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chief use,' says Dr Muspratt, in his Chemistry times conjoined under the appellation Glumaceous Applied to Arts and Manufactures, to which Plants. glucose is applied on the continent, is for the manufacture of beer and a coarse kind of alcohol, which

GLU'TEN is one of the most important conis said to be extensively converted into French stituents of the varieties of corn used as food. It brandy by the addition of oil of raisins, colouring forming a paste or dough. This paste is placed in

is obtained by mixing flour with water, and thus matter, &c.' As all alcoholic drinks (ales, wines, and spirits)

a bag of fine linen, and kneaded' in water, whiob are obtained from fluids containing this variety of must be repeatedly changed, till it ceases to assume sugar as the essential constituent, and as their a milky appearance. A gray, tenacious, viscous, quality mainly depends upon the amount of sugar lime, is left in the bag. This substance consists

tasteless substance, having the appearance of birdthat is present, it is very important to have some ready means of determining its amount. A similar mainly of gluten, mixed with traces of bran starch determination is also of great value in reference to and of oily

matter. The gluten thus obtained from the urinary secretion in diabetes, as it is mainly by wheat and from rye is far more tenacious than that ascertaining whether the daily amount of excreted which is obtained from the other cereals, and it is glucose is diminishing or increasing that we can fits these flours for conversion into bread.

the great tenacity of this constituent that especially trace the favourable or unfavourable progress of the found by analysis, that the proportion of gliten con:

It is Without entering into details, we may mention tained in wheat grown in Algeria and other hot that there are three different modes of determining countries is considerably higher than in wheat the amount of glucose in a fluid: the first is by grown in England, or still colder countries; and determining the specific gravity; the second is the the hard, thin-skinned wheats contain more of this optical test , which is based upon the fact (already It forms about 16 per cent. of Algerian wheat;

ingredient than the softer varieties of the grain. noticed), that solutions of sugar whether grape, cane, about 15 per cent. of wheat from the Black Sea; or milk sugar) exert right-handed rotation upon a and nearly 14 per cent of South Carolina wheat; ray of polarised light, the angle of rotation being about 10-7 per cent of English wheat ; 9-8 per cent. proportional to the percentage of sugar. Soleil's

of Canadian wheat; and less than 9 per cent. cf apparatus for determining sugar in this way is described in the article POLARISING APPARATUS.

Danzig wheat. The third is by chemical means, of which the most

Gluten in a moist state rapidly putrefies, the important are Barres wil's method and the ferment mass acquiring the smell of decaying cheese ; but ation test. Barres wil's method is based upon the when dry, it forms a hard, brownish, horny-looking property which glucose possesses of throwing down mass, that does not very readily decompose. On suboxide of copper from alkaline solutions of oxide treating gluten with hot alcoho, we find that it of copper.

resolves itself into at least two distinct substances, In employing the products of the fermentation of one of which is soluble, and the other insoluble in

that fluid. glucose as a means of determining its quantity, we take a given quantity of the saccharine fluid, add a

The insoluble portion is regarded by Liebig as little well-washed yeast, and collect the carbonic vegetable fibrine. It is a gray, tough, elastic suh. ing, a cubic inch of carbonic acid corresponds to a tated by neutralisation with acetic acid. It is also acid that is evolved over mercury. Ronghly speak- stance, insoluble in water or in ether, but readily

soluble in dilute alkalies, from which it is precipi. grain of sugar. There are two varieties of G. composing fruit sugar, it is thrown down by the neutral salts.

soluble in very dilute hydrochloric acid, from which distingnished by their action on polarized light, viz.: dextro-glucose, or ordinary G., which turns the plane the alcohol on cooling, in the form of Aakes, which

The soluble portion is in part precipitated from of polarization to the right, and lævo-glucose, which have the composition and properties of caseine ; turns it to the left.

while a third substance remains in solution, giving GLUCOSU'RIA, a modern name for Diabetes to the alcohol a sirupy consistence. It separates, Mellitus (see DIABETES), and indicative of its char on the addition of water, as a white substance acteristic syinptom, the presence of sugar in the resembling albumen. It is usually known as gliadin, urine.

but some chemists - Dumas and Cahours, and GLUE. See GELATINE.

others--have termed it glutin, a name which is GLUE, Marine, a cementing composition used objectionable on the ground that it is already in ship-building, and for other purposes, where engaged for the chief form of gelatine. All these the materials are exposed to the influence of wet. constituents of gluten contain carbon, hydrogen, It consists of india-rubber cut very small one part nitrogen, oxygen, and sulphur, in much the same digested at a gentle heat in a closed vessel with proportion as the animal albuminates or proteine twelve parts of mineral naphtha untii it is dissolved, bodies, and they all doubtless belong to the fleshthen twenty parts of powdered shell-lac are added, forming group of foods. and the diwustion continued until it also is dissolved. The action of gluten in the manufacture of bread During both stages of the process, the mixture must is probably a double one; it induces, by constant by stirred or shaken occasionally. It requires to be action, an alteration of the starch, and snbsequent liyuetied by heat before using, and must be quickly fermentation, while by its tenacity it prevents the applied, as it very soon hardens. It is particularly escape of carbonic acid gas. valuable in consequence of its power to cement not

GLU'TTON (Gulo), a genus of quadrupeds usually only wood, but glass and metals, and also to resist referred to the bear” family (Ursida), but which the action of moisture. Its employment, however, constitutes an interesting connecting-link between requires some care and skill.

that and the weasel family (Mustelidv), agreeing GLUME, in Botany, a small bract or scale, in more nearly with the latter in dentition, although the axil of which there grows either a single flower approaching to the former in the plantigrade destitute of perianth, as in the Cyperacere, and in character. There are three false molars in the upper, some of the Grasses; or, as in others of the Grasses, and four in the lower jaw, anterior to the carnivor a spikelet composed of a number of flowers (florets). ous tooth, which is large and sharp. The body is The Grasses (Gruminec) and Cyperaceæ are some long, the legs are short, the feet have each five


deeply divided toes, terminated by lony curved claws. taste, is soluble in water and alcohol in all propor The tail is rather short, a fold beneath the tail sup- tions, but is nearly insoluble in ether. Its specific plies the place of the glandular pouch of the badgers ; gravity at 59° is, according to Miller and most but when hard pressed by enemies, the gluttons authorities, 1.28, but Gorup-Besanaz makes it ag emit a peculiar fluid of a strong muský odour. Their high as 1:97. At 40°, it becomes gummy and almost

solid; at 212°, it is slightly volatile; but if distiled alone, the greater part of it becomes decoru posed; it may, however, be distilled without alteration in a current of superheated steam which has been raised to a temperature of between 500° and 600". By this means heated fats are separatel into hydrated glycerin, and the acids with which it was previously in combination, the glycerin being in a high state of in centration as a colourless, syrupy liquid, which can le thus prepared in unlimited quantity. Glycerin forins soluble componnds with baryta, strontia, and lime, and it dissolves oxiile of lead and numerous salts. Berthollet has found that glycerin, like Mannite (9. v.), is convertible into a true fermentable sugar, when digested with certain animal tissues. Glycerin occurs ready formed in a few fats (as, for example, old palm oil), and according to Pasteur is contained in all fermented liquors, and especially in wine, its quantity amounting

to three per cent. of the fermented sugar. It is a proGlutton (Gulo lusrus).

duct of the saponification of the various fats, although

it does not exist as glycerin, but rather as a substance habits are nocturnal. The species commonly called huving the composition represented by the formula GLUTTON, and also WOLVERENE (G. luscus), is a C3H602. According to Berthollet's view, glycerin is a native of the northern parts of Europe, Asia, and triatomic alcohol, an opinion now generally adopted. America. It is more common in the arctic regions The neutral fats of the animal body, stearin, palthan towards the southern limits of its distribution, mitin, olein, etc., consist of glycerin, in which three which are about the forests of Courland, in Europe, atoms of hydrogen are replaced by acid radicles; and and the mountainous parts of Massachusetts, in by heating glycerin with acids in different proportions, America. It is about two feet six inches or two a large number of compounds may be formed in which feet nine inches in length, from the tip of the nose 1, 4, or the whole of the replaceable hydrogen is thus to the root of the tail; the tail about seven or eight replaced, and 1, 2, cr 3 atoms of water eliminated. inches long, both body and tail covered with long Thus with one proportion stearic acid the following hair, under which the body is covered with a rich

compounds are obtained: thick fur. The general colour of the long hair is

Glycerla. brown, sometimes approaching to black, lighter bands passing from the neck along the flanks, and Monostearin =C, H40=C3H303+C18H302-H20 meeting at the tail. The short fur is chestnut brown. The muzzle is black. A light-brown band runs across the forehead from ear to ear. The Monopalmitin=C19H30,=C3H803+C16H320z-H:0 fur of the G. is sometimes of considerable value, and

Glycerin. on used for muffs, cloaks, &c., but varies not a little

Monolein in glossiness and other qualities. The most extra

=C2H400,=CzH803 +C18H13402-H20 ordinary stories were at one time credited concerning The saponification of these fats by the action of the ferocity, voracity, and cunning of this animal, alkalis is the converse of etherification, consisting in and have not altogether disappeared from books the separation of the glyceryl (CsUs) and the acid of natural histrry. It is very capable of domesti- radicle, and an interchange between the glyceryl and cation, and even in a wild state exhibits no remark- the metal of the alkali, resulting in the formation of able ferocity ; nor is there any reason to believe that an alkaline salt of the fat acid—that is to say, a soapit leaps from trees on deer, or pursues any of those and glycerin. artful methods of procuring food which were once We have already referred to the best mode (Wilascribed to it. It often preys on animals which it son's process) of obtaining glycerin on a large scale; has not itself killed. The smaller quadrupeds are the usual method of obtaining it on a small scale is its principal food, and it devoiirs young foxes in from olive oil, which we saponify by treating it with great numbers. Its speed is not great, but it excels an equal weight of oxide of lead (litharge), which is in strength and perseverance. The traps set for mixed with water and added to the oil, with which it the smaller kinds of animals in the fur countries is boiled till the saponification is complete. The glyof North America are very often robbed by the cerin is dissolved by the water, and is easily separated wolverene, and it has been known to remove a froin the insoluble lead-plaster (a mixture of oleate great pile of wood, in order to get at provisions and palmitate of lead). Any traces of lead are rewhich had been hidden under it. -Closely allied moved by sulphuretted hydrogen, and the water is to the G. are the Grison and the Ratel. Bone then expelled in vacuo, or over the water-bath. The caverns and some of the newest deposits exhibit former is preferable, as in the open air the glycerin remains of more than one species of Glutton. becomes brown. GLYCERIA. See MANNA GRASS.

The uses of glycerin are numerous. In medicine,

it is employed as a local application in diseases of GLY'CERIN (C3H8O3), known also as hydrated the skin and of the ear; and it is used internally oxide of lipyl, or normal hydrate of glyceryl, was as a solvent for many drugs. It is a valuable prediscovered by Scheele in 1779, who obtained it in servative fluid for small and delicate anatomical the preparation of lead-plaster, and named it the preparations, and it has been applied to the presersweet principle of oils. It is a colourless, viscid, vation of meat. It has been added to the wate: Dentral, uncrystallizable, inodorous fluil, of a sweet in gas metres with the view of preventing it from


Stearic acid.

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Palmitic Acid. Water.

Oleic Acid.



freezing in winter, or from evaporating too rapidly Types which is now commonly accepted (see TYPES, in summer. It is used in the manufacture of copy- THEORY OF CHEMICAL), the glycols are termed diaing-ink, and is of general application wherever atomic alcohols, ordinary alcohol being a nonatomic lubricating agent is required.

and glycerin being a triatomic alcohol. Many interesting researches have been carried on Ordinary glycol is formed from ethylene (C2H.), during the last few years regarding the true chemical and hence it may be called ethyl-glycol, to distinguish nature and the artificial production of glycerin; they it from propyl-glycol, which is formed from propylene are, however, for the most part of a too purely chemi-|(C3H16), from butyl-glycol, which is forined from cal nature to be made intelligible to the general reader, butylene (C/U15), or from amyl-glycol, which is formed We will merely remark that, like the alcohols in gen- from amylene (C51110). eral, to which class glycerin is now assigned, it forms Glycol is a colourless, slightly viscid fluid, with a several classes or series of derivatives, the most im- sweet taste, and its composition is expressed by the portant of which are its combinations with uciels, form- formulu C2H60%. For further information on this ing ylycerides, or compound ethers of glycerin, which class of bodies, we must refer to any of the recent are analogous in their compositiou to the various fats works on organic chemistry, or to a lecture on the anil oils. Berthollet has succeeded in forming these Histoire generale des Glycols, delivered by Wurtz beberlies synthetically, and has thus not only reproduced fore the Chemical Society of Paris, and published in several of the natural futs, but has obtained a large the Lecons de Chimie professees en 1860, and Wutts' class of similar bodies which were not previously Dict. of Chemistry, 1866–69. known. See Watts' Dict. of Chemistry.

GLYCOʻSMIS, a genus of plants of the natural Trented with sulphuric acid, glycerin yields glycero- order Aurantiaceæ, trees, natives of the East Indies sulphuric acid (C3/18SO6), and treated with phosphoric and the Mascarene Islands. The fruit of G. citrifolia, acil, it yields ylycero-phosphoric acid (CzlyP06), a an East Indian species, is delicious. substance which occurs normally, in combination with sodu nud anmoniu, in the brain and in the yolk of eyg. born at Göttingen, in August 1788, and died at

GMELIN, LEOPOLD, a celebrated chemist, was GLYCINE, GLY'COCINE, GLY'COCOL, or Heidelberg, in April 1853. His father was professor SUGAR of GELATINE (C2H_NO2) occurs in col- of natural history and botany at Tübingen, and ourless, transparent, rhornbic prisms, which have a afterwards of chemistry at Göttingen ; and for at sweet taste, and are devoid of odour. It is very solu- least four generations members of the Gmelin family ble in water, the solution having no etfect on veye- have distinguished themselves in chemistry and table colours, but is insoluble in alcohol and in ether. natural history. After taking his degree in mediGlycine combines both with acids (as hydrochloric, cine, he spent several years at Tübingen, Vienna, uitric, sulphuric, and oxalic acid), and with metallic and Naples, in the study of chemistry and miner: oxides, and the compounds in both cases are soluble alogy; and in the autumn of 1813, he began his and crystallizable; they are, however, of no great im- public career as a teacher of chemistry at Heidel. portance.

berg, where, twelve months afterwards, he was It is usnally described as an animal base, but is now appointed extraordinary professor of chemistry. regarded as belonging to a class of bodies termed He discharged the duties of his office with unre. amiles, and as being an acetamide body, which may mitting zeal until 1848, when he had an attack be obtained by the action of acetate of ethyl with of paralysis ; and in 1850, in consequence of a strong aqueous ammonia, or by that of ammonia on second attack, he was obliged to resign his proacetic acid. The reaction may be thus represented :

fessorial office. He published numerous contribu. Acetate of Ethyl.

tions to chemistry and mineralogy in Schweigger's Cy1130.C,H5.0 + NII, = N112.C2H30 + C, H5. H.0 and in Leonhard's Jahrbuch, between the years

Journal, Poggendorff's Annalen, Liebig's Annulen, Glycire is a product of various processes of decompo 1815 and 1844. In 1820, he undertook, in consition of animal matters.

junction with Tiedemann, a series of experiments GLYCOGEN (C12H1101110, according to the on digestion; and in 1826, these philosophers analysis of Pelouze) is a substance which in its published their celebrated work on this subject, properties seems intermediate between starch and under the title of Die Verılauung nach Versuchen, in dextrinc. In contact with saliva, pancreatic juice, two volumes. But' (Report of the Council of the diastase, or with the blood or parenchyma of the Chemical Society for 1854) 'the greatest service liver, it is converted into glycose, and hence its which Gmelin rendered to science—a service in name of glycogen. It occurs only in the cells of which he surpassed all his predecessors and all his the liver, where it exists as an amorphous matter; contemporaries-consists in this : that he collected but in the early stage of fætal life, before the liver and arranged in order all the facts that have begins to discharge its functions, instead of being been discovered in connection with chemistry. found in that organ, it exists in special cells in the His Handbuch der Chemie stands alone. Other fretai structures known as the placenta and the writers on chemistry have indeed arranged large amnion, and in the muscles, horny tissues, &c. In quantities of materials in systematic order, but severe forms of disease, and especially in febrile for completeness and fidelity of collation, and conaffections, it seems to be temporarily absent from secutiveness of arrangement, Gmelin's Handbook is the liver. Its uses in the animal economy are unrivalled.' The first edition of this great work noticed in the article LIVER.

appeared in 1817–1819, and included, in two vols. GLYCOL is the type of a new class of artificial of moderate size, the whole extent of chemical compounds, whose existence was inferred, and after knowledge as it then existed. The fourth and last Wirds discovered, a few years ago, by Wurtz. In appeared between the years 1843 and 1855, and their chemical relation and properties, they form an extended to six vols., the last volume being edited, intermediate series between the mono basic or mona- after. G.'s death, by Schlossberger and List. An tomic alcohols, of which common alcohol is the type English translation of this edition (under the on the one hand, and the class of bodies of which auspices of the Cavendish Society), with important ordinary glycerin is the type, on the other. The additions by Mr Watts, the translator, is now in name of glycol, formed from the first syllable of course of publication, and nearly completed glycerin and the last of alcohol, has been given to GMUND, a town of Würtemberg, in the circle of express this relation.

According to the Theory of Jaxt, stands in a beautiful and highly cultivated





district on the Rems, 29 miles east-north-east admitted to the trachea or air-tubes. The papæ also from Stuttgart. G. has important manufactures of inhabit water, and are active; they remain alınost bijouterie and hardware, and carries on spinning constantly at the surface of the water, with the and stocking-weaving. Hops are produced in the body recurved ; and the respiratory openings of the neighbourhood in great quantity. G. was formerly air-tubes are now in the thorax.—The CosmMON G. an imperial free city, and in the middle ages had a (C. pipiens) is of very wide geographic distribution. population of 18,000. It was added to the kingdom It is about three lines in length, brown, with whitish of Würtemberg in 1803. (1871) 10,739. rings on the abdomen, the wings unspotted It so

abounds in some of the fenny parts of England that GNAPHA'LIUM. See CUDWEED.

beds are occasionally surrounded with gauze cur. GNAT (Culex), a genus of dipterous insects, tains, as in India on account of mosquitoes. It is having the wings laid Aat on the back when at extremely abundant in Lapland and Iceland-A rest; the antenna thread-like, 14-jointed, feathery number of genera, allied to Culex, are united by in the male, and hairy in the female; the mouth many entomologists into a family called Culicile. furnished with a long projecting proboscis, adapted GNEISS, a term introduced from the German, for piercing the skin of animals and sucking as the name for a variety of Metamorphic rock, their Food. They are said to feed also on yeget, which has the same component materials as granite, able juices. The species are numerous, and abound and differs from it only in these materials being in almost all parts of the world, particularly arranged in layers, rather than in an apparently in marshy regions; and some of them, under the confused aggregated mass. The minerals of which name of "Mosquitoes (q. v.), are known in many it is composed are quartz, felspar, and mica The countries as most annoying pests. An irritating mica is sometimes replaced by hornblende, proHuid, injected through the proboscis, makes their ducing a gneiss corresponding to the variety of punctures painful, and causes swelling. . The pro- granite called Syenite. The different ingredients boscis of a gnat is an extremely interesting micro occur in various proportions, altering the character scopical object. It is a membranous cylindrical and appearance of the gneiss accordingly. It is tube, clothed with minute, feather-like scales, and often difficult to determine hand specimens of gneiss; terminated by two lips, which, when closed, form a for, on the one hand, they are sometimes so crystalkind of knob, and by six sharp bristles or very small line that they resemble granite, while, on the other, lancets. The female gnats have the most powerful the schistose varieties approach so near to micaproboscis, and are the principal blood-suckers. Some schist, that even in the field, under the most persons are much more liable to the assaults of favourable circumstances, it is not easy positively guats than others. The flight of gnats is very swift, to separate them. and the extremely rapid vibration of their wings Gneiss was originally deposited as sand or mud, causes the loud and sharp buzzing soļind, which so and has been converted into a hard tough crystalline often prevents sleep when even one of these insects rock by long and continnous subjection to metahas found its way into a bedroom on a summer morphic action, induced, perhaps, chiefly by heate night. The eggs of gnats are deposited on the It has generally been considered as an azoic rock,

that is, deposited before the existence of life on the globe. The older strata, classified by Logan under the title Laurentian, the equivalents of which have been recently observed by Murchison in Scotland, have as yet proved destitute of fossils, but this may be owing to the extreme metamorphism they have undergone. The Cambrian and Silurian strata of the north of Scotland have also been to a largo extent converted into gneissose rocks, which contain intercalated with them fossiliferous limestones. It would seem, indeed, that gneiss and its allied stratified rocks are not necessarily 'primary rocks,' but may occur wherever an agency sufficiently powerful has acted upon ordinary sandstone and shale,

GNE'SEN, a small town of Prussia, is situated in a district abounding in hills and lakes, in the province of Posen, and thirty miles east-north. east of the town of that name. It was the earliest

capital, and is said to be the oldest town of Poland. Gnat, magnified :

Pop. (1871) 9917. b, lasect depositing eggs ; 2, insect escaping from pupa case; 3, larva of gnat; 4, floating raft of eggs.


GNOME (Gr. gnome), a pithy and sententious surface of shallow stagnant water, placed side by saying, commonly in verse, embodying some moral side, united by an unctuous matter, and fastened to sentiment or precept. The gnome belongs to the the bottom by a thread, which prevents their float- same generic class with the proverb; but it differs ing away. They are soon hatched ; indeed, a single from a proverb in wanting that common and popusummer sees several generations of gnats. The lar acceptance which stamps the proverb, as it were, larvae are to be seen in immense numbers in stag: with public authority. The use of gnomes prewant waters ; they are of an elongated worm-like vailed among all the early nations, especially the form ; are destitute of feet, but swiin and dive by Orientals; and the literatures, both sacred and promeans of fin-like organs; they feed on insects, and fane, of most countries abound with them. In the a!so on vegetable substances; and often suspend Bible, the book of Proverbs, part of Ecclesiastes, themselves at the surface of the water, head down and still more the apocryphal book of Ecclesiasticus, wards, for the purpose of respiration, by means of present, so far as regards language and strucraciating bristles attached to a long spiracle or tube ture, numberless illustrations of the nighest form at the caudal extremity of the body, by which air is of this composition. The other books of the old



Testament contain many examples; and in the birth. Rome had conquered well-nigh the whole of New Testament the familiar lessons of our Lord the then known civilised world, and within bur are frequently presented in this striking, form, vast dominions the barriers, which had hitherto which was peculiarly adapted to impress and move separated the multifarious nations of east and the classes whom he addressed. The Indian, the west, were broken down. From the remotest Arabian, and the Persian literatures also are rich corners of the empire philosophers and priests; in guomes, as are those of the northern nations. But scholars and teachers, flocked to Rome, to Athens, the most interesting form which they have taken to Alexandria, and communicated to each other, is that in which we find them in Greek literature, discussed, and frequently amalgamated their widely in which the writers who have cultivated this form differing creeds and systems to such a degree that of composition are known as a distinct class—the the former national or personal individuality of Gnomic Poets (gnomikoi). The Greek gnome is opinion was almost effaced, making room either commonly couched in the elegiac distich; and the for a vacillating indecision, or at the best a most celebrated gnomic poets were Solon, Theognis, shadowy and passive eclecticisin. And while, on Phocylides, Simonides, Tyrtæus, and Xenophanes of the one hand, Greek philosophy, which formed a Colophon. The most remarkable of these is Theognis, principal part of the education of the higher classes, whose gnomes extend to above 1200 lines. The remains had become almost exclusively a Platonism, sliding nf gnomic writers have been repeatedly edited under into overt scepticism; on the other hand, the the title of Gnomici Poetæ Græci, from the days of naturalisation in the Roman empire of a promis. Melancthon downwards. The standard editions are cuous Pantheon, whose gods were gathered from those of Bekker (1815) and Welcker (1826). There Egypt, Greece, Persia, India, and countries still is, moreover, a popular edition by Brunck, which is more remote, had at length produced, out of an reprinted in the Tauchnitz Classics ; and the gnomic unparalleled mixture of religious ideas and fancies, poets are also commonly included in the collections a superstition so abject and unnatural, that it too, at of Minor Greek Poets.

last, was ready to give place to despairing unbelief. In Latin literature, the Disticha of Dionysius Judaism, again, had outlived its political existence, Cato, the authorship of which has proved so fertile and began to assert itself as a faith, independent of a source of controversy, may be mentioned as any state or dominion of its own, divided, however, belonging to the class of gnomes.

into different schools, according to the more or less GNOME, the name given in the cabalistic and strict adherence to the letter of its written and medieval mythology to one of the classes of oral laws. Nay, the influence of Hellenism had, imaginary beings which are supposed to be the among the Alexandrines, produced such effect that presiding spirits in the mysterious operations of of the living body of Judaism, little remained nature in the mineral and vegetable world. They but a skeleton frameworką round which allegory have their dwelling within the earth, where they and symbol had woven their fantastic fabric. preside specially over its treasures, and are of both Christianity, as yet not clearly defined, swept all sexes, male and female. The former are often repre- the more irresistibly over the regions from the sented in the form of misshapen dwarfs, of whom Euphrates to the Ganges, the Nile to the Tiber, as the well-known · Rübezahl,' or 'Number-nip, of it offered a code of morals sublime and yet simple, German legend is a familiar example. Pope, in the a faith human and withal divine, superior to any of Ripe of the Lock, and Darwin, in the Loves of the the abstruse and exploded Polytheisms, to a world I'lants, have drawn upon the more pleasing associa agitated to its lowest depths, and yearning for some tions of this curious branch of mythology. See new and more satisfying ductrine; while, at the same ELEMENTAL SPIRITS.

time, it denounced the stringent and severe ritual

tenets of its mother-religion, Judaism, as inconsistent GNO'MON. When a rectangle is divided into with the freedom of the human mind. Yet it was four parts by cross lines parallel to its sides, the sum not to be expected that the old pagan creeds and of any three of the parts is called the gnomon. See the old philosophies would expire without a struggle. Euclid, b. ii. prop. 5, and seq.-Gnomon has also a They made a last stand, and produced in their meaning in Dialling (q. v.).

and the ancient world's dying hour Gnosticism. It GNOMONIC PROJECTION. See PROJEC- sprang suddenly out of a monstrous chaos, a con.

summate religious eclecticism, bold, consistent, to GNOSTICS (from Gr. Gnosis, knowledge), the a certain degree even sublime. The wildly oppocollective term for a number of early Christian sects site ideas of Polytheism, Pantheism, Monotheisin, which were known besides—with one insignificant the most recondite philosophical systems of Arisexception-by special names derived from their totle, Plato, Pythagoras, Heraclitus, Empedocles respective founders. The word gnosis, when first &c., together with the awe-striking Mysticisin applied to revealed religion, in many passages both and Demonology which after the Babylonian cap of the Septuagint (for the Hebr. Déah) and the New tivity had created, in the very heart of Judaism, Testament, expressed a full and comprehensive that stupendous and pre-eminently anti-Jewish acquaintance with, and insight into, the received science of Cabbala (4.v.)--all, it would appear, laws and tenets, ritual and ethical, and was conse- had waited to add something of their own to the guently praised as a desirable acquirement; by St new faith, which could not hold its own under all l'aul even called a special gift (Charisma) (1 Cor. xii. these strange influences. An open attack was no 8, &c.). Gradually, however, there was—first by longer of any yse; so, assuming the garb of the the Judæo-Alexandrine schools-ingrafted upon it a enemy, they sought to carry destruction into the meaning more akin to that in which it was occasion centre of the hostile camp. Moreover, an aristoally used by Pythagoras and Plato; it designated a cracy of mind, powerful and numerous as none had knowledge of certain mysteries, which lay hidden ever been before, could not but, even when it had out. beneath the letter of the religious records, and wardly assumed the new religion, loathe the thought could be received only by a few superior minds, of sharing it completely and unreservedly with the while the multitude had to be satisfied with the herd of freed and unfreed slaves around them, with outward apparent meaning. The remarkable form the low and the poor in spirit; and the exclusive of Christianity to which the word in this sense ness of Gnosticism was undoubtedly, next to the was applied, is a religious phenomenon as extra- fascination of its dogmas, one of the chief reasons of ordis.ary as were the times and causes that gave it | its extraordinarily rapid propagation.



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