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senger with letters, that he might, upon his return, inforn him what had befallen the other that had been sent before, and why he tarried so long. Varus accused this messenger also, when he came, of telling a falsehood, and slew him. For he was puffed up by the Syrians that were at Caesarea, and had great expectations; for they said, that Agrippa would be slain by the Romans for the crimes which the Jews had committed, and that he should himself take the government, as derived from their kings ; for Varus was, by the confession of all, of the royal family, as being a descendant of Sohem us, who had enjoyed a tetrarchy about Liba. nus; for which reason it was that he was puffed up, and kept the letter to himself. He contrived also, that the king should not meet with those writings, by guarding all the passes, lest any one should escape, and inform the king what had been done. He moreover slew many of the Jews, in or. der to gratify the Syrians of Caesarea. He had a minu also to join with the Trachonites in Batanea, and to take arins and make an assault upon the Babylonian Jews that were at Ecbatana ; for that was the name they went by. He therefore called to him twelve of the Jews of Caesarea, of the best character, and ordered them to go to Ecbatana, and inform their countrymen who dwelt there, that Varus hath heard, " that you intend to march against the king; but, not believing in that report, he hath sent us to persuade you to lay down your arms, and that this compliance will be a sign that he did well not to give credit to those that raised the report concerning you.” He also enjoined them to send seventy of their principal men to make a defence for them as to the accusation laid against them. So when the twelve messengers came to their countrymen at Ecbatana, and found that they had no designs of innovation at all, they persuaded them to send the seventy men also; who not at all suspecting what would come, sent them accordingly. So these seventy * went down to Caesarea, together with the twelve ambassadors ; where Varus met them with the king's forces, and slew thein all, together with the (twelve) ambassadurs, and made an expedition against the Jews of Ecba. tana. But one there was of the seventy who escaped, and made haste to inform the Jews of their coming; upon which they took their arms, with their wives and children, and re
* The famous Jewish numbers of twelve and seventy are here remarkable.
tired to the citadel of Gamala, leaving their own villages full of all sorts of good things, and having many ten thousands of cattle therein. When Philip was informed of these things, he also came to the citadel of Gamala ; and when he was come, the multitude cried aloud, and desired him to resume the government, and to make an expedition against Varus, and the Syrians of Caesarea; for it was reported that they had slain the king. But Philip restrained their zeal, and put them in mind of the benefits the king had bestowed upon them; and told them how powerful the Romans were, and said it was not for their advantage to make war with them; and at length he prevailed with then). But now, when the king was acquainted with Varus's design, which was to cut off the Jews of Caesarea, being many ten thousands, with their wives and children, and all in one day, he called to him Equiculus Modius, and sent him to be Varus's successor, as we have elsewhere related. But still Philip kept possession of the citadel of Gamala, and of the country adjoining to it, which thereby continued in their allegiance to the Romans.
12. Now as soon as I was come into Galilee, and bad k learned this state of things by the information of such as
told me of them, I wrote to the sanhedrim at Jerusalem, about them, and required their direction what I should do. Their direction was, that I should continue there, and that, if my fellow-legates were willing, I should join with them in the care of Galilee. But those my fellow-legates having gotten great riches from those titles which, as priests, were their dues, and were given to them, determined to return to their own country. Yet when I desired them to stay so long, that we might first settle the public affairs, they complied with me. So I removed, together with them, from the city of Sepphoris, and came to a certain village called Bethmaus, four furlongs distant from Tiberias; and thence I sent messengers to the senate of Tiberias, and desired that the principal men of the city should come to me: and when they were come, Justus himself being also with them, I told them, that I was sent to them by the people of Jerusalem as a legate, together with these other priests, in order to persuade them to demolish that house which Herod the tetrarch had built there, and which had the figures of living creatures in it, although our laws have forbidden us to make any such figures ; and I desired, that they should give us leave so to do iminediately. But for a good while Capellus, and the Vol. v.
principal men belonging to the city, would not give us leare; but were at length entirely overcome by us, and were induced to be of our opinion. So Jesus, the son of Sapphias, one of those whom we have already mentioned as the leader of a seditious tumult of mariners and poor people, prevented us, and took with him certain Galileans, and set the entire palace on fire, and thought he should, get a great deal of inoney thereby, because he saw some of the roofs gilt with gold. They also plundered a great deal of the furniture, which was done without our approbation : for, after we had discoursed Capellus and the principal men of the city, we departed from Bethamus, and went into the Upper Galilee. But Jesus and his party slew all the Greeks that were inhabitants of Tiberias, and as many others as were their enemies before the war.
13. When I understood this state of things, I was greatly provoked, and went down to Tiberias, and took all the care I could of the royal furniture, to recover all that could be recovered from such as had plundered it. They consisted of candlesticks made of Corinthian brass, and of royal tables, and of a great quantity of uncoined silver : and I resolved to preserve whatsoever came to my hand for the king. So I sent for ten of the principal men of the senate, and for Capellus, the son of Antyllus, and committed the furniture to them, with this charge, that they should part with it to nobody else but myself. From thence I and my fellow-legates went to Gischala to John, as desirous to know his intentions, and soon saw that he was for innovations, and had a mind to the principality ; for he desired me to give him authority to carry off that corn which belonged to Caesar, and lay in the villages of upper Galilee, and he pretended, that he would expend what it came to in building the walls of his own city. But when I perceived what he endeavoured at, and what he had in his mind, I said I would not permit him so to do; for that I thought either to keep it for the Romans, or for myself, now I was intrusted with the public affairs there, by the people of Jerusalem. But when he was not able to prevail with me, he betook himself to my fellow-legates ; for they had no sagacity in providing for futurity, and were very ready to take bribes. So he corrupted them with money to decree that all that corn which was within his province should be delivered to him ; while I, who was but one, was outvoted by two, and held
my tongue. Then did John introduce another cunning con
trivance of his ; for, he said, that those Jews who inhabited . Caesarea Philippi, and were shut up by the order of the king's deputy there, had sent to him to desire him, that since they had no oil that was pure for their use, he would provide a sufficient quantity of such oil that came from the Greeks, and thereby transgress their own laws. Now this was said by John, not out of his regard to religion, but out of his most flagrant desire of gain : for he knew, that two sextaries were sold with them of Caesarea for one drachmae, but that at Gischala fourscore sextaries were sold for four sextaries. So he gave order, that all the oil which was there should be carried away, as having my permission for so doing; which yet I did not grant him voluntarily, but only out of fear of the multitude, since, if I had forbidden him, I should have been stoned by them. When I had therefore permitted this to be done by John, he gained yast sums of money by this his knavery.
14. But, when I had dismissed my fellow.legates, and sent them back to Jerusalem, I took care to have arms provided, and the cities fortified. And when I had sent for the most hardy among the robbers, I saw that it was not in my power to take their arms from them ; but I persuaded the, multitude to allow them money, as pay, and told them, it was better for them to give them a little willingly, rather than to [be forced to overlook them when they plundered their goods from them. And when I had obliged them to take an oath not to come into that country, unless they were invited to come, or else when they had not their pay given them, I dismissed them, and charged them, neither to make an expedition against the Romans, nor against those their neighbours that lay round about them ; for my first care was to keep Galilee in peace. So I was willing to have the principal of the Galileans, in all seventy, as hostages for their fidelity, but still under the notion of friendship. Ac.cordingly, I made them my friends and companions as I journeyed, and set them to judge causes ; and with their approbation it was that I gave my sentences, while I endeavoured not to mistake what justice required, and to keep my hands clear of all bribery in these determinations.
15. I was now about the thirtieth year of my age; in - which time of life it is a hard thing for any one to escape the calumnies of the envious, although he restrain himself from fulfilling any unlawful desires, especially where a person is in great authority. Yet did I preserve every woman free from injuries; and, as to what presents were offered me, I despised them, as not standing in need of them. Nor indeed would I take those tithes which were due to me as a priest, from those that brought them. Yet do I confess, that I took part of the spoils of those Syrians which inhabited the cities that adjoined to us, when I had conquered them, and that I sent them to my kindred at Jerusalem ; although when I twice took Sepphoris, by force, and Tiberias four times, and Gadara once, and when I had subdued and taken John, who often laid treacherous snares for me, I did not punish (with death] either him or any of the people forenamed, as the progress of this discourse will show. And on this account I suppose it was that God,* who is never unacquainted with those who do as they ought to do, deliv. ered me still out of the hands of these my enemies, afterward preserved me when I fell into those my dangers which I shall relate hereafter.
16. Now the multitude of the Galileans had that great kindness for me, and fidelity to me, and when their cities were taken by force, and their wives and children carried into slavery, they did not so deeply lament for their own calamities, as they were solicitous for my preservation. But when John saw this, he envied me, and wrote to me, desiring that I would give him leave to come down, and make use of the hot-baths of Tiberias, for the recovery of the health of his body. Accordingly, I did not hinder him, as having no suspicion of any wicked designs of his; and I wrote to those to whom I had committed the administration of the affairs of Tiberias, by name, that they should provide a lodging for John, and for such as should come with him, and should procure him what necessaries soever he should stand in need of. Now at this time my abode was in a village of Galilee, which is named Cana.
17. But, when John was come to the city of Tiberias, he persuaded the men to revolt from their fidelity to me,
* Our Josephus shows both here and every where, that he was a most religious person, and one that had a deep sense of God and his providence upon his mind, and ascribed all bis pumerous and won. derful escapes and preservations, in times of langer, to God's blessing him, and taking care of him, and this on account of his acts of piety, justice, humanity, and charity to the Jews bis brethren,