, Australia, and India. the employment of its members. The railway Among the more celebrated British engineers are engineer projects and superintends the execution the Stephensons, the Rennies, the Brunels, Telford, of railways and all the works in connection with Smeaton, and Locke. them, such as the alteration of roads and streams, The education of those who would rise to eminenca the construction of viaducts, bridges, cuttings, and in the profession, must embrace a fair knowledge of embankments. The hydraulic engineer constructs pure mathematics and of the mixed sciences of the works connected with the supply of water natural philosophy, such as mechanics, hydrostatics, to towns, the filtering of water, its collection in hydraulics, and optics. They should acquire a reservoirs, and its distribution through a town or knowledge of the principles of projections, and district; the irrigation and drainage of tracts of should aim at being good draughtsmen and rapid country; the protection of low lands from inunda- and accurate arithmeticians. tion, and the use of water as a motive-power. The Engineering is represented in this country by dock and harbour engineer has the management several institutions and societies, the principal of of all works connected with the sea or navigable which is the London Institution of Civil Engineers, waters, such as the construction of piers, break- established in 1818, for facilitating the acquirewaters, docks, harbours, and light-houses. The ment of professional knowledge, and for promoting mechanical engineer is principally concerned in the mechanical philosophy ;' there are manufacture of machinery, the working of metals, schools and colleges throughout the kingdom in the construction of ships, steamers, cannon, and all which engineering is made a special study. the various structures in which the metals bear a In conclusion, it may be said that every day prominent part. Then there is the mining engineer, ope:23 fresh fields to engineering science and labour ; who discovers minerals and manages mines; there and that as the tirst beginnings of the art are lost are engineers who are specially engaged in the in the obscurity of remote antiquity, so we see no drainage of towns, and many other less prominent termination to its usefulness and necessity. divisions of the profession,

Thu more important operations involved in In all engineering works, the contractor takes a engineering are treated of under such heads as Fery important part ; he executes the works from BRIDGES, CANALS, AQUEDUCTS, EMBANKMENT, Tu. the designs, and under the direction and super. BULAR BRIDGE, ROAD AND ROADMAKING, RAILintendence of the engineer, and on his ability and WAYS, RIVERS, SUSPENSION BRIDGES, &r. good management the success of undertakings very ENGINEERS, THE ROYAL CORPS OF, forms one materially depends.

component portion of the army of the British empire. The engineering works of antiquity are both A similar corps exists in all regular armies. It is numerous and prominent, many of them remaining the scientific and constructive branch, intrusted with while all other traces of their constructers have been the making and defending of all military works, swept away. The most notable of the works belong- and the attack and conquest of similar works belongs ing to very remote antiquity are the harbours of the ing to an enemy. It is true that civilians are often Phoenicians, the palaces and sewerage of Nimroud, employed to construct the buildings themselves, at : and the pyramids of Egypt; next in order come the stated price; but the military engineers make the barbours of ancient Greece, the bridge of boats across plans and are responsible to the country for their the Dardanelles, made by Xerxes, to transport his efficiency. At the present time, for instance (1876), immense army into Europe, and his canal across the contractors are at work on fortifications at Ports. isthmus of the peninsula of Mount Athos. The mouth and elsewhere, but on plans and under orders buildings of ancient Rome next claim attention—its for which the engineer department of the government theatres, temples, baths, and aqueducts, some of is responsible. which carried water from distances of more than

The Royal Engineers of the United Kingdom fifts miles into Rome ; its roads, bridges, and form one regiment or corps. The officers, in time drainage-works vie in extent and magnificence with of peace, are scattered all over the world. Their tika most celebrated works of modern times.

service is continuous, uvlike that of other branches From that period down to the commencement of of the army. There is no half-pay, except ou the 18th c., the most extensive works executed are permanent retirement; and no unemployed list. the canals, embankments, and other hydraulic cor: They have much wear and tear of body and mind, structions used by the Dutch for the purposes of and are considered entitled to a competent retiring inland navigation, and to protect their low lands from allowance at an earlier age than other oiliers. the sea; the canals of North Italy, the cathedrals Their regular puy corresponds to the active pay of and fortifications of medieval Europe.

other officers of the same rank; but they excluCivil engineering, as a distinct profession, may be sively receive in addition extra pny, amounting to said to have originated, in England, about the one-half their ordinary pay when on duty at home, middle of the last century ; since that time, the and equalling their ordinary pay when employed mprovements in the steam-engine by James Watt, abrond. There is an establishment of Engineers its subsequent application to the railway system by in each colony, to conduct and superintend all the George Stephenson, and its use in navigation, have military buildings and works. The entire force


394 681 4172

bo under a particular department of the War-office, The Navy Estimates for 1873–1874 provided that of the Inspector-general of Fortifications. for 929 naval engineers, besides 10 inspectors of Until the year 1763, the duties of military engineers machinery. were discharged by officers taken from the regular E'NGLAND, the southern and larger section of army. In that year, however, the corps of Engineers the island of Great Britain, and the most important was formed, greatly to the advantage of the military member of the United Kingdom of Great Britain service. In 1783, it was made a royal corps, and and Ireland. The geography of E. will be found a distinctive uniform adopted. Several companies under the head of GREAT BRITAIN, the preseut of artificers were, in 1812, converted into Sappers article being confined to a sketch of its history and Miners, and placed under the Engineers. previous to the union with Scotland.

The non-commissioned officers and privates of this Of the inhabitants of E. before the Christian era, valuable corps are all workmen who have learned little is known. In some of the ancient geographer, some mechanical trade; hence their skill in all there are a few scattered notices of a rude population constructive operations. The Ordnance Survey has with whom a limited commerce in tin was carried been intrusted to the corps. For inany purposes, on by the Phænician merchants; and our infcrma. the men are lent, to attend to special and peculiar tion scarcely extends further. What is known of work; and at such times their emolument is always E. under the Roman occupation has already been increased. They often buy their discharge, in order embodied in the article BRITANNIA. An account of to go into civil employments, when the prospects are the country during the period intervening between good. The period of regular service is 21 years; the withdrawal of the Romans and the Norman But they can purchase their discharge at any time. Conquest will be found in the article Anglo-Saxons. They have to pay more for their discharge than When William of Normandy landed in E. to other corps in the army. The average length of claim the crown which Edward the Confessor had service is found to be something under five years, so bequeathed to him, he found that the people had many are the inducements to the men to purchase raised to the throne Harold, the son of a popular their discharge.

nobleman. The resources of the Saxons, however, Officers intended for the Engineers enter the Royal had been wasted in domestic conflicts before the Military Academy as cadets, and compete from time attack of William ; and the battle of Hastings to time for commissions. When in the corps, pro (1066 A. D.) gave E. with comparative ease to the motion is by seniority, the purchase system not Normans. The next twenty years saw the conquest having been introduced.

completed, and nearly all the large landed estates The Army estimates for 1873-1874 provided for of the Saxons pass, on every pretext except the the following number of officers and men in the corps claimed, indeed, to rule as sovereign by herclitary

true one, into the hands of the Normans. Williain of Royal Engineers:

right, but this made little difference to the fact of Officers, Non-commissioned officers,

conquest. All the high offices in the state and Rank and file, .

in the church passed into the hands of a new race. 6217

The Danes alone could retain either property or Horses,

dignity. For long, some of the Saxons maintained The sum set down for their cost for the year was

an unequal resistance, retiring to the forests as tho £273,438, which, however, does not include any for those favourite popular legends, where, as in

outlaws whose adventures furnished the materials commissariat charges. Chatham, where there are Engineer barracks. The Robin Hood, the spoiling of the richer classes is corps is grouped into battalions and companies.

depicted as one of the chief virtues. In the course

of time, the Normans were absorbed among the ENGINEERS, in the Royal Navy, are the persons Saxons, their very language disappearing, though who attend to the machinery on board the war. leaving many traces. From this union arose the steamers. When such steamers were at first adopted, English people and the English language as they men were obtained from private engineering estab. now exist. lishments, or from merchant-steamers. In 1847 and The union of the Normans with the Saxons was 1848, many changes were made, to induce skilful not fully effected so long as the Normans retained and steally men to enter the service, and to main their foreign possessions. In King John's reign, tain better discipline. The higher grades of them the whole of these were lost, excepting Guienne and were raised from the rank of warrant officers to that Poitou. Long wars under Henry IIT. and Edward of commissionell officers of a civil branch. There III., and his famous son, the Black Prince, were are now the grales of inspector of machinery, chief- continued, in the endeavour to regain the lost pusengineer, and assistant-engineer, the last rank being sessions ; yet great victories like those of Ciéssy subdivided into three classes. All these are com- (1346 A. D.) and Poictiers (1356 A. D.) seemeil to missioned officers, and are strictly examined before leave no result, for no sooner were the English admission; their rank and promotion being by selec- armies withdrawn, than the populations returned to tion, and dependent on skill, character, and length their French allegiance. After Agincourt (1415 of service. A chief-engineer is expected to be able A. D.), Henry V., when he had forced himself to be to make notes in the log of every particular con acknowledged heir to the French throne, was cerning the engines and boilers ; to draw rough virtually king of France, and held his corrt in sketches of the machinery, with figured dimensions Paris ; yet, in a few years more, the rebellion of fit to work from ; to understand and manage every: Joan of Arc came at a time when E. was weakened thing relating to engines, boilers, and surnaces; to with the Wars of the Roses, and (1451 A. 1.) nothing understand practical mechanism generally, and the of foreign ground was left to this country excepting principles of theoretical mechanism. The assistant. Calais. engineer is expected to possess, in a smaller degree, To their efforts to conquer France, the Norman the same kinils of knowledge and skill as the chief- kings added others. Henry II. conquered Ireland engineer; and to act under his orders. The pay (1171 A. D.), Edward I. conquered Wales (1285 A. D.). varies from £401 for an inspector of machinery, and had almost addexi Scotland to his dominions. down to £64 for a third-class assistant-engineer on The bravery of Wallace and Bruce defoated the narbour s :rvice; the lurbour-pay varies from £143 armies of Elward II., his successor; and though the to £55.

| idea of the conquest of Scotland was always a


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