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unless Izates would get upon his horse again, and go before. him. So he complied with his desire, and leaped upon his horse ; and, when he had brought him to his royal palace, he showed him all sorts of respect, when they sat together, and he gave him the upper place at festivals also, as regard. ing not his present fortune, but his former dignity, and that upon this consideration also, that the changes of fortune are common to all men. He also wrote to the Parthians, to persuade them to receive Artabanas again; and gave them his right hand and his faith, that he should forget what was past and done, and that he would undertake for this, as a mediator between them. Now the Parthians did not themselves refuse to receive him again, but pleaded that it was not now in their power so to do; because they had committed the government to another person, who had accepted of it, and whose name was Cinnamus, and that they were afraid lest a civil war should arise on this account. When Cinnamus understood their intentions, he wrote to Artabanus himself, for he had been brought up by him, and was of a nature good and gentle also, and desired him to put confidence in him, and to come and take his own dominions again. Accordingly, Artabanus trusted him, and returned home; when Cinnamus met him, he worshipped him, and saluted him as king, and took the diadem off his own head and put it on the head of Artabanus.

3. And thus was Artabanus restored to his kingdom again by the means of Izates, when he had lost it by the means of the grandees of the kingdom. Nor was he unmindfut of the benefits he had conferred upon him, but rewarded him with such honours as were of greatest esteem among them; for 'he gave him leave to wear his tiara upright,* and to sleep upon a golden bed, which are privileges and marks of honour peculiar to the kings of Parthia. He also cut off a large and fruitful country frem the king of Armenia, and bestowed it upon him. The name of the country is Nisibis, wherein the Macedonians had formerly built that city which they called Antioch of Mygdonia. And these were the honours that were paid Izates by the king of the Parthians.

4. But in no long time, Artabanus died, and left his king

* The privilege of wearing the tiara upright, or with the tip of the cone erect, is known to have been of old peculiar to (great) kings, from Xenophon, and others, as Dr. Hudson observes here.

dom to his son Bardanes. Now this Bardanes came to Izates, and would have persuaded him to join him with his army, and to assist him in the war he was preparing to make with the Romans; but he could not prevail with him. For Izates so well knew the strength and good fortune of the Romans, that he took Bardanes to attempt what was impossible to be done; and having besides sent his sons, five in number, and they but young also, to learn accurately the language of our nation, together with our learning, as well as he had sent his inother to worship at our temple, as I bave said already, as the more backward to a compliance; and restrained Bardanes, telling him perpetually of the great armies aud famous actions of the Romans, and thouglit thereby to terrify hiin, and desired thereby to hinder him from that expedition. But the Parthian king was provoked at this his behaviour, and denounced war immediately against Izates. Yet did he gain no advantage by this war, because God cut off all his hopes therein; for the Parthians, perceiving Bardanes's intentions, and how he had determined to make war with the Romans, slew him, and gave his kingdom to his brother Gotarzes. He also, in no long time, perished by a plot made against him, and Vologazes, his brother, succeeded him, who committed two of his provinces to two of his brothers, by the same father; that of the Medes to the elder, Pacorus ; and Armenia to the younger, Tiridates.

CHAP. IV. How Izates was betrayed by his own subjects, and fought

against by the Arabians : and how Izates, by the providence of God, was delivered out of their hands.

1. Now when the king's brother, Monobazus, and his other kindred, saw how Izates, by his piety to God, was become greatly esteemed by all men, they also had a desire to leave the religion of their country, and to embrace the customs of the Jews; but that act of theirs was discovered by Izates's subjects. Whereupon the grandees were much displeased, and could not contain their anger at them; but had an intention, when they should find a proper opportunity, to inflict a punishment upon them. Accordingly, they wrote to Abja, king of the Arabians, and promisod him great sums of money if he would make an expedition against their king; and they farther promised him, that, on the first onset, they would desert their king, because they were desirous to punish him, by reason of the hatred he had to their religious worship: they then obliged themselves by oaths to be faithful to each other, and desired that he would make haste in this design. The king of Arabia complied with their desires, and brought a great army into the field, and marched against Izates; and in the beginning of the first onset, and before they came to a close fight, those grandees, as if they had a panic terror upon them, all deserted Izates, as they had agreed to do, and, turning their backs upon their enemies, ran away. Yet was not Izates dismayed at this; but when he understood that the grandees had betrayed him, he also retired into his camp, and made inquiry into the matter; and as soon as he knew who they were that had made this conspiracy with the king of Arabia, he cut off those that were found guilty ; and res newing the fight on the next day, he slew the greatest part of his enemies, and forced all the rest to betake themselves to flight. He also pursued their king, and drove him into a fortress called Arsamus, and, following on the siege vigo. rously, he took that fortress. And when he had plundered it of all the prey that was in it, which was not small, he returned to Adiabene: yet did not he take Abia alive; because, when he found himself encompassed on every side, he slew himself.

2. But although the grandees of A diabene had failed in their first attempt, as being delivered up by God into their king's hands, yet would they not even be quiet, but wrote again to Vologases, who was then king of Parthia, and desired that he would kill Izates, and set over them some other potentate, who should be of a Parthian family; for they said, that “they hated their own king for abrogating the laws of their forefathers, and embracing foreign customs." When the king of Parthia heard this, he boldly made war upon Izates; and as he had no just pretence for this war, he sent to him, and demanded back those honourable prirje leges which had been bestowed on him by his father, and threatened, on his refusal, to make war upon him. Upon · hearing of this, Izates was under no small trouble of mind, as

thinking it would be a reproach upon him to appear to re. :sign those privileges that had been bestowed upon hiin, out of cowardice ; yet becanse he knew, that though the king - of Parthia should receive back those honours, yet would not he be quiet, he resolved to commit himself to God, his protector, in the present danger he was in of his life ; and, as he esteemed him to be his principal assistant, he entrusted his children and bis wives to a very strong fortress, and laid up his corn in his citadels, and set the bay and the grass on fire. And wben he had thus put things in order, as well as he could, he awaited the coming of the enemy. And when the king of Parthia was come, with a great army of footmen and horsemen, which he did sooner than was expected, (fo: he marched in great haste,) and had cast up a bank at the river that parted A diabene from Media ; Izates also pitched his camp not far off, having with him six thousand horsemen. But there came a messenger to Izates, sent by the king of Parthia, who told him, " How large his dominions were, as reaching from the river Euphrates to Bactria, and enumerated that king's subjects: he also threatened him, that he should be punished, as a person ungrateful to his Jords ; and said, that the God whom he worshipped could not deliver him out of the king's hands.” When the messenger had delivered this his messige, Izates replied, that she knew the king of Parthia's power was much greater than his own; but that he knew also that God was much more powerful than all men.” And when he had returned him this answer, he betook himself to make supplication * to God, and threw biinself upon the ground, and put ashes upon his head, in testimony of his confusion, and fasted, together with his wives and children. When he called upon God, and said, “ O Lord and Governor, if I have not in vain coinmitted myself to thy goodness, but have justly determined that thou only art the Lord and principal of all be. ings, come now to my assistance, and delend me from my enemies, not only on my own account, but on account of their insolent behaviour with regard to thy power, while they have not feared to lift up their proud and arrogant tongue against thee.” Thus did he lament and bemoan himself, with tears in his eyes ; whereupon God heard his pray. er. And immediately that very night Vologases received letters, the contents of which were these, that a great band of Dabae and Sahae, despising him now he was gone so long a journey from home, had made an expedition, and laid Parthia waste ; so that he was forced to retire back, without doing any thing. And thus it was that Izates escaped the threatenings of the Parthians, by the providence of God.

* This morning, and fasting, and praying, used by Izates, with prostration of his body, and asbes upon his head, are plain signs that he wis become either a Jew, or an Ebionite Christ an: who indeed differed not uch fiom proper Jew. See chap. 6 01. However, his supplica juns were heard and 'e was providentially delivered from that imminent danger thiat he was in,

3. It was not long ere Izates died, when he had completed fifty-five years of his life, and had ruled his kingdom twenty-four years. He left behind him twenty-four sons and twenty-four daughters. However, he gave order that his brother Monobazus should succeed in the government, there. by requiting him, because, while he was himself absent, after their father's death, he had faithfully preserved the go. vernment for him. But when Helena, his mother, heard of her son's death, she was in great heaviness, as was but natural upon her loss of such a most dutiful son; yet was it a comfort to her, that she heard the succession came to her eldest son. Accordingly, she went to him in haste; and when she was come into Adiabene, she did not long outlive her son Izates. But Monobazus sent her bones, as well as those of Izates, his brother, to Jerusalem, and gave order that they should be buried at the pyramids,* which their mother had erected; they were three in number, and distant no more than three furlongs from the city Jerusalem. But for the actions of Monobazus the king, which he did during the rest of his life, we will relate them hereafter.t.

i —***

CHAP. V. Concerning Theudas, and the sons of Judas the Galilean ; 4s also what calamity fell upon the Jews on the day of the Passover.

1. Now it came to pass, while Fadus was procurator * These pyramids or pillars, erected by Helena, queen of Adiabene, near Jerusalem, three in number, are mentioned by Eusebius, 'n his Eccles. Hist. B. ii. chap. xii. for which Dr. Hudson refers us to Valesius's notes upon that place. They are also mentioned by Parisanias, as hath been already noted, chap. ii. $ 6. Reland guesses that tiat now called Absolam's pillar, may be one of them.

+ This account is now wanting.

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