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GOLDSINNY-GOLDSMITH

receive lessons from Garcia Her voice was now risked his entire capital, and of course lost it thought wanting in volume, and when she appeared Another sum was then raised, and he proceeder te at the Grand Opera two years later, her failure was Edinburgh to study medicine, where he remained 18 80 mortifying, that she is said to have resolved never months, but did not take a degree. He then proagain to sing in France. Returning to Stockholm, ceeded to the continent, hovered about Leyden for she was Leard with enthusiasm in Robert le Diable, some time, haunting the gaming-tables with but and at the instance of Meyerbeer was engaged at indifferent success; and in February 1755, he left Berlin in 1845. After singing two years in Prussia, that city to travel on foot through Europe, scantily she visited Vienna, and other German cities, and provided as to purse and wardrobe, but rich in his made her debut in London in 1847, with a very kindly nature and his wonder-working flute. marked success. Her return to Stockholm was After taking his degree of B.M. at Padua e greeted with an ovation, and the tickets to the Louvain, G. returned to England in February 1756, opera in which she appeared were sold at auction. when, by the assistance of Dr Sleigh, a fellow She returned to London in 1849, and won an immense student, he set up as a physician among the triumph. The royal family and court were present poor. He did not succeed in his profession, and at nearly every representation, and the receipts were he is represented as having become usher in the often over £2000. * The London season was followed academy of Dr Milner at Peckham. During this by a concert, tour in the provinces, with a similar period he supported himself by contributions to the success, and her great popularity was increased by Monthly Review. He became candidate for a medical the distribution of a large part of her receipts in appointment at Coromandel, but was rejected by charities. In 1850 she made an engagement with the College of Surgeons. The clothes in which he Mr P. T. Barnum of New York, for a concert tour appeared for examination had been procured ou in America, extending through the United States, the security of Mr Griffiths, editor of the Monthly British provinces, Mexico, and the West Indies. Reviero; and as G., urged by sharp distress, had The receipts of this well-managed tour were 610,000 pawned them, his publisher threatened him with dollars, of which Madeinoiselle Lind received 302,000 the terrors of a jail. He had now reached the dollars. While in America, she was married to M. lowest depths of misery; but the dawn was about Otto Goldschmidt, the pianist who accompanied her, to break. born at Hamburg 1828. They returned to Europe His first publication of note was an Inquiry into in 1852, and resided at Dresden after she had the Present State of Polite Learning in Europe, and visited Stockholm, and expended £40,000 in endow. was published in April 1759. In January 1760, MI ing schools in her native country. Since this period Newbery commenced the Public Ledger, to which Madame G. has sung only at concerts in Eng. G. contributed the celebrated Chinese Letters, afterland and on the continent, and on rare occasions. wards republished under the title of The Citizen of Her kind manners and benevolence have contributed the World. He also wrote a Life of Beau Nash grently to her popularity and success, and she has and a llistory of England, in a series of letters been instrumental in adding large sums to the char- On the 31st May 1761 he was introduced by Di ities of the countries which she has visited.

Percy to Dr Johnson, who, in his turn, introduced GOʻLDSINNY, or GOLDFINNY, a name given 1764, The Traveller appeared, and at once placed

his new friend to the Literary Club. In December to certain small species of Crenilabrus, a genus of him in the front rank of English authors. Two fishes of the Wrasse family (Labrida). They are on those of the north of Europe. They frequent rapid succession he produced his other works. The rare on the British coasts, but are more plentiful years after this he published the Vicar of Wake

field, which has now charmed four generations. In rocky coasts, and are sometimes taken by anglers comedy of the Good Natured Man, in 1767; the from the rocks. They receive their name from their Roman History, in 1768; and The Deserted Village prevalent yellow colour. Like the wrasses, they - the sweetest of all his poems—in 1770. In 1773, have a very elongated dorsal fin.

his comedy of She Stoops to Conquer was produced GOLDSMITH, OLIVER, was born in the village at Covent Garden with great applause. His other of Pallas, in the county of Longford, Ireland, works are-Grecian History, 1774; Retaliation, a 10th November 1728. His father, the Rev. Charles poem, 1777; and History of Animated Nature, which Goldsmith, a clergyman of the Established Church, he did not live to complete. Althongh now in receipt held the living of Kilkenny West. At the age of large sums for his works, G. had not escaped of six, G. was placed under the care of the from pecuniary embarrassment. He was extrava village schoolmaster, when an attack of small-pox gant, loved fine living and rich clothes, his charities interrupted his studies. On his recovery, he were only bounded by his purse, and he haunted attended school various places. On the 11th the gaming-table quite as frequently, and with as June 1745, he entered Trinity College, Dublin, as a constant ill success, as of old. In March 1774, ha sizar; the expense of his education being defrayed came up to London, ill in body and harassed in by his uncle, the Rev. Thomas Contarine. At mind, and took to bed on the 25th. With charac. the university-where Burke was his contem- teristic wilfulness and imprudence, he, contrary to porary-G. gave no evidence of the possession the advice of his medical advisers, persisted in the of talent, and becoming involved in some irre- use of James's Powders. He became rapidly worse, gularity, quitted his studies in disgust. He and Dr Turton said: 'Your pulse is in greater disIngered in Dublin till his funds were exhausted, order than it should be from the degree of fever then wandered on to Cork, where, he being in great you have. Is your mind at ease ?' 'No, it is not,' distress, a handful of peas was given him by a girl was the poet's reply, and the last words he uttered at a wake, the flavour of which remained for ever He died on the 4th April

, £2000 in debt, and more sweet in his memory. By his brother Henry, he sincerely lamented than any literary man of his was brought back to college, where, on the 27th time. Old and infirm people sobbed on the stairs February 1749, he received the degree of B.A. of his apartments, Johnson and Burke grieved and His uncle was now anxious that his nephew should Reynolds, when he heard the news, laid down enter the church; but when he appeared before his pencil, and left his studio. He was buried in the bishop, he was rejected. His kind-hearted Temple Church, and a monument was erected to relative then gave him £50, and sent him to Dublin to him in Westminster Abbey, bearing an epitaph by study law; but G., being attracted to a gaming-table, Dr Johnson

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GOLDSMITHS NOTES-GOLF.

G. was the most natural genius of his time. He weighted with lead behind, and facid with horn) of did not possess Johnson's mass of intellect, nor well-seasoned apple-tree or thorn. Every player Burke's passion and general force, but he wrote has a set of clubs, differing in length and shape to the finest poem, the most exquisite novel, and—with suit the distance to be driven, and the position of the exception perhaps of the School for Scandal — the ball; for (except in striking off from a hole, the most delightful comedy of the period. Blun. when the ball may be teed—i. e., placed advandering, impulsive, vain, and extravagant, clumsy tageously on a little heap of sand, called a tee) it is in nanner and undignified in presence, he was a rule that the ball must be struck as it happens to laughed at and ridiculed by his contemporaries ; lie. Some positions of the ball require a club with but with pen in hand, and in the solitude of his chamber, he was a match for any of them, and took the finest and kindliest revengts. Than bis style-in which, after all, lay his strengthtothing could be more natural, simple, and graceful. It is full of the most exquisite expressions, and the most cunning turns. Whatever he said, he said in the most graceful way. When he wrote nonsense, he wrote it so exquisitely that it is better often than other people's sense. Johnson, who, although he laughed at, yet loved and understood him, criti. cised him admirably in the remark: “He is now writing a Natural History, and will make it as agreeable as a Persian tale. The best life of Goldsnith is that by Forster, entitlod The Life and Times of Oliver Goldsmith (Lond. 1854).

GOLDSMITHS' NOTES; the earliest form of bank-notes ; so called because goldsmiths were the first bankers. See BANK-NOTES.

GOLF, or GOFF, a pastime almost peculiar to Scotland, derives its name from the club (Ger. Kolbe; Dutch, Kolf) with which it is played. It is uncertain when it was introduced into Scotland, but it appears to have been practised by all classes to a considerable extent in the reign of King James I. Charles I. was much attached to the game, and on his visit to Scotland in 1641, was engaged in

Club Heads: it on Leith Links when intimation was given him 1, play-club; 2, putter; 3, spoon : 4, sand-iron; B, oloet , of the rebellion in Ireland, whereupon he threw

6, niblick or track-iron. down his club, and returned in great agitation to Holyroodhouse. The Duke of York, afterwards an iron head. The usual complement of clubs is sis; James II., also delighted in the game; and in but those who refine on the gradation of implements our own day, the Prince of Wales occasionally use as many as ten, which are technically distinpractises it.

guished as the play-club, long-spoon, mill-spoon, shortUntil late years, golf was entirely confined to spoon, bafing-spoon, driving-putter, putter, sand-iron, Scotland, where it still maintains its celebrity as a cleek, and niblick or track-iron—the last three have national recreation; but latterly it has been estab- icon heads, the others are of wood. Every player lished south of the Tweed, as well as in many of is usually provided with an attendant, called a the British colonies. It is played on what are caddy, who carries his clubs and tees' his balls. called in Scotland links (Eng. downsj

, that is, tracts The object of the game is, starting from the first of sandy soil covered with short grass, which occur hole, to drive the ball into the next hole with an frequently along the east coast of Scotland. St few strokes as possible; and so on round the Andrews and Leven in Fife, Prestwick in Ayrshire, course. The player (or pair of players) whose ball Musselburgh in Mid Lothian, North Berwick and is holed in the fewest strokes has gained that hole; Gullane in East Lothian, Carnoustie and Montrose and the match is usually decided by the greatest in Forfarshire, and Aberdeen, are examples of number of holes gained in one or more rounds ; admirably suited links, as the ground is diversified sometimes it is made to depend on the aggregate by knolls, sand-pits, and other hazards (as they number of strokes taken to hole' one or more are termed in golfing phraseology), tbe avoiding of rounds. which is one of the most important points of the To play the game of golf well requires long game.

practice, and very few attain to great excellence A series of small round holes, about four inches who have not played from their youth. But any in diameter, and several inches in depth, are cut one may in a year or two learn to play tolerably, to the turf, at distances of from one to four or so as to take great pleasure in the game; and five hundred yards from each other, according to for all who have once entered upon it, it possesses the uature of the ground, so as to form a circuit no ordinary fascination. It has this advantage over or round.

The rival players are either two in many other outdoor games, that it is suited both number, which is the simplest arrangement, or four for old and young. The strong and energetic find (two against two), in which case the two partners scope for their energy in driving long balls (crack. strike the ball on their side alternately. The balls, players will drive a ball above 200 yards); but weighing about two ounces, are made of gutta- the more important points of the game-ap exact percha, and painted white so as to be readily seen. eye, a steady and measured: stroke for the short

An ordinary golf-club consists of two parts spliced distances, and skill in avoiding hazards are called cogether-damely, the shaft and head: the shaft forth in all cases. Along with the muscular exerunsually made of hickory, or lance-wond; the cise required by the actual play, there is a mixture bandie covered with leather; the head (heavily l of walking which particularly suits these whose

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GOLFO DULCE-GOLOSHES.

pursuits are sedentary-walking, too, on a breezy and sepulture is not ascertainable, a writer in
common, and under circumstances which make it Smith's Dictionary of the Bible offers strong reasons
far more beneficial than an ordinary constitutional.' for believing that the present mosque of Omar,

called by the Mohammedans "The Dome of the
Rock,' occupies the site of the sacred Golgotha

GOLI'ATH. See GATH.

GOLIATH BEETLE (Goliathus), a genus of tropical coleopterous insects, of the section Pentamera

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and remarkable for the large size of some of the Putting.

species, particularly the African ones. They are

also, in respect of their colours, splendid insecto. In the accompanying illustration, the method of Little is known of their habits. holding the club, when putting the ball into the GÖÄLLNITZ, a small town in the north of Hun. hole, is shewn. Golf Associations are numerous in Scotland, and bank of a river of the same name, a feeder of the

gary, in the county of Zips, is situated on the left Lo many instances the members wear a uniform Kernad, 17 miles south-west of Eperies. It has when playing. Many professional players make important iron and copper mines, and manufactures their livelihood by golf, and are always ready to of wire and cutlery. Pop. 5200. instruct beginners in the art, or to play matches with amateurs.

GOʻLLNOW, a small manufacturing town of The rules laid down by the St Andrews Royal Prussia, in the province of Pomerania, is situated and Ancient Union Club are those that govern on the right bank of the Thna, 15 miles north-east pearly all the other associations, and may be found of Stettin. It was formerly a Hanse-town, and in Chambers's Information for the People, No. 96.

is surrounded by walls, and defended by two forts. GOLFO DULCE, in English, Sweet or Fresh The manufactures are woollen cloth, ribbons, paper, Gulf, lies in the state of Guatemala, in Central and tobacco ; there are also copper-works. Por

6207. America, measuring 26 miles by 11, and having an average depth of 6 or 8 fathoms. It communi GOLOMY'NKA (Comephorus Baikalensis), a cates with the outer sea, here known as the Gulf remarkable fish, found only in Lake Baikal, the of Honduras, by a narrow strait or stream called only known species of its genus, which belongs to the Rio Dulce.

the goby family. It is about a foot long, is destitute GO’LGOTHA, a Hebrew word signifying aóskull,' of scales, and is very soft, its whole substance and so it is interpreted by Luke; but by the other abounding in oil, which is obtained from it by three evangelists, the place of a skull.' The Latin pressure. It is never eaten. equivalent is Calvaria, 'a bare skull.' This place, GOLO'SHES (formerly called galoshes), from the scene of the crucifixion of Christ, was situated Galoche, a word through the French, from Galocha, without the gates of Jerusalem, on the eastern side the Spanish for a patten, clog, or wooden shoe. The of the city, although the common opinion handed French applied the term at first to shoes partly down from the middle ages fixes it in the north of leather and wood, the soles being wood, and the west (see CALVARY). It was probably the ordinary uppers of leather. The term was introduced to this spot of execution, though this is to be inferred country as a cordwainer's technicality, to signify a rather from the fact that, in the eyes of the Roman method of repairing old boots and shoes by putting officers of justice, Christ was simply a common a narrow strip of leather above the sole so as to criminal, than from any supposed connection between surround the lower part of the upper leather. It the word “skull' and a place of execution; G. was also adopted by the patten and clog makers to receiving its name in all likelihood from its round distinguish what were also called French clogs from skull-like form. A church was built over the spot ordinary clogs and pattens Clogs were mere soles in the 4th c. by Constantine. What is now called of wood with straps across the instep to keep them the Church of the Holy Sepulchre' to the north-west on; pattens were the same, with iron rings to raise of Jerusalem, but within the walls of the city, has them from the ground; but the galoshes were manifestly no claim whatever to be considered the wooden soles, usually with a joint at the part where building erected by Constantine ; but while recent the tread of the foot came, and with apper leather biblical scholars and travellers generally have like very low shoes. assumed that the scene of our Saviour's crucifixion Now, however, these clogs, pattens, and goloshes

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GOLPE--GOMBROON.

bave completely passed away except in some rural they pass throngh the cutting machines. In these districts which are almost inaccessible to modern are fitted sharp cutting morlds of different sizes inventions: the American goloshes have entirely and shapes : some cut out the inside linings and the superseded them. These are manufactured of vul- outside uppers for fronts and heel-steppings; whilst canised India rubber or caoutchouc, and are now others with great nicety cut the heeled soles out. made in the most elegant forms; being elastic, they These various parts are now taken to the makers, are worn as overshoes in wet weather, and are an who are usually females; and the last-which is excellent protection to the feet. At first, India- now made of cast iron as an improvement on the rubber goloshes were all imported from the states wooden ones formerly in use-is rapidly covered of America, and in 1856 the value of the imports of over with the various parts, beginning with the this article reached the enormous sum of £75,442; lining and insole, the edges of which are cemented now, however, vast numbers are made in this with a composition probably containing liquefied country, chiefly by the North British Rubber Com. India rubber or gutta-percha; but its real composi. pany (Limited), whose works are called the Castle tion is another secret of the manufacture, and is Mills, in Edinburgh. In this vast building, when in held to be a very important one: it produces an full work, 10,500 pairs of goloshes are daily made; ! instantaneous and firm adhesion. The outer parts and so perfect is the arrangement of the manufac- and the sole are fitted on with equal facility, and ture, which is chiefly conducted by Americans, that the workwoman then runs a wheel-tool round the in a few hours large masses of the raw material edges and other parts, to produce the representation are converted into overshoes, boots, sheets, bands, of seam marks. In this way a pair of shoes is rings, washers, and a great variety of other useful produced in little more than five minutes. They articles. The process of making goloshes consists, are next coated with a varnish, which gives them a first, in preparing the raw material; secondly, highly polished appearance; and when the varnish kneading it up with certain chemical materials, the has hardened, which it does very quickly, they are composition of which is carefully concealed by the transferred to the vulcanising ovens or chambers, in manufacturers, but the principal constituent is which, for some time, they are submitted to a high sulphur ; thirdly, rolling it out into sheets of the degree of heat, which prodnces a chemical union thickness required; and lastly, fashioning it into between the caoutchouc and the other materials goloshes.

which were mixed in with it at the beginning of In the first operation, the rubber is first placed in the operations. When taken from the oven, they warm water violently agitated ; this softens it, and are removed to the packing-room, and are sent removes a considerable quantity of dirt and other in boxes to all parts of the kingdom, and to most impurities; it is then put into a machine, which parts of Europe, especially Germany, where they are tears it into very small pieces in water, thus also very extensively worn. The North British Rubber removing much impurity. "Still warm, and somewhat Company produces nearly three million pairs of overadhesive in consequence, the small fragments into shoes and boots annually. which the rubber has been torn are spread out into GOLPE, in Heraldry, a Roundel purpure. It is a thick sheet, which travels between two rollers sometimes called a Wound. See RoundEL. about an inch apart; these press the fragments together, and they adhere slightly in the form of

GOMARISTS, or CONTRA-REMONSTRANTS, a thick blanket, about two feet wide, and from four the name by which the opponents of the doctrines of to six feet in length. The slight adhesion of the Arminius (q. v.), the founder of the Dutch Renion. very irregularly shaped morsels of rubber renders strants, were designated. The party received this this flattened sheet very porous, and in this state it appellation from its leader, Francis Gomar. This is hung in the drying-room, to remove the moisture theologian was born at Bruges, 30th January 1563, with which it is loaded. These sheets are next studied at the universities of Strasburg, Heidelberg, passed between large cylindrical iron rollers heated Oxford, and Cambridge, in the last-mentioned of with steam internally, which compress the material which he took his degree of B.D. in 1584. In 1594, into thin soft sheets. The chemical materials are he was appointed professor of divinity at Leyden, now spread equally over the sheet, and it is folded and signalised himself by his vehement antipathy

and kneaded so as to work the vulcanising mate to the views of his colleague, Arminius. In the rials and rubber well together. This kneading disputation between the Armenians and Calvinists, process is performed by passing it several times held at the Hague in 1608, his zeal was very conthrough the hot rollers, folding it after each rolling spicuous; and at the synod of Dort in 1618, he was into a dough-like mass. When this operation is

mainly instrumental in securing the expulsion of the completed, it is finally rolled out into thin sheets Arminians from the Reformed Church. He died at several yarıls in length, which are reeled off on cold Gröningen in 1641. An edition of his works was rollers at some distance. so as to allow cooling, and published at Amsterdam in 1645. G., though stily it is then ready for the uppers of the commonest and bigoted in the last degree, and more Calvinkind of goloshes, which are unlined; but the better istic than Calvin himself, was a man of varivus and Borts are lined with cotton cloth of different colours,

extensive learning. and sometimes with other materials; the lining is GOMBROO'N, called also BENDER or BUNDER effected by passing the piece of cloth through the ABBAS, a town and seaport of Persia, stands at the rollers simultaneously with the rubber in the last mouth of the Persian Gulf, in the Strait of Ormuz, process, and a firm adhesion of the two is effected and opposite the island of that name. Bender by the heat and pressure.

Abbas owed its name and importance to Shah Abbás, Another machine has rollers 80 modelled that who, assisted by the English, drove the Portuguese t produces a sheet thick enough for the soles, in 1622 from Ormuz, or Hormuz, then a flourishing and on one surface the roughening is made by commercial town on the island of the same name, engraved lines crossing each other, to prevent the ruined the seaport, and transferred its commerce to gole from slipping in wet weather. An ingenious Gombroon. For some time G. prospered abundantly, arrangement of this machine forms about two inches French, Dutch, and English factories were crected of each side of the sheet which passes through it here, and the population rose to about 30,00. A a little thicker than the middle portion, and this dispute among the natives, however, resulted in tho werves for the raised heels. After the sheets for the destruction of the European factories and houses, uppers and heels have been cooled and reeled off, and only the remains of these now exist. Trade then

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GOMERA-GONGORA.

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almost entirely forsook G.; it is now inhabited GO’NDOLA (Italian), a long narrow boat (aver. by only about 4000 Arabs under a sheikh, who is aging 30 feet by 4) used chiefly on the canals of subject to the sultan of Muscat, in Arabia. The Venice. The prow and starn taper to a point, and town is surrounded by a mud wall; its streets are curve out of the water to a height of at least 5 feet narrow and dirty.

GOME'RA, one of the Canary Islands (q. v.).
GOMO'RRAH. See SODOM AND GOMORRAH.

GOMU'TO, ARENG, or EJOO PALM (Arenga saccharifera, or Saguerus Rumphii), an important palm which grows in Cochin China and in the islands of the Indian Archipelago, particularly in moist and shady ravines. The stem is 20—30 feet high ; the leaves 15—25 feet long, pinnated. The flowers are in bunches 6-10 feet long; the fruit is a yellowish. brown, three-seeded berry, of the size of a small apple, and extremely acrid. The stem, when young, is entirely covered with sheaths of fallen leaves, and black horse-hairlike fibres, which issue in great abundance from their margins; but as the tree increases in age, these drop off, leaving an elegant naked columnar stem. The strongest of the fibres, resembling porcupine quills in thickness, are used in Sumatra as styles for writing on the leaves of other

Venetian Gondola. palms. But the finer fibres are by far the most valuable; they are well known in eastern commerce In the centre there is a curtained chamber for the as Gomuto or Ejoo fibre, and are much used for occupants: the boat is propelled by means of oars or making strong cordage, particularly for the cables poles by one, two, or occasionally four men. The and standing-rigging of ships, European as well as rowers stand as they row, and wear the livery of native. Want of pliancy renders them less fit for the family to which the gondola belongs. running-rigging, and for many other purposes. They The term gondola is also applied to passage-boats need no preparation but spinning or twisting. No having six or eight oars, used in other parts of ropes of vegetable fibre are so imperishable, when Italy. often wet, as those made of Gomuto fibre. At the base of the leaves of the Gomuto palm there is tract of Hindustan, lying between 19° 50' and 24°

GONDWANA, the land of the Gonds, is a hilly a fine woolly material

, called bara, which is much 30', and in E. long. between 77° 38' and 87° 20. It employed in caulking ships and stuffing cushions. The stem contains a large quantity, 150-200 lbs., occupies a somewhat central position, sending its of a kind of sago. The saccharine sap, obtained castward through the Mahanadi into the Bay of

drainage at once northward into the Jumna, in great abundance by cutting the spadices of the Bengal

, and westward through the Tapti and the flowers, is a delicious beverage, and by fermentation Nerbudda into the Arabian Sea—the water-shed in yields an intoxicating palm wine (neroo), from which a spirituous liquor called brum is made.

some places attaining an elevation of 5000 feet. So

isolated a locality, besides being in itself unfavour. GONAI'VES, a seaport of Hayti, with an excel- able to civilisation, is rendered still more so by lent harbour, stands on a bay of its own name, the extreme barbarism of the inhabitants, who are which deeply indents the west coast of the island. regarded, with some appearance of probability, as It is 65 to the north-west of Port Republicain, the genuine aborigines of India. Certain it is, that formerly Port au Prince, the capital.

the country has never really formed a part of any GOʻNDAR, a city of Abyssinia, capital of the of the great empires in the east. kingdom of Gondar or Amhara, is situated in lat.

GO'NFALON (Ital. gonfalone), an ensign or 12° 36' N., and long. 37° 29' E., on an insulated hill standard; in virtue of bearing which, the chief at an elevation of 7420 feet above sea level, and magistrates in many of the Italian cities were is 30 miles distant from the northern shore of known as gonfaloniers Lake Dembea or Izana (see A BYSSINIA). G. is the residence of the emperor or Negus, whose authority

GONG, an Indian instrument of percussion, made is now merely nominal, and at one time had from of a mixture of metals (78 to 80 parts of copper, 50 to 100 churches and about 50,000 inhabitants; and 22 to 20 parts of tin), and shaped into a basinbut since the dismemberment of the kingdom, it like form, flat and large, with a rim of a few has greatly declined, and its extent or population inches deep. The sound of the G. is produced by cannot now be accurately stated. It is poorly and striking it, while hung by the rim, with a wooden irregularly built, and resembles a wood rather than mallet, which puts the metal into an extraerlinary a city, on account of the number of trees surround- state of vibration, and produces a very loud piercing ing the houses. The palace of the emperor, a square

sound. stone structure flanked with towers, is the most GONGORA, LUIS Y. ARGOTE, a Spanish poet, important building. There are no shops or bazaars, was born at Cordova, 11th July 1561; studied law all the articles for sale being exposed on mats in at the university of Salamanca, where he composed the market-place. G. has manufactures of fire the greater part of his erotic poems, romances, arms, sword-Blades, knives, scissors, razors, shields, and satires. At the age of 45, he took orders, pottery, &c.; and a considerable transit trade and obtained a small prebend in the cathedral of between Massuah on the Red Sea and the south Cordova. He was afterwards appointed chaplain to of Abyssinia, in slaves, musk, wax, ivory, coffee, Philip III., and died in his native city 24th May honey, &c. The mean temperature of G., as observed 1627. Go's poetic career divides itself into two by Rüppell during the seven months from October periods. In his first or youthful period, he yielded to April inclusive, was 69°, and the lowest tempera- himself up entirely to the natural tendencies of ture during that time was 53.09o. A great quantity nis genius, and to the spirit of the nation. His of rain falls here.

lyrics and romances of this period are in the old

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