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says Boh was the designation of a fierce Gothic the world, that have been far from attaining any chieftain, whose naine was used in after-times to such conception of God as is expressed above. The frighten children. The belief in benevolent and Supreme has been to them the conception not of a malevolent spirits belongs to all countries, and single Being, but of many beings superior to man, appears to be as old as the world.

and claiming his worship. In the general history of GOBOʻNY, in Heraldry, the same as Compone the world, polytheism precedes monotheism; the (q.v.). A gobonated bordure is frequently carried in idea of many gods goes before the idea of one God, place of the baton sinister, not only by the lawful infinite and self-existent. issue of bastards, who, after the third lawful gener The general character of polytheism is everywhere ation, are considered entitled to make the change, the same.-A dualistic conception of nature and but by bastards themselves. See BASTARD BAR.

life underlies it, and shews itself in varied expresGOBY (Gobius), a genus of acanthopterous fishes, sions. In looking forth on nature—in looking within the type of the family Gobiida. This family is

himself-man seems to see two principles striving distinguished by the thinness and flexibility of the for the mastery-an active and passive, a creativa rays of the dorsal fin ; by the union-in most of the and recipient principle—a good and evil, a productive genera-of the ventral fins, which are thoracic, and destructive, a joyous and gloomy agent. On into a disc more or less capable of being used as a

one side, there seems a power rich, benignant, and sucker; by the want of an air-bladder; and by a

gracious, giving light to the day, verdure to the long intestinal canal without cæca. The Blenny spring, abundance in autumn, scattering fecundity (9. v.) family (Bleniida) have by some ichthyologists and blessing around ; on the other side, there seems been united with the Goby family, whilst others a power cruel and malevolent, quenching the light unite with them the Discoboli (q. v.). The true

in darkness, consuming the verdure and fertility gobies (Gobius) are generally small fishes, some of with scorching heat, or destroying them with cold. them inhabiting the shallow water of the coasts, of the imagination, and clothe themselves in diverse

These contrasts seem eternal--they take possession and others found in deeper water; the species very numerous, and found in the seas both of the northern shapes. In every polytheistic religion, they will be and southern hemispheres. They are very inter- found in the recognition of male and female, of good esting on account of their habits"; and are of the and evil divinities–Baal and Baaltis, Baal-Adonis number of nest-building fishes, employing algae and and Baal-Moloch, in the old Phænician religion : grass-wrack (Zostera marina), in the spring season, Osiris and Isis and the evil principle, Typhon, in for making their nests. When the female has Egypt; and the more familiar opposites of Ahriman deposited her eggs in the nest, the male watches and Ornuzd, Jupiter and Juno, &c. The dualism over them till they are hatched. There are several assumes various shapes, now male and female, British species, the largest of them- the BLACK GOBY productive and passive ; and now good and evil,

conservative and destructive.

Whether this dualistic mode of conception, and the polytheistic view of nature that springs from it, be a later or an earlier type of thought than the mono. theistic, has been a good deal disputed. Soune see in it the corruption of monotheism—the worship of the Supreme gradually falling to a worship of the great forms of nature which most strikingly represent Him—the sun and storm, the light and darkness, &c. Others, again, regard the polytheistic as tho primitive view of nature, above which man gradu. ally rises, by the growth and exercise of his reason. There is truth in this latter view, even to those who believe that man originally received a Divine Reve. lation, which he has gradually corrupted. Polytheism

is the natural religion of savage tribes throughout The Black Goby and the One-spotted Goby the world; and as man advances in civilisation, (Gobius niger and Gobius unipunctatus). he rises to purer and more comprehensive concep

tions of Deity. His reason compels him to recognise (G. niger)—about five or six inches long, some of the One in the many everywhere, to carry up all his chem pretty common on all parts of the coast, and conceptions into a unity: Polytheism, consequently, much in request for aquaria, of which they are everywhere disappears before the march of civilisa. among the most interesting occupants. They are tion. It is incompatible with the lowest stage of often found in rock-pools on the coast. The disc speculative development. formed by the ventral fins is often used for adhesion But while the growth of reason and the rise of to stones. Most of the gobies prefer seas of clayey speculation everywhere destroy polytheism, they do or muddy bottom, in which they excavate canals to not necessarily substitute a genuine monotheism pass the winter in. The species are more numerous -the doctrine, that is to say, of one living and in the Mediterranean than in the British seas. - true God, infinite in power, wisdom, goodness, and The Guls family includes the Dragonets (9, v.), and truth, a free personal Being exalted above the several other interesting genera, among which are world, and apart from it, yet intimately related the Boleophthalmi of the Chinese seas, remarkable to all its creatures, who suffereth not å sparrow for their power of thrusting out their eyes in order to fall to the ground without his permission.' to look around thein.

This is the doctrine of Christian theism, as olposed GOD (Lat. Deus; Gr. Theos), the self-existent alike to polytheism (the doctrine of many gods), and Supreme Being, creator and preserver of all pantheism (the doctrine that all things arr God, things, and the object of human worship. The that God is a unity, yet only a unity of comprehen. aame is of Saxon origin. The idea is more or sion, not a self-subsistent and independent unity), .888 definitely expressed in every language, as it and atheism (the assertion that there is no Goul). may be said to be in some form or another a uni The course of argument on which the th-istio versal element of the human consciousness. There conclusion supports itself may be sketched as fol. bave been wany nations, indeed, in every age of lows: There are everywhere in the world the traces


GOD_GOD SAVE THE KING (OR QUEEN). of order ; a unity of plan or design, shown in many The argument for the existence of God resta, beautiful effects, pervades creation. Science is al- accordingly, on certain fundamental principles of ways more unfolding it. Of the fact of this order our mental and moral being, such principles as or unity of plan, there is no question. The progress causation and design, or final cause. "It implies a of science, if nothing else, has effectually exploded spiritual philosophy of human nature. Apart from the old dualistic or polytheistic conception of nature. such a philosophy, theism has no argumentative What appeared to be the result of opposing prin: basis, however it may prevail as a tradition or ciples, is really found to be the issue of general superstition. law's working on some great although unexplored But some philosophers have sought not merely to scheme of harmony. There is no disturbance, no rest the argument for the existence of God upco disorder; amidst the infinite diversity of nature such principles, but to evolve it in all its complete. -order reigns universally.

ness from them alone. From a single datum of But this order,' what is it? The mere recogni. consciousness—sometimes from a single datum of tion of order does not necessarily imply the recogni. experience—they have tried to construct, lry protion of God-of a 'Being all-powerful, wise, and cesses of mere abstract reasoning, a 'demonstration good, by whom everything exists. The materialist of the being and attributes of God.' This has been anil pantheist equally admit the fact of order, but styled the à priori method of argument, although equally deny the theistic conclusion founded upon to all the arguments to which this name has been it; and the argument, accordingly, is carried up given it does not strictly apply. The mode of argufrom nature and its facts to a higher region of dis- ment, again, which reasons from special effects in cussion. Whence arises the conception of order-of nature to a First Cause, has been styled, in contradesign? Nature illustrates it, but nature does not distinction, à posteriori. The argument from desin itself give it. The general laws of which science for example, as conducted by Paley and others, is speaks so much pervade all phenomena of creation, a posteriori. The arguments of Descartes, and the but they are not a part of these phenomena. “Order' demonstration of Dr Samuel Clarke, are what and law are ideas which we convey to nature, not have been termed à priori. Either of these moles which nature brings to us. They come from within, of proof, taken by itself, has been rightly considered not from without. It is with mind, and not with inconclusive by recent writers on natural theology. matter that we start. The latter in itself presents Mere à priori trains of reasoning fail to carry up a mere series of endless movements. It is in the the mind to any real and living conception of Deity; presence of mind only that it assumes meaning they yield merely a theoretical or abstract idea and order. Mind is the true image of the Deity. Arguments such as Paley's and the Bridgewater We discern causation in nature, because we ourselves treatises, again, are rather illustrations than arguare agents, conscious of exerting power. We discernments. They derive all their logical force from order in nature, because we everywhere bring our certain principles which are implied in their details, conceptions into a unity, and apprehend our several and without which these details could have no modes of consciousness with reference to the indi. bearing on the existence of God. The very idea of visible self which they all involve. 'In our life Design itself is such a principle. It is the die which Alone does nature live.' • It is from the little world the mind stamps upon nature; it is not in nature of our own consciousness, with its many objects itself. Any complete argument for the Being of marshalled in their array under the rule of the one God, therefore, involves equally d priori and d conscious mind, that we are led to the thought of posteriori elements. The former are necessary as the great universe beyond-that we conceive this the rational foundation of the argument; the latter also as a world of order, and as being such by virtue are necessary to illustrate, to give life and body of its relation to an ordering and presiding mind.' to the general principles which lie at the foundation

The existence of Deity, therefore, is a postulate The Christian doctrine of the Godhead will be of the human consciousness. Recognise a living considered under the several naines of TRINITY, mind in man, independent of matter-a rational Son of God, and HOLY SPIRIT. will, as constituting the essential and distinguishing

GOD, OFFENCES AGAINST. See SACRILEGE element of his being-and the inference is inevitable of an infinite nuind-a supreme will governing GOD SAVE THE KING (or QUEEN), the the world. A true natural theology is based upon noble national anthem of Great Britain, and by a true psychology. A philosophy which denies to adoption that of Prussia and the German states, and man a higher existence than nature, which would which is played and sung in every part of the make his rational consciousness the mere growth of British empire alike on solemn and festive occasions, inaterial conditions, leaves no ground of argument has been a subject of controversy with respect to for the existence of Deity-for, as Jacobi says: its origin. Its words are apparently imitated from • Nature reveals only fate, only an indissoluble the Domine Salvum of the Catholic Church service. chain of causes (sequences), without beginning and In England, the authorship has been generally attriwithont end, excluding with equal necessity both buted to Dr John Bull, born 1563, in 1591, organist providence and chance. Workiug without will, she in Queen Elizabeth's Chapel, 1596, professor of musio takes counsel neither of the good nor of the beauti. in Gresham College, and chamber-musician of James ful; creating nothing, she casts up from her dark | 1. About the period of the discovery of the Gunabyss only eternal transformations of herself, uncon- powder Plot, he composed and played on a sinall sciously and without end. But man rereals God-, organ before the king an ode beginning with the for man, ly his intelligence, rises above nature, and words, 'God save great James our king. He died in virtue of this intelligence, is conscious of himself, at Lübeck, 1622. It does not appear, however, that as a power not only independent of, but opposed to this, or any other old composition of a similar title, pature, and capable of resisting, conquering, and had any connection with that which we now possess. controlling her. As man has a living faith in this Chappell, in his Popular Music of the Ouen l'ime, power superior to nature, which dwells in him, and Dr Fink, a German musical antiquary, have BO has be belief in God -a feeling, an experience settled the question ; the honour of this great of his existence. As he does not believe in this work, both words and melody, must be given to power, so does he not believe in God; he sees, he Dr. Henry Cary, an English poet and musician, experiences nought in existence but nature, and born in London about 1696, diod 1743. The words necessity, and fate.'

and music were composed in honour of a birthday


of George II., and performed for the first time at behalf of the baptized, sponsors' (sponsores). Tube A dinner given on that occasion in 1740 by spiritual bond resulting from this relation is regarded the Mercers' Company of London. The words and as a species of kindred (whence the name gossip, or music were first published in the Harmonia Angli. God-sib, spiritually akin), and constitutes, by the cana, 1742, and appeared in the Gentleman's Maga- canon law, an impediment of marriage between the zine, 1745. The air, according to Dr Arne, has sponsors upon the one hand and the baptized and preserved its original form, but its harmonies have the parents of the baptized on the other. Anciently, been modified by various artists; and the words this impediment arose also between the sponsors were changed on the accession of William IV., and themselves, who were often very numerous, and on that of Queen Victoria.

extended besides to the other members of the GODA'VERY, or GODAVARI, one of the kindred; but the Council of Trent limited the principal rivers of the peninsula of Hindustan, and number of sponsors to one or two,' and restricted the largest of the Deccan, rises within 50 miles of the matrimonial impediment within the limite the Arabian Sea, and flows south-east across the above described. The parents of the baptized are peninsula into the Bay of Bengal. Its source is in not permitted to act as sponsors in the Roman the eastern face of the Western Ghauts, in lat. 19° Catholic Church, one of the objects of the insti. 58' N., and long. 73° 30' E.; and its two mouths, tution being to provide instructors in case of the diverging in lat. 16° 57' N., and long. 81° 49' E., death of parents; nor are members of religious enter the sea respectively in lat. 16°°48' and long orders, because their inclusion within their convent 82° 23', and in lat. 16° 18' and long. 81° 46'. About 23 is supposed to render it impossible for them to miles above the head of the delta, the G. emerges discharge permanently and regularly the duties of at Polaveram from the Eastern Ghauts, through instructors to the newly baptized. In the Roman which it has passed with so moderate a descent Catholic sacrament of confirmation also, the candias to be navigable in either direction. The southern date is commonly presented by one sponsor, gener. arm of the G. admits vessels drawing eight or nine ally, though not necessarily, of the same sex with feet; and the northern one shews a depth of two or

the candidate for confirmation. It is difficult to three feet more.

Like tropical streams in general, assign the precise date of the origin of this instithe river varies greatly, according to the season, in tution. No trace of it occurs in the New Testa. breadth and depth. But a dam or annicut (see ment, but it is believed to have been in use in the Cauvery) has been constructed, so as to mitigate 2d c., and it certainly was an established practice in the evil for the purposes alike of navigation and of the fourth. irrigation. The entire length of the G. is about 900

In the Church of England, two godfathers and miles.

a godmother are required at the baptism of a male, GOD-BOTE, an ecclesiastical fine, paid for female. In order to be admitted as such, the person

and two godmothers and a godfather at that of a crimes and offences against God. The word bote, the same as boot, is the old Saxon bot or bote, a

must be baptized, must be of full age, acquainted reparation or satisfaction-e. g., man-bote was the with the Lord's Prayer, Creed, and Ten Command.

ments, and familiar with the fundamental truthg compensation due for the life of a man.

of Christianity. No impediment of marriage arises GO'DESBERG, a village of Rhenish Prussia, with in the English Church from the relation of the a fine ruin, is situated on a conical hill in the midst sponsors to the baptized. Practically, the usage in of a plain, on the left bank of the Rhine, and four the Church of England has, for the most part, miles south of Bonn. It has a mineral spring, is a degenerated into a mere form ; godfathers and godfavourite summer residence, and has a population mothers usually giving themselves little concern of 1170. It derives its name, not from Woden, who in the future fate of the infant whose spiritual is said to have been worshipped here, but more condition they become bound to watch over. In probably from the Gau-ding, or Goding, the district the Church of Scotland, and other non -Episcopal court which may have held its sittings at this place. Churches, the parents of the infant occupy the The castle was erected by Dietrich, the Archbishop place of sponsors ; the father expressly taking the of Cologne (1208_1213), with materials taken from vows on the occasion. the ancient chapel of St Michael, the ruins of which

GODFREY OF BOUILLON, Duke of Lower are still standing near the castle. In 1582, Geb, Lorraine, born about 1061, at Baisy, a village of hard, the deposed archbishop, took refuge here, and Belgian Brabant, was the eldest son of Couat intrusted the castle to a Dutch garrison. It was, Eustace II. of Boulogne, and Ida, sister to Gotthowever, soon after taken by his successor, on which fried or Godfrey, the Hunchback, Duke of Lower occasion it sustained much injury. During the Lorraine and Bouillon, whom he succeeded in the Thirty Years' War, it was alternately in the posses. government of the latter duchy in 1076. He served sion of the Swedes and the Imperialists, and was with great gallantry in the armies of the Emperor finally almost demolished by the French. Only one Henry IV., both in Germany and Italy; and it fine tower, 90 feet in height, is still standing. It was from his hand that the competitor for the commands a magnificent prospect of the Siebenge. imperial crown, Rodolf of Swabia, reccived his birge and great part of the valley of the Rhine, and deathblow at the battle of Merseburg. When is, on this account, much visited by strangers.

the first Crusade was set on foot, the fame of GODFATHER AND GODMOTHER, the per. his exploits caused him to be elected one of the Bon who, by solemnly presenting to the minister principal commanders. In order to defray the of baptism the candidate for tnat sacrament, which expenses of the Crusade of 1095, he mortg: ged is regarded as a new spiritual birth, is reputed to Bouillon to the Bishop of Liège, aud set out, accomcoutract towards the newly baptized the relation panied by his brothers Eustace and Baldwin, in of spiritual paternity or maternity. The effects of the spring of 1096. For a detailed account of his the irsage are differently estimated in the different career up till the taking of Jerusalem, see CRUSADES

Eight days after the taking of Jerusalem, G. was In the Roman Catholic Church, the parties pre- proclaimed king by the unanimous voice of the Benting a child for baptism are called, from the crusading army; but the piety and humility of the spiritual parental relations which they contract, conqueror forbade him to wear a crown of gold

golfather' (patrinus) and “gorlmother (matrina); where his Saviour had worn one of thorns.! He mod from the en jagement into which they enter on declined the regal title, contenting himself with that



of Defender and Guardian of the Holy Sepulchre. GODOLPHIN, SYDNEY, EARL OF GODOLPHIN, The Sultan of Egypt, learning that the army of an English statesman, was descended from an old 300,000 Crusaders who had taken Antioch had Cornish family, and was born, it is thought, about dwindled away to 20,000, advanced against them 1640. After the Restoration he became one of the with an army said to have amounted to 400,000 men; grooms of the bed-chamber to Charles II., was but G. gave him battle in the plain of Ascalon, and appointed one of the secretaries of state in 1664, and the victory gained on this occasion put him in soon after first commissioner of the treasury; was possession of the whole of Palestine, a few forti- twice atched to Holland in 1678 on business of fied towns only excepted. He now directed his importance, and argued and voted for the exclusion endeavours to the organisation of the new state ; of the Duke of York from the succession in 1650. he installed a patriarch, founded two cathedral Nevertheless, when the latter mounted the throw, chapters, built a monastery in the valley of G. (now Baron Godolphin of Rialton, in Cornwall) Jehoshaphat, and drew up laws. He died in 1100, was made lord-chamberlain to the queen ; and of and his body was interred on Mount Calvary, near the landing of the Prince of Orange, he was one of the Holy Sepulchre. History represents this prince the commissioners sent by King James to treat with 12 a model of piety, valour, and all kingly virtues ; the invader-a difficult piece of business, which he and his praises have been worthily sung by Tasso is considered to have managed with much tact and in his Jerusalern Delivered.

prudence. William was not slow to perceive the GODI'VA, LADY, patroness of Coventry. About admirable abilities of G., and in 1690 appointed him the year 1040, Leofric, Earl of Mercia, and Lord of first lord of the treasury. In 1695 he was one of Coventry, then an important market-town, imposed the government during the king's absence. In 1702

the seven lords justices for the administration of certain onerous services and heavy exactions upon on the accession of Anne, he accepted the office of the inhabitants, of which they louilly complained. lord high treasurer, mainly at the solicitation of His wife, the Lady G., having the welfare of the Marlborough, who paid him a splendid compliment town at heart, besought her husband to give them by declaring that otherwise he could not venture to relief, and was so earnest in her entreaties, that at length, to escape from her importunities, the earl could depend on him alone for punctual remittances

assume the command of the British armies, as he said he would grant her the favour, but only on G. fully realised the expectations of the great condition that she would ride naked through the town, supposing, from the modesty of Lady G., Captain. He raised the public credit, induced that he had required an impossible condition, but firmly opposed the selling of offices and places, and

the queen to contribute £100,000 towards the war, he was surprised with the answer : But will you increased the stipends of the inferior clergy. Io give me leave to do so ?' As he could not in justice 1706, G. was raised to the dignity

of Earl of Godol

. refuse, she ordered that proclamation be made that on a certain day, no one should be away, or even took part with the Whigs, as being more patriotio

phin and Viscount Rialton; after this period be look, from their houses, when, clothed only by her and English than the Tories. The contest between long hair, she rode through the town; and her him and Harley for the premiership, resulted finally husband, in admiration of her intrepid devotion, in the defeat of G., who was dismissed from office performed his promise. This circumstance was com.

in 1710. He died at St Albans, September 15, memorated by a stained-glass window, mentioned in 1690, in St Michael's Church, Coventry; and the 1712, and was interred in Westminster Abbey.

The title became extinct in his son Francis, second legend that an unfortunate tailor, the only man Eard of Godolphin. G. was the best business-man who looked out of a window, was struck blind, has also found commemoration in an ancient effigy understanding, and liked to do his work in such a

He had the clearest and quickest of Peeping Tom of Coventry,' still to be seen in a niche of one of the buildings. By a charter of way that it would not require to be done over Henry III., 1218, a fair is held at Coventry, begin- again. In an age of corruption, G. was believed ning on Friday of Trinity-week, and lasting eight

to be incapable of bribery, and he never employed days. The fair was opened with a grand civic as his agents any except men of integrity. His procession, a part of which was, in 1678, the talent for silence equalled William's own. representation of the ride of Lady Godiva. These GODOY. See ALCUDIA. processions were continued at intervals of from

GOD'S TRUCE (Lat. Treuga Dei, or Treua llen, three to seven years, until 1826. Some beautiful woman, who represented Lady G., was the prin- from the Ger. Treu, true), one of the most singular cipal figure, but many other historical and emble. among the institutions of the middle ages, which matic personages were introduced. In 1848, the prevailed specially in France and the Germanic procession was revived with great splendour, and empire, but was also received for a time in the the spectacle attracted more than 15,000 strangers. suspension for a stated time, and at stated seasons

other countries of Europe. It consisted in the The fair of 1862 was opened with a similar pro- and festivals, of that right of private feud for the cession.

redress of wrongs, which, under certain conditions, GÖDÖLÖ, a market-town in Hungary, formerly was recognised by medieval law or usage Private the residence of the princely family Grassalkovich, feuds, it is true, could only, by the medieval law, is distinguished for its manorial castle, as well as which was called Faustrecht and Fehderecht, be for the surrounding parks. It was on the woody undertaken when judicial redress had failed or heighits of G. and Isaszeg that the combined armies could not be enforced, and after formal notice had of Austria, under Prince Windischgrätz and Count been served upon the party against whom they Jellachich, were defeated in two bloody battles by were levied. But even with this limitation, private the Hungarians under Görgei. On the eve of feuds multiplied exceedingly. The public peace was victory, Governor Kossuth held a conference with subject to constant interruption; the weak were she generals Görgei, Klapka, and Damjanich, for without resource; the strong bore down all by the laying down the principles of the famous Declara. terror of their arms ; and the whole social frametion of Independence, issued on the 14th of April work was so utterly disorganised, that men, by one 1849, by the diet at Debreczin. It was this declar. of those religious impulses of which this age offers ation which served the emperor of Russia as a 80 many examples, fell back upon the aid of the pretext for the invasion of Hungary. Pop. 3661. church, and invoked her influence, as the only effectual

of his age.


means of staying the evil. It was in this crisis social views. Afwr some months, however, they that the 'God's Truce' originated. In the end of the yielded so far to custom as to be married. His 10th c., a council assembled at Limoges, at which wife died a short time after in giving birth to a the princes and nobles bound themselves, by solemn daughter, who afterwards became the second wife vow, not only to abstain from all unlawful feuds, of the poet Shelley. In 1799, he published St but also to keep the peace mutually towards each Leon, a romance; and the next year visited Ireland, other, and to protect from violence all defenceless where he associated with Curran, Grattan, and other persons, clerics, monks, nung, women, merchants, eminent Irish political leaders. He also consoled pilgrims, and tillers of the soil. A similar engage- himself for the loss of his wife by writing her ment was entered into in a council at Orleans Memoirs. In 1801, he married again, and had a in 1016; and the whole body of the bishops of son, who died of cholera in 1832. To secure a more Burgundy enforced it upon their flocks everywhere certain support, G. and his wife opened a circu. throughout that duchy. A plague which visited lating library, but he also worked indefatigably a great part of Europe soon afterwards gave a fresh with his pen to the end of his life. He wrote many impulse to the movement; and in the year 1033, school-books, an admirable Life of Chaucer (1801); the Holy Peace' was almost universally received, Fleetwood, a novel, 3 vols. (1805); Mandeville, in and for a time continued to be religiously observed. 1817 ; a Treatise on Population, a refutation of But as the old abuse began to revive by degrees, it Malthus, in 1820; a History of the Republic of Eng. was felt that the observance would carry, with it land, in 4 vols. (1824-1828); Cloudesley (1830); more of religious authority, if, instead of being, as Thoughts on Man (1833). As he grew old, ho it had originally been instituted, universal, it was modified his opinions on politics and society, limited to certain times and days, which themselves and especially on marriage, which be warmly had certain religious associations connected with commends in some of his later works. Being now them. Accordingly, in 1041, the bishops of Aqui- 77 years old, he was appointed to a place under taine limited the God's Truce to the week-days government, which removed him from the apprehen. specially consecrated by the memory of the Passion sion of want; but he knew not how to be idle, and and Resurrection of Christ, that is, from the sunset wrote Deloraine, a novel, and the Lives of the Necroof Wednesday to sunrise of Monday. The same mancers. Many of his works were translated into decree was renewed at Narbonne in 1054, and at foreign languages. He died in London, April 7, Troyes in 1093. At Clermont, in 1095, it was 1836. extended to the whole interval from the beginning of GODWIN, EARL OF WESSEX, a famous Saxova Advent to the Epiphany, and from the beginning noble, was born towards the end of the 10th cen. of Lent to Pentecost, to which times were after tury. Originally, it is said, he followed the occu. wards added several other festivals. These enact-pation of a cow-herd; but having found means to ments were alopted or renewed at several later ingratiate himself with Ulfr, the brother-in-law of councils; and although they were often disregarded, King Canute, the latter gave him his daughter in it is impossible to doubt that they had a wide and marriage, and he soon became one of the most lasting influence in mitigating the evil against powerful of the English nobles. More than any which they were directed. This singular institution other person, he contributed to the elevation of fell gradually into disuse, and at last disappeared Elward to the English throne (1044 A.D.); and the altogether, when the right of private redress was principal reward of his services was the marriage restricted, and at last entirely abolished, by the law of his beautiful and accomplished daughter Editha of the empire.

with the English king. This union, however, was GODWIN, WILLIAM, an English author, was not a happy one. Editha was cruelly neglected by born at Wisbeach, in Cambridgeshire, March 3, Edward, and her father, on account of his disliko 1756. His father and grandfather were Presbyterian of the Normans, incurred the royal enmity. His ministers, and he was elucated to the same profes. estates were seized, and given to favourites, and he sion, tirst at a school at Norwich, to which place his and his family fled. Queen Editha was made to father haud removed in 1767, where he made rapid feel even more bitterly than any one the misfor. progress in classical studies, and afterward at a tunes of her family. Her own husband seized her Presbyterian college at Hoxton, where he pursued dower ; he took from her her jewels and her money, his theological studies. From 1778 to 1783, he was 'even to the uttermost farthing;' and allowing her minister to a congregation in the neighbourhood of only the attendance of one maiden, he closely conLondon ; but the zeal with which he first entered fined her in the monastery of Wherwell, of which upon his duties declined, and a change in his theo- one of his sisters was lady-abbess. Meanwhile, logical opinions made it necessary for him to resign shoals of Normans visited England for the purpose his cha: ge.

His only resource was to remove to of making, or rather getting fortunes. Among the retro, hlis, and engage in literature. His first Edward's most favoured guests for a time was Duke work, a series of Historical Sketches, in the form of William of Normandy, better known as William ser?::uns, was unsuccessful, and he was reduced to the Conqueror. The banished earl, however, had penury and despair ; but they made him acquainted not been idle ; through frequent correspondence with with Fox, Sheridan, and other Whig leaders, and he his countrymen at home, he kept alive the antiturned his attention to politics. The American pathy of the English to the Norman favourites of revolution, closely followed by that of France, Edward, and in the summer of 1052 be landed on excited the public mind, and G. wrote his Inquiry the southern coast of England. The royal troops, Concerning Political Justice, 1793. This was fol. the navy, and vast numbers of the burghers and lowed by The Adventures of Caleb Williams, a peasants, went over to him ; and finally the king was remarkable novel, which is still popular, and The forced to grant his demands. The Normans were for Iron Chest, a tragedy, which keeps its place upon the the most part expelled from the conntry, the G. stage. An able defence of Horne Tooke and others, family was restored to all its possessions and digni. published in the Morning Chronicle, avanced his ties; and at a meeting of the Witenagemote, “the reputation; and in 1797, he published The Inquirer, earls and all the best men of the land' declared a collection of essays on morals and politics. About that the foreigners alone were to be held guilty of this time, he formed an alliance with Mary Woll the late dissensions that had distracted the country. #tonecraft, the celebrated author of the Rights of G. did not long survive his triumphs; he died Woman, and adopted and defended her extreme April 7, 1054.

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