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GENET-GENEVA.

Interpolation of the geological ages before the first day The species are numerous; smaller and more slender (an opinion strangely enough to be found already animals than the civets, mostly natives of Africa in the Midrash (q. v.): 'Before our present world, and the warmer parts of Asia. One, the common the Almighty had created worlds upon worlds, and G. (G. vulgaris), is found in the south of Europe, as destroyed them again '), the latter the Cuvieran expansion of the six days into geological ages. On the other hand, it is asserted both by those who hold that the Bible is entirely the work of man, and by those who take it as a mixture of the divina and the human element, that the biblical notion of the cosmogony, as well as of all the other physical phenomena, are simply in accordance with the state of science in the days when the book was compiled.

The apologists adduce, as a further proof of the authenticity of the Bible, the surpassing sublimity and moral superiority of its cosmogony as compared with all others. The dualism of God and matter, which, according to the different pagan systems, are either eternally co-existent or fused into each other, is exchanged for the awful and moving idea of a one personal God, who first created, then moulded,

Genet (Genetta vulgaris). and everlastingly sustains the universe, lavishing his highest gifts on man, made in his own image, and standing towards him in the living relation well as throughout Africa. It is gray, with small of a son to a father. The occurrence of similar round or oblong black or brown spots; the tail, traditions in the religious records of other primeval which is as long as the body, ringed with black and nations is taken as a corroborating proof of the white. It frequents the banks of brooks. Its fur historical truth of the biblical account. Recent is a considerable article of commerce. It is easily investigations have likewise affirmed the division domesticated, and is kept in houses in Constanof mankind into three principal races, corresponding tinople to catch mice. to Shem, Ham, and Japhet, to be substantially There was an order of knighthood in France, founded

The GENET is sometimes met with in Heraldry; correct, as far as language is concerned.

The question whether Moses really was the author by Charles Martel, called the order of the G., but or compiler of Genesis has been negatived by some, it has long ceased to exist. chiefly on the ground that certain apparently obso GENEʻVA (Fr. Genève, Ger. Genf, Ital. Ginevra), lete names mentioned are explained by others which the most populous and flourishing town of Switzerfirst came into use at a much later time, and that land, capital of the canton of the same name, is there are allusions made to events which happened situated on the southern extremity of the Lake of centuries after Moses. Graves, Faber, Rosenmüller, Geneva, 70 miles north-east from Lyon, in France. and others, consider such passages to be late addi. At the time of the contests between the Helvetii tions. The further question whether Moses wrote and the Romans, G. belonged to the country of the it while at Midian, or during the forty days on Allobrðgi. It was afterwards included in the Roman Mount Sinai, or during the forty years' sojourn in the Provincia Maxima Sequanorum, and was a place of desert, will be considered in the article PENTATEUCH, some importance under the Burgundian kings. On where also some other points in connection with the the dissolution of the kingdom of Burgundy, G. composition of this book will be glanced at. Of fell under the dominion of the Ostrogoths; in the opinions on the other side, we will briefly mention year 536, under that of the Franks; and towards that of Lengerke, who holds the Elohist to have the end of the 9th c., under the new kingdom of written under Solomon, and the Jehovist under Burgundy. It had been made a bishop's seat in Hezekiah ; of Tuch, who places the former in the the 5th c., and from the 12th c. continual feuds time of Saul, the latter in that of Solomon; and of arose between the bishops and the Counts of Bleek, who assigns to the Elohist the time of Saul Savoy with regard to the supremacy. The citizens or the Judges, and to the Jehovist the beginning of took advantage of these dissensions to obtain fresh David's reign.

liberties and privileges for themselves. In 1518, Of the infinite number of ancient and modern the Genevese concluded an alliance with Freiburg, writers who have commented on Genesis, we will and shortly after with Bern, and thus G. became a mention Cyril of Alexandria, Ephraem Syrus, Theo- member of the Swiss confederation. doret, Procopius, Chrysostom, Jerome, Augustine, The doctrines of the Reformation, boldly and Jitzchaki (commonly, but wrongly, called Jarchi), enthusiastically preached by William Farel

, met Aben-Ezra, Levi 6. Gershom, Abrabanel, Men with general acceptance in Geneva. In conjunction delssohn, Michaelis, Vater, Bohlen, Rosenmüller, with Bern, the citizens expelled the adherents of Eichhorn, Augusti, Faber, Graves, Schumann, Tuch, the Dukes of Savoy-the so-called Mamelukes Knobel, Herder, Hamann, Baumgarten, Delitzsch, - from the town, and declared the bishoprio Hengstenberg, Keil, Kalisch, Kurtz, &c. See also vacant. In August 1535, the Reformed religion Sumner's and Hävernick’s Introductions to Genesis ; | was established by law; and in 1541, Calvin was Hugh Miller's Testimony of the Rocks ; Pye invited to take np his residence permanently in G., Smith's Relation between Scripture and Science; Dr as public teacher of theology. It was he who Whewell's Bridgewater Treatise; Goodwin's Mosaic chiefly impressed the stamp of rigid morality, not Cosmogony, &c.

unalloyed with pedantry, on the minds of the GENET (Genetta), a genus of quadrupeds of the citizens of G., and awakened a taste for the exact family Viverridæ, nearly allied to the Civets (q. v.), sciences. The town, which had hitherto been but having only a rudimentary odoriferous pouch, merely a place of trade, thus acquired an important and claws perfectly retractile, as in the Felidee

. influence over the spiritual life of Europe, and The approximation to that family also appears in became the centre of education for the Protestant the vertical contraction of the pupil of the eye. I youth of Great Britain, France, Germany, and

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GENEVA.

new

Spain. In 1602, the last attempt of the Dukes of towns on the continent. In 1870 the population of Savoy to recover the town was frustrated by the the city and suburbs was 68,165. energy and resolution of the citizens.

GENEVA, a canton of Switzerland, in the southDuring the 18th c., G. was distracted by a continued feud between the aristocratic and popular canton of Vaud and the Lake of Geneva, and on the

west of that country, is bounded on the N. by the parties, until in 1782, Bern, Sardinia, and, in S., E., and W. by the territories of France. It has particular, France, interfered in favour of the

an area of 109 sq. miles, and 1870 had 93,195 aristocracy. The French Revolution led to

inhabitants, of whom over 40,000 were Catholics crisis; the government was overthrown in July It is watered by the Rhone and the Amne, whicb 1794, equality in the eye of the law was established, unite about two miles from the south-west extremity a national convention appointed, and a reign of of the Lake of Geneva. The surface is billy, and terror commenced. In 1798, G., and its territory, the soil, not naturally fertile, has been rendered so was annexed to France under the name of the by the industry of the inhabitants. The political department “Du Leman.' After the overthrow

affairs of the canton and city have undergone of Napoleon, G. recovered its independence, and various changes, the last of these being a revolution the Congress of Vienna increased its territory in 1847, when the old aristocratic party was overainsiderably.

thrown, and a democratic and progressive party The situation of the town on both sides of the attained to power. Long inert, and in a backward Jake where it is narrowed to a point and forms condition, the administration is now most active in the Rhone, is exceedingly pleasant and advan; developing the resources of the canton. According tageous for traffic. Formerly, G. was surrounded by walls, and consisted of clusters of narrow and to the constitution of 1847, all male citizens of 2ỉ ill-drained streets ; but since the accession of the years of age exercise the right of electing repredemocratic party to power in 1847 (see next article), members of which must be at least 25 years. There

sentatives to the cantonal council ; the age of a most extraordinary change has been effected, and is a representative for every 666 inhabitants. The chiefly through the energy and enlightened views executive is confided to a council of state composed of M. James Fazy, a wealthy native proprietor. of 7 members, nominated for 10 years, but eligible The ancient ramparts have been removed, streets for re-election. The constitution guarantees civi] widened and well paved, new and commodious and religious liberty, all forms of worship being quays constructed along the shores of the lake allowed by law; but the majority of the citizens and river, and a spirit of improvement introduced pertain to the Reformed Calvinistic Church. The which points to a great extension of the city. Chief branches of industry are agriculture, and the Among the latest improvements is the construction manufacture of articles of bijouterie and watches, of a breakwater, within which, as in a harbour, About 100,000 watches are made annually, and steam-boats are received and lie in safety, and exported to France, England, Italy, and elsewhere. from which they depart several times daily to the Musical-boxes, chronometers, mathematical instru. principal ports on both sides of the lake. The two

ments, &c., are also made. The chief town is divisions of the town are connected by several

Geneva (q. v.). wooden bridges, and by a handsome stone bridge, which was completed in 1863. In rushing through

GENEVA, a village of North America, in the the town, the Rhone parts into two branches, state of New York, is delightfully situated at the forming two islands, on one of which still ex- north-western extremity of Seneca Lake, 200 miles ists an antique and picturesque cluster of build- west of Albany, and 50 miles south-east of Rochester. inys; on the other, laid out as a public pleasure It is handsomely built, and commands a magnifi. ground, there is a statue of Jean Jacques Rousseau, cent view of the lake and the surrounding country. who was a native of the town. Stretching along a It contains about 10 churches, and is the seat of Ho. part of the new quay, on the left side of the Rhone, bart Free College, which accommodates about 100 there is now a public promenade laid out as a students. G. owes its prosperity largely to the purjardin Anglaise. As forming a central terminus for series in its vicinity, which are said to occupy about French and Swiss railways, G. is a favourite resort 10,000 acres, and to dispense annually over $1,000,of travellers, for whose accommodation there are 000 worth of produce. Pop. of the village (1870) several large and splendid hotels, commanding fine 553+. views of the lake and mountain scenery in the GENEVA, LAKE OP, or the Leman Lake (Lacus environs. The language spoken is French. The Lemanus), situated between Switzerland, to which principal edifices are the cathedral church of St the larger portion belongs, and the recently acquired Pierre, which dates from 1124; the town-hall; territories of France. It lies 1150 feet above the the college, founded by Calvin in 1558, and con- level of the sea, and extends for rather more than taining a library of 75,000 volumes ; the Musée 50 miles from east to west, in the form of a Rath, so called from the name of its founder, crescent. Its greatest breadth is eight miles, and General Rath, and containing good pictures; the its depth between Evian and Ouchy is 920 feet. observatory, the finest in Switzerland ; and the This lake at some periods of the year presents a museum of natural history, containing De Saus. curious phenomenon, which has never been suffi. ette's geological collection, Haller's herbarium, the ciently accounted for, the surface, especially near fcasil plants of Brogniart and Decandolle, &c. Geneva, rising and falling through a space of from The university (originally established in 1368, and two to five feet in the course of about 25 minutes. reorganised by Calvin and Beza in 1539) has four The lake, which is never entirely frozen over, faculties--theology, law, science, and belles-lettres. abounds in fish, and several steamers ply upon its Among the many handsome new public buildings waters. The shore on the side of the Pays de Vaud may be mentioned the Post-office, a Catholic and an is celebrated for the beauty of its scenery; the English church, this last accommodating the large southern French shore rises solemn and stern, with Duinber of English residents and casual visitors. the mountains of Savoy in the background. From The staple manufactures of the town are watches, the Lake of Geneva, Mont Blanc visible, and, inusical-boxes, and jewellery ; and for the sale of although 60 miles distant, is often reflected in its these and other fancy articles, there are many waters. The Rhone enters the lake at the upper attractive shops. Altogether, G. is to be considered end, turbid and yellow, and leaves it at the town as now one of the most prosperous and improving i of Geneva as clear as glass, and of a deep blue

GENEVIEVE-GENGHIS.

.int. The lake receives about twenty streams from hesitate to assume the reins of government, though its northern shore, none of which, however, are im- only 13 years of age. Some of the subject tribes portant.

refused to obey him, and chose another chief GENEVIÈVE, a saint of the Roman Catholic belonging to the same family. A war of several Church, the subject of many popular and highly which he was compelled to retire to Karakorum,

years' duration was the result, at the termination of poetical legends, and regarded with special venera: the capital of Toghrul Ungh-Khan, monarch of the tion in France and particularly in Paris, of which Keraeit, and place himself under that monarchi's sity she is the patroness. From a nearly contemporary life of st G., we learn that she was born protection. Ungh-Khan gave him his daughter in in 122, in the village of Nanterre, near Paris, where, his army, in which capacity G. gave proof of great

marriage, and anpointed him to the command of mere child, she attracted the notice of Germanus of Auxerre, who passed a night at Nanterre on his military talent, conquering the Mekreit, Tanjati return from Britain in 429. Germanus is said to

Jellaeir, and other neighbouring tribes. But Unghhave marked her out as specially destined to a and urged on by envious courtiers, ordered G. to

Khan, becoming jealous of his growing reputaticu, life of holiness and purity; and the child, partly be assassinated. The latter, having taken counsel trom her natural tendency, partly, perhaps, under with his relative and chief councillor, Karatehår the influence of the counsel of so holy a bishop; Nuyan, a youth of his own age, but renowned in devoted herself to a life of virginity and conventual Tartar history for his wisdom, resolved to depart Beclusion. On the death of her parents, she was for his native country, which, after many hair. removed to Paris ; and her active charity, and the breadth escapes, he reached at the head of 5000 extraordinary reputation for sanctity which she acquired both there and in other cities of France, father-in-law; and Toghrul, vanquished in battle

cavalry. Raising an army, he marched against his which she visited on missions of Christian benevo: in 1203, sought refuge among the Naymans, but lence, won for her the admiring veneration, not alone of her own people, but even of the heathen or G. immediately seized upon Toghrul's dominions.

was slain by the guards stationed on the frontiers. half-converted tribes, which, about this period, after a long series of struggles, had begun to 'amal. In the following year, a number of Tartar tribes, gamate with the ancient population of the Roman league against him. The command was given to

alarmed at his increasing power, formed a powerful province of Gaul. During the Frank invasion under Childeric, G., with her sisters in religion, battle fought on the banks of the Amur, G. utterly

Tai-Ungh-Khan, chief of the Naymans; but iu a set out on an expedition for the relief of the routed his enemies, slew their leader, and became starving city, and successfully conveyed to Paris an abundant supply of provisions. The city, when at once master of almost all Mongolia. Grander taken, was treated with special leniency through his vision.

views of conquest seem now to have opened before her intercession with the king, and many captives kouriltai, or general assembly, on the banks of the

In the year 1206, he convoked a obtained their liberty at her prayer. On the new alarm for the safety of Paris, created by the news his native land. This meeting was attended by

Onan, a tributary of the Amur, flowing through of the march of Attila and his army of Huns, it was proposed to abandon the city; but G., assem

deputies from all the subjugated hordes of Tartary, bling the matrons and consecrated 'virgins in one of and G. contrived to obtain a religious confirmation the churches, exhorted them to avert, by prayer and of his designs. Up to this period, he had borno fasting, the threatened calamity. The unexpected

the name of Temujin; but à renowned magician alteration of the direction of Attila's march added or priest, surnamed Bout-Tangri ("Son of Heaven'), still more to her reputation and to her influence; and pronounced him Genghis Khan—. e, greatest

venerated by all the Mongols, now came forward and it is agreed that her personal example, and that of the sisterhood to which she belonged, appealed,

khans, or khan of khans, declaring that he with no inconsiderable effect, to the natural sensi- should rule over the whole earth. The deputies bilities of the rude races which now found them were duly impressed. About this time the Eighurs, selves, for the first time, in contact with the an agricultural and civilised people, inhabiting the humanising influences of the Christian religion. St country at the sources of the Hoang-Ho and YangG. enjoyed, to an extreme age, the reverence and tse-Kiang, voluntarily submitted to his sway. From love of the entire people. She died in 512 at the this people, who professed Buddhism, the Mongols age of 89, and her memory is still affectionately would appear to have acquired a knowledge of described as the type of all that is purest and most writing. They adopted the Eighur characters, but elevating in the conventual life, as well as of all that preserved their own language, and G. selected one is most admirable in the works of charity and of the newly-submitted tribe to instruct his children. benevolence, with which, in the active orders, that The next important incident in his career was the life is habitually associated. Under her patronage, conquest of the northern portion of China, called and with her name, a religious congregation of Khatai. The immediate cause of the war between priests was founded in the 12th C., which, with some

G. and the emperor of China, Tchong-Héi, was vicissitudes, continued until the Revolution.

the refusal of the former to recognise the latter religious congregation of women, under the name of as his suzerain, or liege-lord. Most of the Tartar

Sisters of St Genevieve,' was established in 1636, tribes which G. had subdued were really tribu. thiefly devoted to the care of the sick and the edu: taries of the Chinese empire; and Tchong-Hei, cation of young females.

though not interfering to prevent the conquesto

of the Mongols, now wished G. to acknowledge GENGHIS (Jengueiz, Tchinggis, or Zingis) his superiority by paying tribute. G. immediately KHAN, originally called Temujin, a celebrated prepared for war, scaled the great wall in 1211, Mongol conqueror, born 25th January 1155 A. D. and after a series of bloody and protracted camat Deylun-Yeldak, near the northern bend of the paigns, Pekin fell into the hands of the barbarians Feranıuran (Hoang-Ho), was the son of Yesukai in 1215. Meanwhile G. was called back to Tartary Bahadar, a Mongol chief, who ruled over some to quell certain insubordinate tribes, headed by thirty or forty families or clans, called the tribe Gutchluk, son of the chief of the Naymans, who of Negrun, who dwelt between the Amur and the had recovered his ancestral dominions, and alsc great wall of China, and paid tribute to the khan of conquered those of the Gur-Khan of Kara-Kbatai. East Tartary On his father's death, he did not These tribes were nearly exterminated in a great

A

GENGHISGENII.

women.

course

br, at which took place near the sources of the adultery, fornication, theft, homicide, &c.; organised Inissei. Gutehluk, however, had some time before a system of postal communication throughout his taken refuge in Turkestân, a vast region stretching enormous doninions (mainly, no doubt, for military from Lake Lob, in the middle of Tartary, westward purposes); and so thoroughly organised what we to the Sea of Aral. Here he succeedevi in making may call the police or civil authority, that it was nimself supreme ruler, but only to be swept away said one might travel without fear or danger froin by the victorious Mongols, now pressing westward one end of his empire to the other. He a ould also in an irresistible torrent. At length G. reached the appear to have had a respect for men of learning Sihoon, the north-eastern boundary of the err.pire and virtue, and to have retained several of such of Khaurezm or Kharism, whose ruler, Ala-ed-din about his person. The only memorial of G. 200 Mohammed, was one of the most powerful sovereigns known to exist is a granite tablet, with a Mezo in Asia. The dynasty to which he belonged had inscription (deciphered by Schmidt of Petersburgh risen into power through the weakness of the discovered among the ruins of Nertschinsk. T: is Seljuk sultans; and its sway now extended from tablet had been erected by G. in commemoration of the borilers of Syria to the river Indus, and from his conquest of the kingdom of Kara-Khatai the river Sihon to the Persian Gulf. The murder

GENII. According to the belief of the old of some Mongol merchants at Otrår, a town on Italian races, genii were protecting spirits, who the Sihon, afforded G. a pretext for invasion. accompanied every created thing from its origil He immediately despatched his eldest son, Jûjy, to its final decay, like a second spiritual self. at the head (according to Eastern chroniclers) of They were appropriated not only to men, but to all 700,000 horse, who accordingly burst into Khaurezm things animate and inanimate, and more especially, in 1219; and after having overthrown the Tartar to places. They were regarded as effluences of Allies of Sultan Mohammed, and fought a long the Divinity, and were therefore worshipped with and bloody battle with the sultan himself with no divine honours ; sacrifices were annually made to decisive result, captured Samarkand, Bokhara (the them on various occasions, especially on birthdays, valuable library of which he destroyed), and all and during the period of harvest." Nay, Jupiter the other important cities of the country. The himself was called the genius of men, and Juno of Mongols, in three separate divisions, now scoured

Not only had every individual his genius, and ravaged Khaurezm in all directions. In the but likewise the whole people. The statue of the

of five or six years, they overran the national genius was placed in the vicinity of the whole of Persia, subdued the inhabitants of the Roman forum, and is often seen on the coins of Caucasus, crossed into Russia, and plundered the Hadrian and Trajan. The genius of an individual land between the Wolga and the Dnieper. Nor

was represented by the Romans as a figure in a were they less successful in the east; the whole of toga, having the head veiled, and the coru ropia or Southern Asia, as far as the Sutlej, experiencing the patera in the hands ; while local genii appear under iniseries of their devastations. Sickness, disease, the figure of serpents eating fruit set before them. and exhaustion at length enfeebled the Mongol (Compare Hartung Die Relig. der Röm. 1. p. 32, &c. hordes, and compelled G. to return to Karakorum, in and Schömann De Diis Manibus, Laribus, et Genis, Tartary, the capital of his empire, in 1224. During Greifswald, 1840.)— The GENII of the East bear no his absence, his generals had been prosecuting the resemblance to the old Italian genii. Their proper Chinese war with the greatest success. G., though Arabic name is Djinn or Jinn; and there seems to well-advarced in years, was still possessed by the have been no better reason for translating the word old thirst of conquest; and having recruited his by the Latin term genius, than the casual similarity forces, he led them across the great desert of Gobi of the sounds. The word Djinn is from an Arabic to the kingdom of Tanjout, in the north-west of root, signifying to 'veil' or conceal, and properly China, the capital of which, Nin-hia, he besiegea. denotes an invisible being. The djinns, or Eastern Disheartened by the loss of the greater part of his genii, are, in fact, regarded by the Arabs and army, the king of Tanjout promised to capitulate at Persians as an intermediate class of beings between the end of a month; but in the interval G. died, angels and men, and inferior in dignity to both. the 24th August 1227, on the hill Liou-pan, worn They are described in poetry as the subjects of a out with years and toils. G. is said to have had certain Ján Ibn Ján, and as inhabiting the world live hundred wives and concubines, and to have before the present race of human beings; but left a great number of children, among three of they having excited the anger of God by their whom he divided his enormous possessions. The rebellion, he sent his favourite angel, Ilháris, or third son, Oughtai, was appointed 'Grand Khan, according to others, Azazel, to punish and govern and received for his share the country now called them. Some time after, Hháris himself rebelled, Mongolia, with Khatai or Northern China as far whereupon God condemned him to eternal punishnorth as the mouth of the Amar. The second son, ment. From this period, on account of his despair Tcheghatai, received Turkestån north of the Ama or his apostasy, he was called Eblis or Iblis. The or Jeyhûn, and was committed to the guardianship djinns can assume, in an instant, any form they of Karatchar Nuyan. Jajy, for his share, obtained please, whether of man, brute, or monster, the last Keptchak, and all the country west and north of 1-in accordance with the popular view of their Turkestan, an immense tract extending from the wicked character—being the one most Arquently Caspian Sea almost to the Northern Ocean.

selected. Such as have read the Arabian Nighis In the course of his sanguinary career, G. is will have a vivid recollection of the hideous and said to have destroyed, by wars and massakres, gigantic shapes under which the genii are wont to no fewer than tive or six millions of human manifest themselves, accompanied at times with beings. His conquests were generally accompanied smoke and thunderings, to terror-stricken mortals. with acts of appalling barbarity, yet we seem to They are in no degree whatever guardian spirits trace through the dreadful history of the man like the genii of the old Italians; on the contrary, bome indications of a civilising tendency. Himself they are inimical to man's happiness, and can only a Monotheist, a stern believer in God after the be subdued by the spells of powerfið magicians. fashion of Mohammed, he nevertheless tolerated all See FAMILIAR SPIRITS. The better-informed Eastreligions; exempted from taxes and military service erns, however, do not believe, it is said, in the physicians and priests ; made obligatory the prac. actual existence of such beings. The Mussulmad cice of hospitality; established severe laws against doctors, it is true, affirm the existence of djinns

GENIPAP-GENIUS.

es au invisibie race of supernatural beings, who of; as the river's brink, or the brink of the carry out the purposes of Deity, but they reject rirer. From the frequency with which the form in altogether the grotesque and repulsive inventions l ': indicates that one thing belongs to another, it is of the Arab and Persian romancers and poets. often called the possessive case.

But this name ig GEʻNIPAP, a much esteemed fruit of the West little applicable in such expressions as a day's Indies and warm parts of South America. The tree journey; still less in many cases where the genitive which yields it is Genipa Americana, of the natural is used in the ancient languages ; e. g., fons lactis, a order Činchonaceae. It is a 2-celled berry, contain- fountain of milk. The generic case, however, meaning many seeds; about as large as an orange, of a kind, will be found to express the real relation ja

ing that which limits the other noun to a class or whitish-green colour, with a dark purple juice of an agreeable vinous taste.

every conceivable combination.

The termination 's has been erroneously, sup GENI'STA, a genus of leguminous plants, of posed to be a contraction for his, as if the king's which the characters are noticed in the article son'='the king his son.' But this would not account BROOM. Some of the species are popularly known for the queen's son,' or for 'men's sons. Besides by the name Broom, some as GREENWEED (q. v.). his itself is the genitive of he, and formed in the G. Anglica, a much branched, very spiny shrub, same way as king's, for the apostrophe (') is a mere not above a foot high, is called PETTY WHin and artificial expedient of writing to distinguish the Needle Furze in England, where it is regarded as possessive from the plural, and does not belong to indicating a very poor soil. The Genista of Virgil the spoken language. The English genitive in 'o and other Roman classics is supposed to be G. is a genuine relic of the Inflections (q. v.) common Hispanica, a native of the south of Europe, with at an early stage to all the Aryan languages. 8 was branched stiff spines. Gen is said to be a Celtic the prevalent ending of the genitive singular in the word, signifying a shrub. The name Plantagenet, is Anglo-Saxon, and in modern English it has been from Planta Genista; but what plant was intended, extended by analogy to all nouns and even to the and whether the common furze or a species of plural. When the plural ends in s, the additional : Genista, is not so certain.

of the genitive is omitted, for the sake of the sound, GENITIVE, the name of one of the cases'in as kings' sons. grammar (see DECLENSION). In such an expression GE'NIUS. This word, which conveys the most as (Lat.) regis filius, (Eng.) the king's son, the form lofty eulogium that can be applied to intellectual regis or king's is called the genitive case; and accord excellence, meant originally the tutelary god or ing to the usual explanation, this name was given it, demon that was anciently supposed to preside over because it indicates the source or origin of the thing the birth and destinies of every individual human joined with it. A much more satisfactory account being. The peculiarities attending the character of the origin of the name, and of the real nature and career of each person came thus to be attributed of the genitive case, is that given by Max Müller to the higher or lower nature of their attendant

Science of Language). The terms of grammar were genii. Thus arose one of the meanings now attached originally applied, not to the parts of speech, but to to the word-namely, the special bent, aptitude, or the elements of thought; they were logical terms faculty, which any one possesses ; as a genius for before they were grammatical. Long before the poetry, for music, for mathematics, for statesman. now familiar grammatical distinctions of singular ship, and so forth. But this is not the chief or most and plural, of gender, case, voice, &c. had been prominent idea implied in the usual application of thought of, the Greek writers on dialectics, in the term. If we consult usage, we shall find that analysing the different parts of an expressed thought, genius is more frequently spoken of in connection bad distinguished the principal notion—the subject with the poet, painter, architect, &c., than with the or nominative as it is called-from secondary or man of science or of practice; as if there was dependant notions; the dependency of the latter something in the regions of fine art that came more they expressed by the word plosis (Lat. casus), a fall directly home to the susceptibilities of men, and or leaning of one thing upon another ; and in such a evoked their expressions of admiration and praise. proposition as, the king's son is dead,' they indicated and such is really the case. The artist's function The exact nature of the dependence by calling it the is to touch immediately the chords of human genikē ptosis, i. e., the case shewing the genus, kind, pleasure; the men of practical life, the physician, or class—the generic case; for while the name 'son lawyer, or engineer, have more to do with the is applicable to every man having parents, king's deliverance from pains or from obstacles to pleasure, Bon is limited to the class of sons having kings for and however necessary their work may be, it is apt their fathers. One name joined to another in this to be associated with the dark and gloomy side of relation has thus the same effect as an Adjective our human life. (q. v.) in limiting its application. It seems probable, Undoubtedly, the most important meaning of the indeed, that the termination of what we now call term, as pointing to a fundamental peculiarity in the genitive case, was originally the same as that by which human minds differ, is that connecting it which adjectives were formed from nouns. The with originality, invention, or creative power, in names thus applied to ideas were by the Greek any department of intellectual activity, artistic, grammarians of Alexandria transferred to the words scientitic, or practical. Not poetic creativenese expressing them, and were afterwards translated alone, but every effort of the inventive faculties into their Latin equivalents by the Greek gram- of man, by which new and superior combinations joarians who taught their language to the youth and devices are introduced into the world with a of Rome. But by this time the terms had become view to diminish the pains and add to the pleasures strictly technical, and their original signification of mankind, may be properly designated 'genius. little thought of; and this may account for the Sufficient authority exists for this more extended Greek genike, the Latin equivalent for which is use of the word, and we may justify it also by the generalis, being rendered by genitivus, generating consideration, that there is a common fact in all or producing, which would have been expressed in these different modes of intellectual superiority, Greek by jennetike.

while it is further possible that there may be In English, the genitive is the only case or relation common foundation for them all in the consti among nouns expressed by a difference of termination, tution of the mind. We mark off the departs and eren it is often expressed by the preposition ment of original power from other departments or

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