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e found in the scriptures in no mention of Adam as a type of ther place. The term justifica- Christ, plainly implies, what afon is repeatedly used; and when terwards he more fully expresses, sed without any qualification, or that all mankind will be delivered da general sense, in opposition from the particular penalty, i. e.
condemnation, in general we natural death, which was incurred nderstand it rightly no doubt to by Adam's one offence. At this nean acquittal from the whole point, however, he makes a pause uilt of sin to eternal salvation. distinctly, and apprises us, that
, The terms justify, justified, and though Adam was a type of Christ ustification, however, have differ- in one respect, he was not so in int senses, according to the con- all respects; and that the interposexion in which they are used; sition of Christ was designed to ind may denote deliverance froin affect something more than merely any kind of evil. When it is us- to do away the particular penalty ed in opposition to condemnation, which Adam brought upon his its sense is to be ascertained from
66 But not as the that of the condemnation to which offence, says he, so is also the it refers - But what is the con- free gift:" the free gift by Christ demnation here (in our text) par- is not limited in its design to the ticularly meant? It is, as we have doing away of the penalty of the seon, the condemnation to death, one offence of Adam.
* For if to temporal death. The justifica through the offence of one many tion, then, which is directly up
be dead; much more the grace of posed to this condemnation, is de God and the gist by grace, which liverance froin the same sentence is by one man Jesus Christ, hath of death.—The apostle's meaning abounded unto many,” Not sathere, is the same with that in the isfied with actually delivering all 18th chapter of his first epistle to men from that one penalty; tothe Corinthians, where he says, wards many of them this rich
Since by man came death, by grace abounds, overflows, or conman came also the resurrection of fers on them still greater benefits. the dead; for as in Adam all die, “ And not as by one that sinned even so in Christ shall all be made so is the gift: for the judginent alive.” The interposition of Christ, I was by one or through one of
( as the Redeemner of men, had re- fence) to condemnation (i. e. of spect, in the first place, to the death) but the free gift is of many penalty which was annexed to the offences unto justification;" not first economy.
merely justification of life, but a But, the benefit of the Saviour's justification of more glorious nainterposition does not stop here: ture and extent. By the fall, not " For as by one man's disobedi- only were mankind brought under ence many were made or consti- condemnation of death; they were tuted sinners; so by the obedience also brought into a state of sin: of one man shall many be made they, therefore, need to be delivrighteous.”—Why does the apos- ered, not only from the penalty of tle change his phraseology? (from Adam's own offence, but also from all men to many)-For this plain the more tremendous penalty of reason, that the term all would their own many offences. And to not in this sense, as in the other, this part of their case, the grace apply to both parts of his compar- of God and the free gift by grace ison. The apostle's argument, in
in Jesus Christ had also respect. immediate connexion with the 'By the obedience of Christ unto
death, a general atonement was ject be correct, was by no means made, a general propitiation for the fact. The doom, which was sin, through which the riches of passed upon Adam and his posdivine grace abound to the cancel- terity, for that one offence, ap. ling of many offences.—But the pears to have been death, corporeal apostle is careful, throughout, to death.-But this, in regard to Adrepresent, that this overflowing of am personally, instead of being a grace, in its utmost benefits, ex- greater, may probably by some be tends not to all, but to many. In considered a less penalty than his regard to this part of the free gift, offence deserved. It should, howhe does not use the term all in a ever, be kept distinctly in mind, single instance. They, and they that as Adam, in that instance, only, who receive the overflowing acted in a publick capacity, the of grace, will reign by Jesus special penalty for this one ofChrist. These are the many, who, fence, was to be of a publick natby the obedience of one, were con- ure, and was to fall not only upon stituted righteous,
him, but upon all his race. It IMPROVEMENT.
was not intended as the ultimate I. The view, which we have punishment of his sin, personally taken of this subject at large, ob- considered; but as a publick and viates at once the principal objec- standing proof and memento of tions usually urged against the his delinquency as a publick charoriginal economy under which man acter, and of the consequent fallen was placed. As,
and guilty state of himself and his 1. It has been objected as a very
whole race. unreasonable thing, that the eter- At the same time that I show nal destinies of mankind should that this old objection does not lie have been suspended on the con- against the view of the prominent duct of Adam.
economy now presented; let me The case really was not so, as here also bar, the objection supposes.-On Ad- 3. A new objection, as if this am's conduct, as a publick head, view of the subject tended to lowthe eternal destinies of his pos- er down the guilt of transgression, terity were not suspended. It or to lessen the fatal consequences does not appear, that his continu- of the fall. ed obedience would have fixed The guilt of sin is admitted, in them in a state of eternal holiness its full extent. It is also admitand happiness: it is certain that ted, that, in the usual theological his disobedience did not fix them phraseology, mankind are subject in a state of eternal sinfulness and to death, temporal, spiritual, and misery
eternal. 2. Another objection, connected
4. Another objection, involved, with the former, has been, that the
indeed, in one or the other or both penalty annexed to Adam's eating of the foregoing, but which it may the forbidden fruit, was vastly be proper distinctly to mention, is, greater than the offence can rea- that it is unjust for men to be sonably be supposed to have de- made eternally miserable for what served
Adam did. The objection is urged upon the No man is made eternally missupposition, that for that one of- erable for Adam's sin.-If, in confence, Adam and his whole race
sequence of Adam's fall, his poswere doomed to eternal death.
terity are all corrupt in nature, But such, if our view of the sub
are all in a state of sin; yet node
of them are simply for this to be I not hope that his grace is made inade eternally miserable. If any effectual to the purifying of their of them perish eternally, it will polluted nature, and to their eternot be because they were by nat. nal salvation: ure sinful, but because they are 5. Will any one, however, yet actually and in practice impeni object, that it is unreasonable that tent, unbelieving sinners.
mankind should come into the In regard to such of our race as world and commence their existelie in infancy, though we have no ence with a corrupt nature? Let particular information, yet we | such an one consider, &c. - What
c.— have reason to hope favourably.- was there unreasonable in allowSince the eternal destinies of all | ing Adam, after his fall, to propamankind are in the hand and un- gate a race, deriving from him a der the administration of Christ, corrupt nature? Who will underwho died to redeem them; and take to say, that Divine Goodness since infants have never been in a ought to have interposed to precapacity to refuse submission to vent that natural propagation, that him, or reject his grace; may we natural course of things?"
ON THE DECREES AND AGENCY OF
FOR TOE EOPKISSIAX MAGAZINE, tively? His language is plain, his
meaning is obvious; and to put DIALOGUE
any other than a literal construction upon these passages, would make perfect nonsense. Suppos
ing these passages were not in the B. Good morning, neighbour | Bible, and Parson M. had used D. how did you like Parson M.'s precisely the same language to exsermon, yesterday?
press his sentiments; how would D. I think, sir, le drew his you have understood him? doctrine from scripture, and sup- B. Why, truly, I should have ported it by the same unerring s taken him to mean as he said; betestimony.
cause I know that the Parson be. B. As to that, I think, myself, lieves the doctrines of decrees and he managed his subject somewhat agency, ingeniously; but do you really be- D. How do you know that Parlieve, that such doctrine as he son M. believes the doctrines of preached is contained in the Bible? | decrees and agency?
D, Certainly, I do, neighbour B. I know from the general tenB. Does not the apostle Paul say, or of his preaching and conversathat God " worketh all things after tion. I never have heard him the counsel of his own will;” and deny these doctrines, and he asthat “ of hiin, and through him, serted, yesterday, in plain terms, and to him, are all things”? that God has fore-ordained what
B. I know this is the language soever comes to pass ; and that of the apostle; but do you think He executes his deceees by his
• that Paul' is to be understood lit- | providence or agency :' conseerally, just as he says?
quently, I am bound to underD. How can you understand stand him as he says. him otherwise ? or what reason D. Very well.
Your reasons have you to suppose that the apos- for understanding Parson M. as tle meant to be understood figura- | you do, are perfectly just. And
for the very same reasons, I under- , yet done, saying, My counsel shall stand the apostle Paul to believe stand, and I will do all my pleasthe doctrines of decrees and agen
Calling a ravenous bird cy. He has no where denied these from the east, the man that exedoctrines; but it evidently ap- cuteth
counsel from a far coun. pears, froin the “ general tenor” try; yea, I have spoken it, I will of his writings, as well as from the also bring it to pass; I have pur
I most explicit declarations, that he posed it, I will also do it.”. Again, firmly believed, and meant to in. I form the light, and create culcate the universal decrees and darkness: I make peace, and creagency of God. He says express- ate evil: I the Lord do all these ly, that God “hath made of one things.”. He also asserts, that bloo: all nations of men for to there is not evil in a city, and dwell on all the face of the earth, the Lord hath not done it; and and hath determined the times be. - if a prophet be deceived, I the fore appointed, and the bounds of Lord have deceived that prophet.” their habitation.”_" For in him | These passages are certainly exwe live, and move, and have our plicit, and, with a multitude of being.”—“Not that we are suffi- others, go to prove, that God has cient of ourselves to think any fore-ordained or decreed, whatso. thing as of ourselves; but our suf- ever coines to pass; and that he ficiency is of God.”—. Work out executes his decrees by his owa your own salvation with fear and immediate agency. trembling. For it is God who | B. This is certainly a discour. worketh in you both to will and to i aging doctrine; and if I believed do of his good pleasure.” These it, I would throw away my Bible; are a very few of the passages in I would never go to meeting; and the apostle's writings, which might I would never make any exertions be mentioned to the same purpose. to get to heaven. If it is decreed But since tìis is the “general | that I shall be saved, I shall be, tenor” of the apostle's writings, do what I may; but if it is decreed and he has no where either denied that I shall be lost, I shall be, do or contradicted these sentiments; what I can. we are certainly bound to believe
D. These are very common asthat he means as he says, when he sertions of those who deny the declares that God • worketh all doctrines which we are now disthings after the counsel of his own cussing. If we look, however, at will;" and that “ of him, and the conduct of those who believe through him, and to him, are all and love these doctrines, we shall things.” Besides, this is not on- find that their creed does not in ly the “ general tenor" of Paul's the least prevent their esertions. writings, but the general tenor" They are as sober, and vigilant, of the whole Bible. The Bible and obedient to the divine requino where denies the doctrines of sitions, as if their salvation dedivine decrees and agency; but pended altogether upon themselves; strongly inculcates them in almost and they appear to be as consistent every page. God says himself,
God says himself, and exemplary as those who stand “Remember the former things of on your ground. Indeed, I think, old: for I am God and there is you will find that very few of none else; I am God, and there is those, who forbear to attend pub. none like me, declaring the end lick worship, neglect to read the from the beginning, and from an Bible, profane the Sabbath, lie, cient times the things that are not steal, defraud, get drunk, and run
into any other flagrant vices, that certainly amount to decrees and profess to believe in decrees and agency. This law or order of agency. Persons of this descrip- nature can be no more nor less tion, are always the most violent than the ordinary method by which opposers of divine truth, and espe- God is pleased to accomplish his cially the most outrageous against purposes. It is still a decree, call divine decrees and agency. But, it what you choose; and divine pray, neighbour B. let me ask you agency is still concerned, however one more question: Why do you the hand of God may be concealgo into your field, and labour? ed. So the scriptures assert, B. I
field and la- that God has ordained summer bour, because I believe, that if I and winter, seed time and harvest; till and sow my land, I shall pro- that he causes the rain to descend, bably reap a harvest in its proper and the grass to grow; that he season.
gives the husbandınan discretion D. But what reason have you to sow his seed, and commands a to believe that you shall be more blessing to rest upon his labours. likely to reap a harvest, by tilling Here, then, it seems, neighbour and sowing your land, than the
B. that the decrees and agency sluggard, who neglects to till and of God, instead of throwing a clog sow?
in the way, with respect to your B. It is the order of nature, fields and labour, afford the greatthat those who will not plow and est possible encouragement. You sow, shall have nothing; but oth- do not say concerning, your crop ers, who faithfully cultivate the and wheat, “If it is the order of
, soil, may, with the blessing of nature, that is, decreed, that I God, reasonably expect a plentiful shall have a harvest, I shall have harvest. So says Solomon. “He it, do what I may; and if it is the that tilleth his land shall have order of nature, that is, decreed, plenty of bread: but he that fol- that I shall not have a harvest, I loweth after vain persons shall
shall nol have it, do what I can." have poverty enough.”
But you take great encouragement D, Very true ; you call this from that very hand of nature, “the order of nature;" but what which God has established by his do you understand by " the order decree, and executes by his agenof nature," and who established it?
did not believe in the B. I suppose the order of nat- decree (call it the law or order of ure is that general law, by which nature, if you please) that the laGod governs the natural world; bourer should generally be reward or that connexion which he has ed for his toil, and the sluggard appointed between the means and should have nothing; you would the end.
never plow, nor plant, nor sow. D. You acknowledge, then, Those, then, who believe in the that God governs the natural world, decrees and agency of God, have and that he has established the the greatest possible encourageconnexion between the means and ment to use exertions; while those the end?
who do not believe, cannot, consisB. I cannot deny it.,
tently, have any encouragement at D. But if God governs the nat
all. ural world by what you call the B. That is because God has, law or order of nature, and has in the natural world, established a established the connexion between certain connexion between the the means and the end, it must means and the end.