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without mahing the rest of the citizens acquainted with what they were doing. Accordingly, they resolved to send men of distinction, as to their families, and of distinction as to their learning also. Two of these were of the populace, Jopathan * and Ananias, by sect of Pharisees; while the third, Joazar, was of the stock of the priests, and a Pharisee also ; and Simon, the last of thein, was of the youngest of the high-priests. These had it given them in charge, that, when they were come to the multitude of the Galileans, they should ask them what was the reason of their love to me: and if they said, that it was because I was born at Jerusa"lem, that they should reply, that they four were all born at the same place ; and if they should say, it was because I was well versed in their law, they should reply, that neither were they unacquainted with the practices of their country; but if, besides these, they should say, they loved me because I was a priest, they should reply, that two of these were priests also.

40. Now, when they had given Jonathan and his companions these instructions, they gave them forty thousand (drachmae) out of the public money: but when they heard that there was a certain Galilean that then sojourned at Jee rusalem, whose name was Jesus, who had about him a band of six hundred armed men, they sent for him, and gave him three months pay, and gave him orders to follow Jonathan and his companions, and be obedient to them. They also gave money to three hundred men that were citizens of Je. rusalem, to maintain them all, and ordered them also to fol. low the ambassadors : and when they had complied, and were gotten ready for the march, Jonathan and his compa. nions went out with them, having along with them John's brother, and an hundred armed men. The charge that was given them by those that sent them, was this, that, if I would roluntarily lay down my arms, they should send me alive to the city Jerusalem, but that, in case I opposed them, they should kill me, and fear nothing ; for that it was their command for them so to do. They also wrote to John to make all ready for fighting me, and gave orders to the inhabitants of Sepphoris, and Gabara, and Tiberias, to send auxiliaries to John.

41. Now, as my father wrote me an account of this, (for * This Jonathan is also taken notice of in the Latin notes, as the same that is mentioned by the Rabbins in Porta Mosis.

Jesus, the son of Gamala, who was present in that council, a friend and companion of mine, told him of it,) I was very much troubled, as discovering thereby, that my fellow.citizens proved so ungrateful to me, as, out of envy, to give order that I should be slain; my father earnestly pressed me also in his letter to come to him, for that he longed to see his son before he died. I informed my friends of these things, and that in three days time I should leave the country, and go home. Upon hearing this, they were all very sorry, and desired me, with tears in their eyes, not to leave them to be destroyed; for so they thought they should be, if I were deprived of the command over them; but as I did not grant their request, but was taking care of my own safety, the Galileans, out of their dread of the consequence of my departure, that they should then be at the mercy of the robbers, sent messengers over all Galilee to inform them of my resolution to leave them. Whereupon, as soon as they keard it, they got together in great numbers, from all parts, with their wives and children; and this they did, as it appeared to ine, oct more out of their affection to me, than out of their fear on their own account; for, while I staid with them, they supposed that they should suffer no harm. So they all came into the great plain, wherein I lived, the name of which was Asochis.

42. But wonderful it was what a dream I saw that very bight; for when I had betaken myself to my bed, as grieved and disturbed at the news that had been written to me, it seemed to me, that a certain person stood by me,* and said, “ O Josephus! leave off to afflict thy soul, and put away all fear; for what now grieves thee will render thee very considerable, and in all respects inoşt happy; for thou shalt get over not only these difficulties, but many others, with great success. However, be not cast down, but remember that thou art to fight with the Romans.” When I had seen this dream, I got up with an intention of going down to the plain. Now when the whole multitude of the Galileans, among whom were the women and children, saw me, they threw themselves down upon their faces, and with tears in their eyes, besought me not to leave them exposed to their ener

* This I take to be the first of Josephus's remarkable or divine dreams, which were predictive of the great things that afterward came to pass ; of which see more in the note on Antiq. B. ij. ch. viii. 9 9. The other ic in the War, B. iii. ch. viii. $ 3.9

mies, nor to go away and permit their country to be injured by them. But, when I did not comply with their entreaties, they compelled me to take an oath that I would stay with them: they also east abundance of reproaches upon the people of Jerusalem, that they would not let their country enjoy peace.

43. When I heard this, and saw what sorrow the people were in, I was moved with compassion to them, and thought it became me to undergo the most manifest hazards for the sake of so great a multitude ; so I let them know I would stay with them. And when I had given order that five thousand of them should come to me armed, and with provisions for their maintenance, I sent the rest away to their own homes; and, when those five thousand were come, I took them, together with three thousand of the soldiers that were with me before, and eighty horsemen, and marched to the village of Chabolo, situated in the confines of Ptolemais, and there kept my forces together, pretending to get ready to fight with Placidus, who was come with two cohorts of footmen, and one troop of horsemen, and was sent thither by Cestius Gallus to burn those villages of Galilee that were near Ptolemais. Upon whose casting up a bank before the city Ptolemais, I also pitched my camp at about the distance of sixty furlongs from that village. And now we frequently brought out our forces as if we would fight, but proceeded no farther than skirmishes at a distance ; for, when Placidus perceived that I was earnest to come to a battle he was afraid, and avoided it. Yet did he not remove from the neighbourhood of Ptolemais.

44. About this time it was that Jonathan and his fellowlegates came. They were sent, as we have said already, by Simon, and Ananus, the high-priest. And Jonathan contrived how he might catch me by treachery, for he durst not make any attempt upon me openly. So he wrote me the following epistle : “ Jonathan, and those that are with him, and are sent by the people of Jerusalem to Josephus, send greeting. We are sent by the principal men of Jerusalem, who have heard that John of Gischala hath laid many snares for thee, to rebuke him, and to exhort him to be subject to thee hereafter. We are also desirous to consult with thee about our common concerns, and what is fit to be done.. We therefore desire thee to come to us quickly, and to bring only a few men with thee ; for this village will not contain

a great number of soldiers.” Thus it was that they wrote, as expecting one of these two things, either that I should come without armed men, and then they should have me onder their power; or, if I came with a great number, they should judge me to be a public enemy. Now it was an horseman who brought the letter, a man at other times told, and one that had served in the army under the king. It was the second hour of the night that he came, when I was feasting with my friends, and the principal of the Galileans. This man, upon my servant's telling me that a certain horseman of the Jewish nation was come, he was called in at my command, but did not so much as salute me at all, but held out a letter, and said, “This letter is sent thee by those that are come from Jerusalem. Do thou write an answer to it quickly; for I am obliged to return to them very soon.” Now my guests could not but wonder at the boldness of the soldier. But I desired him to sit down and sup with us; but when he refused so to do, I held the letter in my hands as I received it, and fell a talking with my guests about other matters. But a few hours afterwards I got up, and, when I had dismissed the rest to go to their beds, I bid only fuur of my intimate friends to stay, and ordered my servant to get some wine ready. I also opened the letter so that nobody could perceive it; and understanding thereby presently the purport of the writing, I sealed it up again, and appeared as if I had not yet read it, but only held it in my hands. I ordered twenty drachmae should be given the soldier for the charges of his journey; and when he took the money, and said that he thanked me for it, I perceived that he loved money, and that he was to be caught chiefly by that means, and I said to him, “Ir thou wilt but drink with us, thou shalt have a drachmae for every glass thou drinkest.” So he gladly embraced the proposal, and drank a great deal of wine, in order to get the more money, and was so drunk, that at last he could not keep the secrets he was intrusted with, but discovered them, without my putting questions to him, viz. that a treacherous design was contrived against me, and that I was doomed to die by those that sent him. When I heard this, I wrote back this answer : “ Josephus to Jonathan, and those that are with him, sendeth greeting to Galilee, I rejoice, and this especially, because I can now resign the care of public affairs here into your hands, and return unto my native country; which is what I have desired to do a great while : and I confess I ought not only to come to you as far as Zaloth, but farther, and this without your commands. But I desire you to excuse me, because I cannot do it now, since I watch the inotion's of Placidus, who hath a mind to go up into Galilee; and this I do here at Chabolo. Do you, therefore, on the receipt of this epistle, come hither to me. l'are ye well." .

45. When I had written thus, and given the letter to be carried by the soldier, I sent along with him thirty of the Galileans of the best characters, and gave them instructions to salute those ambassadors, but to say nothing else to them. I also gave orders to as many of those armed men whom I esteemed most faithful to me, 10 go along with the others, every one with him whom he was to guard, lest some conversation might pass between those whom I sent and those that were with Jonathan. So those men went to Jonathan.] But, when Jonathan and his partners had failed in this their first attempt, they sent me another letter, tbe contents whereof were as follows; “ Jonaihan, and those with him, to Josephus, send greeting. We require thee to come to us to the village Cabaroth, on the third day, with out any armed men, that we may hear what thou hast to lay to the charge of John of Gischala."} When they had written this letter, they saluted the Galileans whom I sent, and came to Japba, which was the largest village of all Galilee, and encompassed with very strong walls, and had a great number of inhabitants in it. There the multitude of men, witb their wives and children, met them, and exclaimed loudly against them, and desired them to be gone, and not to envy them the advantage of an excellent commander. With these clamours Jonathan and his partners were greatly provoked, although they durst not show their anger openly: so they made them no answer, but went to other villages. But still the same clamours met them from all the people, who said, “ Nobody should persuade them to have any other commander besides Josephus." So Jonathan and his partners went away from them without success, and came to Sepphoris, the greatest city of all Galilee. Now the mer of that city, who inclined to the Romans in their sentiments, met them indeed, but neither praised nor reproached me; and when they were gone down from Sepphoris to Aso. chis, the people of that place made a clamour against them, as those of Japha had done. Whereupon they were able to

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