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Owen, Calamy, Collier, Leighton, South, Tillotson, Tennyson, the Brownings, Matthew and Edwin Ar and Barrow. This was also the epoch when the nold, Dobell, and Smith, as poets; and in the New great Milton, driven into the shades of obscurity World beyond the Atlantic, Washington Irving, Poe, by political adversities, fultilled the uttered hope Longfellow, Cooper, Prescott, Emerson, Baneroft, of his youth, and wrote something which posterity Hawthorne, Whittier, Motley, Mrs. Stowe, and others, will not willingly let die.? About this time, too, are among the great living authors of this age or Walton angled, and Butler burlesqued dissent; Mar those recently dead. A considerable portion of the vell turned his keen irony against the High Church; literature of the 18th and 19th centuries is devoted to Locke and Newton speculated and discovered ; and science, which can show a crowd of illustrious names John Dryden, the literary chief of the time, 'found too numerous to mention. Besides, in scientific works, the English language (according to Dr Johnson) of the matter is of so much greater importance than the brick and left it of marble.'
form, and so little attention is paid in general to tho The literary history of the 18th c., and of the reign latter by scientific writers, that it is not customary to of Queen Anne, has been variously estimated. If it include them in a survey of literature proper. was overvalued by those who lived in it, and in the
Several compends of English literature have been age that succeeded, it has assuredly been under published within the last twenty years, which are well valued in our own day. It was long glorified as worthy of attentive study. Among the most judicions the Augustan age of English literature ; but among may be named, A Compendium of English Literature, ourselves it has been set aside as a sceptical, utili: from Sir J. Mandeville to William Cowper (Philadeltarian age, when poetry could find no higher field phia, 1848), English Literature of the Nineteenth Centhan didactic discussion, and prose found nothing to iury (Philadelphia, 1851), and A Compendium of amuse but comic and domestic narrative, or bitter American Literature (Philadelphia, 1858), all by and stinging satire. The truth, as usual, lies in Chas. D. Cleveland. Also, Chambers' Cyclopedia of the middle. This age was far from being superior English Literature (Edin., 2 vols. 8vo., 1844–1853); to every era that bad gone before it, and it was Duyckinck’s Cyclopedia of American Literature (N. not quite so low as some of its hostile critics York, 2 vols. 8vo., 1856 ; new edition, revised, 1869). have represented. One thing, however, is beyond Allibone's Critical Dictionary of English Literature dispute, viz., that the form, both in poetry and in and British and American Authors, 3 vols. 8vo. (Phila., prose, had come to be much more regarded than 1858-1870), is not properly a compendium, but a critthe matter. Addison, Swift, and Johnson, may be ical biography of English and American literature, and taken as types of the prose writers of this century. a work of extraordinary labour and erudition. The first for ease and grace is unmatched in any age; the second stands equally high for rough and ENGRAVING, in its widest sense, is the art of pointed vigour; and the third is famous for his incising designs, writing, &c., on any hard substance, ponderous, tinely balanced sentences, the dignity of such as stone, metal, or wood. Many branches of which not unfrequently surpassed the sense. The the art are of great antiquity ; such as gem-engrav. poetry of the time is represented by Pope, and it ing, cameo-cutting, and die-sinking.
The more has been grarely asked whether he was a poet at important of these ornamental and useful kinds of all. lle certainly versified with brilliant elegance, engraving are described under their and the terror which his polished epigrams excited But in a narrower sense, engraving is the special in the breasts of his enemies, shewed him to possess designation of the art of cutting or indenting the a force of genius which at least demands our admira- surface of metal plates or of blocks of wood with tion. Young and Akenside were perhaps animated designs, for the purpose of taking off impressions or by a higher poetic sense, but they accomplished much prints of the designs on paper. This department of less; and the same may also be said of Thomson, the art arose as late as the 15th c., the earliest Gray, Collins, Beattie, and Cowper. Incomparably wood-engraving with a date being 1423, and the the greatest poet, however, of the 18th c. was earliest dated engraving from a metal plate being Robert Burns. Richardson, Fielding, Smollett, 1461. Sterne, Goldsmith, and Mackenzie are its novelists ; Wood-engraving differs from engraving on metal Hume, Robertson, and Gibbon, its historians; in this, that on a metal plate the traces or marks Butler, Berkeley, Clarke, Shaftesbury, Hume, Paley, which are to appear on the paper are cut or sunk and Adam Smith its philosophers.
into the plate, and when printed from are filled The 19th c., thongh full of interest for us, is, with ink, while the rest of the surface is kept clean; from the novelty and the variety of the intellectual whereas in wood-engraving they are left prominent character employed in it, one of the most difficult to or in relief, and the blank parts of the design are analyse of the whole range of English literature. It cut away. Hence a wood-cut acts as a type, and is has been a time of extraordinary activity, books inked and printed from in the usual way. See have been multiplied to an unprecedented degree, PRINTING. This makes wood-engraving peculiarly and readers have increased in an equal proportion suitable for the illustration of books; as the blocks It cannot be doubted, however, that the first quarter can be printed from along with the letterpress ; of this century is greater in literature than any while the impressions from a metal plate must be subsequent portion of it. It is greater, besides, in taken by themselves, and by a slow process. The poetry than in prose. The early names of Coleridge further treatment of the important art of Wood« and Wordsworth, of Scott and Byron, of Shelley ENGRAVING is reserved for a separate article ; our and Keats, of Campbell and Southey, are higher attention at present being confined to engraving on than any now prominent except that of Tennyson. metal. This is the age, besides, of novels and romances, It is beyond our scope to enter into the practical of reviews and periodicals. Jeffrey and Sydney details of the various processes; we can only aim at Smith, Hazlitt and John Foster, De Quincey and enabling a reader altogether ignorant of them to Carlyle, are the great names in review-literature; conceive how the effects may be produced, and to Hail, Chalmers, and Irving in pulpit oratory; understand the ternis currently used in speaking of Stewart, Mackintosh, Bentham, Brown, Hamilton, this kind of art. and Mid in philosophy; Dickens, Thackeray, Bulwer The metals most commonly used for engraving Lytton, Miss Bronte, and Miss Evans, as novelists ; I are copper and steel, the former having the advan. Hallam, Macaulay, Thirlwall, Grote, Milman, and tage of being more easily worked, the latter of Carlyle, as historians ; Ruskin, a writer on art; greater durability. The processes of working are
essentialiy the same in both. The several manners or books. In this process, which is a very complex styles of engraving are distinguished as Line engrav- kind of etching, the ground, which is composed of ing, Mezzotinto, Stippling, and Aquatinta.
pulverised rosin and spirits of wine, assumes when 1. Line-engraving-in which, as the name implies, dry a granulated form ; and the aquafortis acting the effect is produced by a combination of lines - on the metal between the particles, reduces the is executed either by direct incision with the graver surface to a state that an impression from it or the dry-point, or by a combination of incision resembles a tint or wash of colour on paper. David with etching--a chemical process to be immediately Allan engraved his celebrated illustrations of the descriled. The graver or burin is usually in the Gentle Shepherd in this manner.
It has now gono form of a quadrangular prism, fitted into a short almost entirely out of use, having, like engraving in handle. In making the incision, the graver is imitations of drawings in chalk or pencil, been in pushed forward in the direction of the line
required, a great degree superseded by lithography. being held by the handle, at an angle very slightly 4. In engraving in Stipple, which was much in inclined to the plane of the copper. A scraper is vogue in the end of the last century, the drawing required to scrape off the barb or burr which is and effect are produced by small dots, in place of formed by the action of the graver and dry-point. lines. Ryland, Bartolozzi, and Sherwin, excelled The rubber is a roll of cloth dipped in oil, and is in this style. It is well suited for portraits ; several used to make the surface smooth. A burnisher is of Raeburn's have been capitally engraved in stipple required to polish the plate, and erase any scratches by Walker. It involves much more labour than which it may accidentally receive, and also to make mezzotinto, and is now little practised. lighter any part of the work which may have been Plate-printing.–Copper-plates, engraved in any of made too dark. The dry-point is like a sewing the above styles, are ready for press as soon as they needle fixed into a handle, and is used to cut or are finished by the engraver. The method of printscratch the finer lines. The graver cuts the copper ing from them is very simple. Their engraved surclean out, the dry-point throws it up on each side ; face is daubed over with a thick oleaginous ink, so and in some cases this is not scraped off, but that the lines are effectually filled. As this dirties made use of till it is worn off, as it gives richness the whole face of the plate, it is necessary to clean to the line.
it, which is done by the workman wiping it first In etching, the first step is to cover the plate with with a piece of cloth, and then with the palms of his a composition of wax, asphaltum, gum mastic, resin, hands, rubbed on fine whiting. It may be calculated &c., dissolved by heat; an outline of the design, made that a hundred times more ink is thus removed on paper in pencil or red chalk, is then transferred' than actually remains in the indentations; howto the surface of this composition, by being passed ever, such is necessary. The plate being thoroughly through a press. The subject is then drawn on the cleaned, it is laid on a press (see fig.), with a piece ground with the etching-point, which cnts through it, and exposes the copper. Etching-points or needles resemble large sewing-needles shortened, and fixed into handles four or five inches long; some are made oval, to produce broader lines. A rim of wax being put round the plate, acid is poured on, and corrodes the copper not protected by the ground. If the acid is found not to have acted sufficiently, it may be applied again to the whole design, or only to portions of it, by stopping up, with a mix: ture of lampblack and Venice turpentine applied with a camel-hair pencil, what has been sufficiently bitten in.
When a series of parallel lines are wanted, as in backgrounds, &c., an ingenious machine called a ruler is employed, the accuracy of whose operation is exceedingly perfect. This is made to act on etcling-ground by a point or diamond connected of damped paper over it; and being wound beneath with the apparatus, and the tracings are bit in with a roller covered with blanket-stuff
, it is forced aquafortis in the ordinary way.
to yield an impression on the paper. The plate 2. The process of mezzotinto is by no means so requires to be kept at a moderate warmth during difficult as line-engraving. The plate is prepared the operation. The frequent rubbing of the plate by being indented or hacked all over by an instru. with the hand to clean it, as may be supposedl, tends ment with a serrated edge, called a cradle, which is greatly to wear it down; and such is the wear rocked to and fro upon it in all directions. The barb chiefly from this cause, that few copper-plates will or nap thus produced retains the printer's ink, and if yield more than a few thousands of impressions in printed, a uniform dark surface would be the result. good order. The earliest, called proofs, are always On this plate, after a tracing has been transferred, the best and most highly prized. the engraver goes to work with tools called scrapers In consequence of this defect in copper, the praoand burnishers—those parts of the ground most tice of engraving steel-plates, for all subjects requiring moothed being the highest lights, and the ground a great inany impressions, has now become very the least operated on producing the deepest shadows. common. This process was introduced by the late As the work proceeds, it may be blackened with ink, Mr Perkins of London, who originally softened the applied with a printer's ball or otherwise, in order plates, engraved them, and then rehardened themto ascertain the effect. The design is sometimes a practice now abandoned, as ordinary steel-plates etched on the plate by the ordinary process, before can be worked upon by the burin, dry-point, scraper, the wiezzotinto ground is laid.
and burnisher with perfect facility. Etching or 3. Aquetint Engraving.–By this method, the effect steel-plates is executed much in the same way as in of drawings in Indian ink is produced ; and at one the process on copper. An engraving on a steel time it was greatly made use of in rendering the plate may be transferred in relief to a softened steel drawings of Paul Sandby, and our early water. cylinder by pressure; and this cylinder, after being colour painters, and particularly prints for drawing-hardened, may again transfer the design by rolling
# upon a fresh steel-plate; and thus the design may Martin Rota, and others, ranging from the middle be niultiplied at pleasure.
to the end of the 16th century. Agost. Caracci History of Engraving.--This most important in the celebrated painter, executed many spirited vention, by which the productions oi art are diffused engravings. Saenredam, De Bruyn, Galle, Kellerwithout limit, is said to have been accidental, and thaller, Alberti, De Goudt, C. de Pass, Sadeler, is claimed for Tommaso Finiguerra, who first took are names of well-known engravers that enter on impressions on paper about the year 1440. His the 17th century. Henry Goltzius is noted for employment was executing ornamental engraving, the number and variety of his works, and his chietly on articles used in religious services, such imitations of the styles of the older masters. In As small portable shrines, or altar-pieces. These the plates of engravers towards the middle of the were generally made of silver, and the designs 17th, and beginning of the 18th c., a large propor. engraved on them were filled up with a black tion of the work consists of etching, the graver composition, that hardened in a short time. This being chiefly used for deepening and clearing up composition was called in Italian niello (from Lat. the etching. This arose from the manner of migllus, dim. of niger, black), and the workers in it working being well adapted for rendering the style miellatori. It was the practice of Finiguerra, in the of the painters of that period, whose works were course of executing his work, to prove it by rubbing distinguished for freedom of execution or touch, lampblack and oil into, and pressing paper over and clearness and transparency. The most noted it he thus obtained an impression of his work engravers of this period were the Vischers, who up to a particular stage, and was enabled safely flourished between 1610 and 1650, and engraved to carry it on till it was completed. Finiguerra's many of Berghem's pictures ; Bolswert, 1620; Lucas title to the invention has been disputed ; and in a Vosterman the Elder, 1630 ; Suyderhoef, about recent work by J. D. Passavant, Le Peintre-Graveur 1610. These engravers rendered many of the works (Leip. 1860), a strong case seems to be maile out of Rubens in a very spirited manner. Coryn Boelfor its German origin. Be that as it may, the whose engravings from Teniers are in some respects principal early Italian engravers who followed superior even to Le Bas-Troyen, and Van Kessel, Finiguerra, were Bacio Baldini (born about 1436, died are worthy contemporaries. 1515); Sandro Botticelli (born 1437, lied 1515)-he In the age of Louis XIV., a race of engravers of Embellished an edition of Dante's Inferno, brought portraits arose, who carried execution with the out in 1481; Antonio Pollajuoli (born 1426, died graver almost to perfection. The works of the 1498, at Florence); Andrea Mantegna (born at artists they engraved from were forid in style, Padua 1431, died at Mantua 1505); and Marc with a great display of drapery and lace, and Antonio Raymondi (born at Bologna 1487 or 1488, accessories in the backgrounds elaborately executed. died 1539), who executed his chief works at Rome. Among these engravers the following rank highest: The most celebrated early German engravers were Gerard Edelinck (b. Antwerp 1627, d. Paris 1707)Martin Schoengauer (born at Colmar about 1455, he was one of the best engravers of the period, died 1499); Israel van Mecheln, or Meckenen (born and specially patronised by Louis XIV.; Masson at Meckenen on the Meuse about 1450, and died | (b. 1636, d. 1700); Larmessin (b. 1640, d. 1684); Drevet 1523); Michel Wohlgemuth, who died in 1519; the Elder (b. 1664, d. 1739); Drevet the Younger Albert Dürer (born at Nürnberg in 1471, died in (b. 1697); Gerard Andran (b. 1640, d. 1703). There was 1528); and Lucas van Leyden (born at Leyden a large family of Andrans engravers, but Gerard 1494, died 1533). The engravings of all these artists was the most celebrated, indeed he was one of the are very valuable, not only from their scarceness, and best of the French engravers. Among engravers of as illustrating the early history and progress of the talent in England may be mentioned Robert Walker art, but as exemplifying many high qualities that (b. 1572); William Faithorne (h. London between have never been surpassed in later times. The 1620 and 1630, d. 1694) executed many excellent most of them were painters, and engraved their own engravings of portraits ; George Vertue (b. London works, except Marc Antonio, who engraved chietly 1684, d. 1756), a good engraver, and a man of those of Raphael, by whom he was employed, and general information and taste in matters of art; who occasionally overlooked and directed him. All John Smith (b. London 1654, d. 1722) executed in those engravers, and their immediate followers, mezzotinto a vast number of interesting portraits executed their works with the graver; but soon In the 18th c., there were numerous excellent after, engravings came to be generally executed engravers, by whose works the taste for the pictures by two processes—etching, and cutting with the of the Dutch school of the 17th c. has been widely graver or the dry-point. The works of these early extended. Two of the most distinguished of these masters are often remarkable for character and were John Philip le Bas (b. Paris 1708, d. 1782) and expression, as those, for instance, by Mantegna ; John George Wille (b. Königsberg 1717, d. 1808). and for the correctness and high style of the Their styles are totally dissimilar. Le Bas's plates drawing, for which qualities Marc Antonio has are chietly etched, and remarkable for spirit never been surpassed ; also for finish of the most and sharpuess of touch and transparency; accord. careful and elaborate kind, which has been carried ingly, mostly all his works are after painters who further by Albert Dürer and Lucas van Leyden excelled in these qualities, particularly Teniers than by any other engravers. The styles of these Wille's engravings, again, are of the most caref il early engravers were cultivated by numerous suc and elaborate description, and his best prints ain cessors, several of whom followed their masters as after Gerard Dow, Terburg, Mieris, and Metzuclosely as they could, while others diverged into masters distinguished for the high tinish of their something like originality : the chief names are pictures. He worked with the graver; and his plates Agostino Veneziano, about 1620; Nicolas Belin'da are distinguished by the precision and clearness Modena, and Giov. Ghisi, 1630 ; Luc. Damesz, with which the lines are cut. who died in 1533; Giov. Giac. Caraglio, and It was abont the middle and latter portion of Marco da Ravenna, about 1640; Giul. Bonasone, last century that engraving reached its highest born at Bologna in 1498, died in Rome in 1364 ; point in England. The works of William Hogarth Eneus Vicus, George Vens, Henrid Aldegraf, and (b. London 1698, d. 1764) are of world-wide cele. Jean Sebast. Boehm, about 1550 ; Adrian, Charles, brity, but that is owing mainly to the excellence Willium, and John Collerti, Adam and George and dramatic interest of the pictures from which Ghisi, Sutermann, Virgilius Solis, Cornelius Cort, the engravings are made, though, no doubt, his
prints, are engraved in a firm, clear style, similar artists of the day. Several, however, of Landseer's to that practiced by the French engravers of the earlier works have been engraved in the line mai ner, time, several of whom were employed by him. particularly his pictures of Drovers leaving the It was Sir Robert Strange (b. Orkney 1721, Grampians,' and The Watering-place,' by Watts d. London 1792), an engraver of figures, and William which are capital examples of line-engraving. Woolet (b. Maidstone 1735, d. London_1785), There is no good modern school of landscape-engrav
landscape-engraver, who imparted to English ing on the continent; the influence of Woolet was engraving those qualities and characteristics that entirely confined to this country, where landscapeenable us to claim a style of engraving that is engraving, particularly in illustrated works after natiɔnal, differing from other styles, and that has Turner, has attained great excellence. aris n ard been best carried out in this country. In Towards the end of last century, mezzotintodrawing and form, Strange was rather defective; engraving was practised in England with great but he excelled in what engravers call colour, or the success ; arising from its being peculiarly adapted art of producing, by means of variety of line, a to render effectively the works of Sir Joshua Rey. tex-in or quality that compensates for the want of nolds. M'Ardell, Earlom, Watson, Smith, Valeutino colour, by giving to the engraving something of the Green, and Ward were among the best engravers of richness produced by colour in a picture. His imita. his works. The invention of this process is genertion of the softness and semi-transparency of flesh ally given to Prince Rupert, others ascribe it to was particularly successful, and superior to that of Dr Wren, 1662, and state that Prince Rupert merely the French engravers, whose works, hough in most improved on the invention. It has been practised respects admirable, failed in that respect, and had, very generally from the time of its invention, but in the more delicate parts, a hard or metallic look. attained its highest position in Sir Joshua's time; Woolet treated landscape-engraving in a manner and it is very successfully carried out now, in an totally new, imparting to it more firmness and altered manner, additional force being aimed at, by decision, by making great use of the graver. His means of stippling and etching. It is well calcuworks have more finish and force than former land- lated for producing broad effects : Turner's Liber scape-engravers, but they are in some degree liable Stuliorum, and the landscapes after Constable, ara to the objection of hardness, in the treatment of aclmirable examples of its capabilities in this way; foliage in particular. The works of these two the effect in Turner's plates, however, is heightened engravers have had a marked influence on art, not by etching. only in this country, but abroad. The merit of Etching has been already described as a part Strange's style was acknowledged on the conti. of the process of engraving ; but as practisel by nent; he was elected a member of the Academies of painters, it is classed as a distinct art. The plate Florence, Bologna, Parma, and Rome. At the end is prepared with a ground, and corroded in the same of last century, art had fallen very low on the way ; but the treatment is more free. Not being continent, but a regeneration was beginning; and in tied to the task of literally copying or translating Italy, engravers were then arising, such as Volpato the idea of another, like the engraver, the painter and Cunego, who studied and imitated the softness has scope to impart a spirit to his work peculiarly and, technically speaking, fleshiness of texture that suggestive of what he intends to embody; his idea distinguished the works of the British engraver ; | is represented directly, and not at second-hand, as those, again, were followed by Raphael Morghen, it were. The etchings of Rembrandt, Paul Potter, Longhi, Mercurii, and others, in Italy; by Boucher Karl du Jardin, Adrian Vandevelde, Teniers, Ostade, Desnoyers, Forster, &c., in France; and by Müller, Berghem, Backhuysen, Van Dyck, Claude, Salvator Keller, Gruner, and pumerous other engravers in Rosa, Canaletti, and other painters, are very highly Germany. By them, engraving has been carried to valued, as conveying more completely the feeling the highest pitch. Amongst their works, the fol- of the painter than the best engravings. Etching lowing are chefs-el’auvres : The Last Supper,' after was more practised by the old than by modern Da Vinci, by R. Morghen ; the ‘Spozalizia,' after painters; yet Wilkie, Landseer, and other modern Raphael, by Longhi; 'La Belle Jardinière,' and artists, have etched various plates, remarkable for other works, after Raphael, by Boncher Desnoyers, character and spirit. who has engraved the works of Raphael perhaps on English Works on Engraving-Sculpture, or the the whole better than any other engraver ; «The History anil Art of Chulcography anil Engraving Madonna de San Sisto,' by Müller, and The Dispute on Copper, by Jolin Evelyn (Lond. 12mo, 1663; on the Sacrament,' after Raphael, of Keller. No 8vo, 1755); The Art of Engraving and Etching, with engravings executed in this country come up to the Way of Printing Copper-plats, by M. Faithornu the works of these last-named masters, who have (Lond. 1702); Sculptura Historico-technico, or the engraved works of a higher class than the majority History and Art of Engraving, extracted from Balof those done by Strange, while the drawing and dinucci Florent, Le Compt, Faithorne, the Abecadurio guneral treatment of their works are in a purer and Pittorico, and other authors (Lond. 4to, 1747, 1766, more correct style. However, the engravings of and 1770); An Essay upon Prints, by Gilpin (Lond. Burnet, Raimbach, Stewart, and others after Wilkie 8vo, 1767, 1768, and 1781); Strutt's Biographical and contemporary British painters, deservedly hold Dictionary of Engravers, (2 vols., 4to, Lond. 1785); the bighest place among works of the class to Landseer's Lectures on Engraving (8vo, Lond. 180G); which they belong, and betoken clearly the great An Inquiry into the Origin anil Early History of influence which Strange exercised on their style. Engraving upon Copper and on Wood, by William At present, few figure-subjects are executed in Young Ottley (4to, Lond. 1816). the line-manner, and that art has certainly fallen Of late years, many inventions have been intrain this country. This may be accounted for, duced, having for their object to supersede the slow perhaps, by the great use made of mechanical and laborious manual operations of engraving by appliances, in portions of the work, to save time, means of machinery and other appliances. It is, and by the preference shewn for mezzotinto- however, to business and ornamentul purposes that engraving as practised at present, that is, with a they are applicable, and not to the prodnotion of mixture of lining or stippling. The greater num- artistic engravings of the kind treated of in this ber of Landseer's works have been engraved in article. The snbject will be noticed under 31ACHINE that wav, and it is now adopted for rendering the ENGRAVING, MEDALS, Glass, etc. Witt. regaril to works of John Phillip and Millais, and the leading the reproduction of plates, and other applications of
galvanic electricity to engraving, see GALVANISM was thought safer to include the Scottish statutes to and MAGNETO-ELECTRICITY. See also PHOTOGRAPHIC the same effect. The earliest is 1503, c. 38, and the ENGRAVING.
latest 1661, c. 280. ENGRAVINGS, PROPERTY OF.
The statute 6 and 7 Vict. c. 24 does not apply to of engravings and prints is secured by, statutes enhance or decry the price of merchandise, or pre
the spreading of false rumours, with the intent to sim lar to those for the protection of literary property; By, 8 Geo. II. c. 13, the property of venting goods from being brought to market by liistorical and other prints was declared to be force or threats, which continue to be punishable as inrested in the inventor for 14 years. The
if that act had not been made. proprietor's name must be affixed to each print,
ENGROSSING A DEED, See INGROSSING. and the statute imposes a penalty on printsellers ENGUEʻRA, a town of Spain, in the province of and others pirating the same. The provisions of Valencia, 43 miles south-west of the town of that this statute were extended by 7 Geo. III. c. 38, name. It is poorly built, and has narrow and which secures to the widow of William Hogarth irregular streets. It has manufactures of linen and the sole right of printing and reprinting his works woollen goods, and some trade in cattle and agricul. for the period of 20 years. The other acts are tural producc. Pop. 5250. 17 Geo. III. c. 57, 6 and 7 Will. IV. c. 59—which ENGUICHÉ. A hunting-horn, the rim around extends the former acts to the whole United King: the mouth of which gis of a different colour from the dom-and 15 Vict. c. 12. The latter act—the object horn itself, is said heraldically to be enguiché, of of which was to enable her Majesty to carry into the colour in question. effect a convention with France on the subject of copyright, to extend and explain the international the name of a note is changed without any sensible
ENHARMONIC, a term applied in Music when copyright acts, and to explain the acts relating to copyright in engravings--reduces the duties on difference of sound, such as C# and Db, F and Gb. foreign engravings, and extends the protection of Correctly speaking, there is," or ought "to be, a the acts to prints taken by lithography, or any difference; but on keyed instruments, such as the other mechanical process by which prints or impreg- organ and pianoforte, there can be none, as the sions of drawings or designs are capable of being same key serves for both sharp and flat, while multiplied indefinitely'-• clause which has now with a just equal temperament the ear is in no been found to cover photographs.
way offended. In harmony, the principal seat of ENGROSSING AND REGRA'TING. An seventh, which, by a change of the uotes, may be
enharmonic change is in the chord of the diminished engrosser, regrater, or forestaller, is a person who treated fundamentally in four different ways, without brys grain, flesh, fish, or other articles of food, with the intention of selling them again at an enhanced any sensible difference in the intonation. price, either in the same fair or market, or in
ENKHUI'SEN, a fortified town and seaport nt another in the neighbourhool, or who purchases or the Netherlands, in the province of North Holland, contracts for corn while still in the field. These is situated on the western shore of the Zuider Zee, practices were regarded as criminal in most coun- about 30 miles north-east of Amsterılam. It is tries, before the laws by which trade is regulated built with great regularity, and is of a circular form. were properly understood. In England, they were The most important public building is an elegant forbidden by various statutes, from the time of town-house, surmounted by a lofty tower. There Edward VI. to that of Queen Anne. These statutes are also numerous ecclesiastical editices, several salt. were repealed by 12 Geo. III. c. 71, on the pre- refineries, ship-building yards, and a cannon-foundry. anıble, that it hath been found by experience, that Formerly, E. was a town of some importanco-400 the restraints laid upon the dealing in corn, meal, vessels used to leave its harbour annually for the flour, cattle, and sundry other sorts of victuals, by herring-fisheries ; at present, not more than 7 vessels preventing a free trade in the said commodities, are thus employed. It has still some trade in hutter, have a tendency to discourage the growth, and to cheese, timber, cattle, and fish. Pop. 5400. enhance the price of the same. It was found, how. ENLI'STMENT, in the Army, is the chief aarde ever, that engrossing was not only a statutory but by which the English army is supplied with troops, a common law offence, and a prosecution for it in as distinguished from the ConscRIPTION prevailing the latter character actually took place in the in many other countries. Enlistment was ir private present century. The Act 7 and 8 Vict. c. 24, for hands until the year 1802, middlemen pirocuring abolishing the offences of forestalling, regrating, and recruits, and receiving a protit or commission for their engrossing, was consequently passed. Besides declar- trouble. This system being subject to much abuse, tho ing that the several offences of badgering, engross- matter was taken into the hands of the grvernment ing, forestalling, and regrating be utterly taken in the above-named year, and is now managed by away and abolished, and that no information or the adjutant-general. Formerly, a soldier enlisted prosecution shall lie either at common law or by for life, and could never look forward to a perioil of virtue of any statute, either in England, Scotland, freedom; or, at best, he could not retire on a or Ireland, this statute repeals a whole host of pension while still possessed of a fair share of health earlier enactments in restraint of trade, which hail and strength. This system was changed in 1847, been omitted in the statute in the time of George by an act relating to limited enlistment. If a man III., above referred to. The rubrics of these enact serves as a soldier in an infantry regimrut for ten D.ents give a curious picture not only of the trading years, he is then at liberty to leave the crny; but if errors, but in many other respects of the obsolete he wishes to retire on a small pension, he must serva customs of our ancestors. The first, for example a further period of eleven years, making twenty-nno (51 Henry III.), is called a 'Statute of the Pillory and years' service in all. He has a choice, and, if bo Tumbrel, and of the Assize of Bread and Ale.' Then please, six months for deliberation, whether he will there is an act passed in several reigns which i render this second period of service or not. In the provides for the punishment of a butcher or cook cavalry and artillery, the two terms of service are of that buyeth flesh of Jews and selleth the same to twelve years respectively. If apprentices enlist, the Christians.'
master may recover them under certain conitions Notwithstanding the doctrine of the Scottish law, detailed in the Mutiny Act (9.1.) (which is passed that statutes may be repealed by mere desuetude, it levery year); and if they state to the magisirati that