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THE

DYNAMICAL THEORY

loiden

OF THE

FORMATION OF THE EARTH.

BY

ARCHIBALD TUCKER RITCHIE.

“Through faith we understand that the worlds were framed by the
Word of God; so that things which are seen were not made of things
which do appear.”

HEBREWS xi. 3.

VOL. II.

LONDON:
LONGMAN, BROWN, GREEN, AND LONGMANS,

PATERNOSTER ROW.

MDCCCL.

506

.R53

GREENWICH: PRINTED BY W. H. CROCKFORD.

CONTENTS OF VOL. II.

CHAPTER XIX.
Introductory remarks. Classification of rocks into STRATIFIED and UN-

STRATIFIED. Geological data for the correctness of these two great
divisions. Evidences in favour of the Dynamical Theory, deducible
from the unstratified rocks. Nucleii and centres of mountain chains
generally composed of amorphous masses. Their prevalence on the
Earth's surface. Geological attestations in support of this. Axis of
elevation observable in mountain ranges, and the conical form which
their eminences have assumed. Argument, founded on the stratified
rocks, to show that the mineral crust of the Earth has been moved,
in mass, from where it was formed. Firstly. Strata deposited hori-
zontally at the bottom of water. Geological evidences to this effect.
Secondly. That they have been elevated from the position in which
they were deposited, proved by numerous evidences. Concluding
observations arising from the establishing of these several assump-
tions

1

CHAPTER XX.

Evidences to prove, that the non-rotatory sphere was circumbounded by

water—astronomical proof-geological proof. This fact, combined
with what was established in previous chapters, leads to the conclu-
sion, that violent movement, therefore much friction, and con-
sequently great heat, would necessarily ensue amongst the rocky
masses of the earth's crust. The characteristics of Friction enquired
into, and the Breccia which would result, when mineral formations,
abounding with calcareous material, were subjected to its influence
under water. The great Breccia and Conglomerate formations geo-
logically described, and shown to correspond with that which the
Dynamical Theory requires for its perfection, should be found to
exist. Some of the more special uses which they were designed to
accomplish made manifest. The Coal Measures protected by the
Conglomerate and Breccia from fusion and denudation. The nucleii
of mountain ranges the resultant foci of heat engendered by friction.
Geological proof of this, deduced alike from the mineralogical
structure of the rocks composing these elevations, and from the
existing symptoms of fusion, evidenced by the altered condition of
their contiguous strata

CHAPTER XXI.
Evidences of the existence, in former times, of fusion in the primary

rocks, derived from their internal or mineralogical structure. Carbo-
nate of lime fused under pressure-mineralogical results. Crystal-
lization proceeding from igneous fusion. Geological evidences to
prove that a considerable proportion of the rocky crust of the Earth
is crystalline in its texture. Essential difference between rocks pro-
perly called crystalline, of older formation, and those resulting from
modern volcanoes, called lavas

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60 CHAPTER XXII.

attendant circumstances peculiarly favourable for this needful pro-

cess. The unconformable rocky masses which overlie the coal

measures. Geological evidence of their existence. Enquiry into

their origin, as made known to us by the Dynamical Theory. Geo-

logical character of the newer Secondary Suites. The New Red

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